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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Preparing for an Influenza Pandemic: Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11980.
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Page 179
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Preparing for an Influenza Pandemic: Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11980.
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Page 180

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B Acronyms AAMI Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation AATCC American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists ACIP Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices AHRQ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality ANSI American National Standards Institute APF assigned protection factor ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials (now ASTM International) BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CFR Code of Federal Regulations CPIP Certified Product Investigation Process CPSC Consumer Product Safety Commission DHHS Department of Health and Human Services DoL Department of Labor FDA Food and Drug Administration FMEA failure modes and effects analysis HEPA high-efficiency particulate air (filter) IDLH immediately dangerous to life or health IOM Institute of Medicine ISO International Organization for Standardization 179

180 PREPARING FOR AN INFLUENZA PANDEMIC LTCF long-term care facility MAUDE Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience MUC maximum use concentration NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NPPTL National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory OR odds ratio OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PAPR powered air-purifying respirator1 PMA pre-market approval PPE personal protective equipment RR relative risk RSV respiratory syncytial virus SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome SCBA self-contained breathing apparatus SWPF simulated workplace protection factor TIL total inward leakage UL Underwriters Laboratories VPP Voluntary Protection Program WHO World Health Organization WPF workplace protection factor 1 In this report the term is used to refer to loose-fitting devices unless otherwise specified.

Next: Appendix C: PPE-Related Standards and Regulations »
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During an influenza pandemic, healthcare workers will be on the front lines delivering care to patients and preventing further spread of the disease. As the nation prepares for pandemic influenza, multiple avenues for protecting the health of the public are being carefully considered, ranging from rapid development of appropriate vaccines to quarantine plans should the need arise for their implementation. One vital aspect of pandemic influenza planning is the use of personal protective equipment (PPE)—the respirators, gowns, gloves, face shields, eye protection, and other equipment that will be used by healthcare workers and others in their day-to-day patient care responsibilities.

However, efforts to appropriately protect healthcare workers from illness or from infecting their families and their patients are greatly hindered by the paucity of data on the transmission of influenza and the challenges associated with training and equipping healthcare workers with effective personal protective equipment. Due to this lack of knowledge on influenza transmission, it is not possible at the present time to definitively inform healthcare workers about what PPE is critical and what level of protection this equipment will provide in a pandemic. The outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 have underscored the importance of protecting healthcare workers from infectious agents. The surge capacity that will be required to reduce mortality from a pandemic cannot be met if healthcare workers are themselves ill or are absent due to concerns about PPE efficacy.
The IOM committee determined that there is an urgent need to address the lack of preparedness regarding effective PPE for use in an influenza pandemic. Preparing for an Influenza Pandemic : Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers identifies that require expeditious research and policy action: (1) Influenza transmission research should become an immediate and short-term research priority so that effective prevention and control strategies can be developed and refined. The current paucity of knowledge significantly hinders prevention efforts. (2) Employer and employee commitment to worker safety and appropriate use of PPE should be strengthened. Healthcare facilities should establish and promote a culture of safety. (3) An integrated effort is needed to understand the PPE requirements of the worker and to develop and utilize innovative materials and technologies to create the next generation of PPE capable of meeting these needs.
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