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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
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Index

A

Academic Chronic Care Collaborative, 202, 319, 365

Academy of Certified Social Workers, 302

Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine, 313

Accreditation, 14, 18, 268, 270, 277, 278, 283, 284, 289, 290, 291, 293, 297, 298, 301-302, 303, 304-305, 307, 308, 309, 311-312, 320, 321-322, 341, 374, 382, 384, 397

Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), 245, 294, 311, 313

Outcome Project, 293

Activities of daily living (ADLs)

assessment instruments, 172 n.12, 174, 336 n.1

defined, 29

family and informal supports, 260-261, 262-263

fatigue and 28, 29, 104

limitations in performing, 3, 23, 26, 28, 29, 82, 359, 364

personal care services, 10, 82, 104, 230, 236, 262-263, 364

policies supporting service availability, 260-263

provider workforce, 285

Adenocarcinoma, 30 n.7

Adherence to treatment regimens.

See also Illness self-management

case management and, 192-193

coordination of care and, 259

emotional distress and mental illness and, 3, 5, 37, 51, 52, 55, 57, 59, 60, 63 n.7, 204

material and logistical resources and, 34, 103

as outcome measure, 238, 364

psychological distress from nonadherence, 59, 63, 69

rates of nonadherence, 58, 68

Adjustment disorder, 3 n.2, 30, 56, 67, 95, 167, 332

Adjuvant therapy, 58, 92, 162, 196

Administration on Aging, 96 n.5, 137, 249, 263, 365

Adolescent cancer patients

developmental problems, 32-33

psychopharmacological services, 95

remote services, 229

Adult survivors of childhood cancer

chronic illness, 27

cognitive impairment, 27-28

employment problems, 36

functional limitations, 2, 29

information resources, 110

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

psychological distress, 167

quality of care and quality of life, 2, 6, 42, 361, 372, 395-396, 402-403, 406

research recommendations, 398, 400

screening for psychosocial health needs, 167

smoking cessation, 99

Advance care planning, 157, 173

Advocacy. See Patient advocates and advocacy organizations

Aetna, 250

Affinity Health System, 243

Age of patients and caregivers, and need for services, 25-26

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), 12, 13, 15, 18, 28, 29, 85, 195, 196, 198, 219, 239, 242, 270, 277, 321, 329-330, 340, 341, 371, 390, 392, 394, 395, 397, 398, 405

CAHPS, 16, 17, 243, 245, 248, 271, 272, 278, 339

Questions Are the Answer Campaign, 243, 245

Alcoholics Anonymous, 89

Alliance for the Mentally Ill of Greater Kansas City, 226

Alzheimer’s disease, 107

AMC Cancer Research Center, 127

America’s Health Insurance Plans, 17, 257, 340

American Academy of Family Physicians, 285

American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, 243

American Academy of Pediatrics, 285

American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 297, 298, 299

American Association of Pastoral Counselors, 309

American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM), 294

Maintenance of Certification Program for Family Physicians, 296

American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM), 293-294

Practice Improvement Module, 296

American Board of Medical Specialties, 268, 284-285, 295, 296

Maintenance of Certification initiative, 243, 245, 248

American Board of Pediatrics (ABP), 294, 295

American Board of Professional Psychology, 305

American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, 295, 296

American Cancer Society (ACS), 4, 34, 89, 103, 108, 190, 194-195, 229, 230, 233, 267, 273, 303, 365, 385, 389, 391, 392, 394, 396, 400, 403

Cancer Reference Information, 109

Cancer Survivors Network, 125

Hope Lodge, 135

I Can Cope Program, 119

Look Good … Feel Better Program®, 112, 119, 129

Man-to-Man Program, 125

Navigator program, 223, 247

Reach to Recovery program, 88, 118, 126

Road to Recovery, 39, 136

American College of Physicians, 285

American College of Surgeons, 372, 385, 391, 394

Commission on Cancer, 13, 17, 200, 270, 277, 340, 365

American Institute of Cancer Research, 109, 119

American Medical Association, 250 n.5, 289

American Nurses Association, 300

American Nurses Credentialing Center, 300

American Psychiatric Association, 30, 285, 355, 356, 365

American Psychological Association, 251, 252, 286, 304, 306, 313, 355, 360, 365

American Psychosocial Oncology Society (APOS), 13, 17, 118, 206, 266, 277, 318, 340, 355, 365, 385, 389, 391

American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), 6, 13, 17, 34, 165-166, 239, 277, 285, 340, 365, 382, 385, 389, 391, 396

People Living With Cancer, 115, 228

Quality Oncology Practice Initiative, 271

American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 285

Americans with Disabilities Act, 10, 104, 107, 264, 364, 393

Anthracycline chemotherapy, 102

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

Antidepressants, 94, 95, 271

Anxiety disorders, 3, 4, 7, 30-31, 38, 54, 56, 57, 58-59, 61, 68, 81, 88, 91, 92, 94, 95, 156, 163, 167, 168, 170, 179, 203, 251, 300, 315, 332-333, 357, 364, 381, 388

Anxiolytics, 94, 95

Appearance-related resources.

See also Prostheses and wigs

information resources, 112, 116

AQA Alliance, 271

Arthritis, 4 n.3, 33 n.9, 37, 52, 55 n.3, 56, 65, 86, 96, 196, 336, 358

Asian and Pacific Islander National Cancer Survivors Network, 109

Ask Me 3™ initiative, 243, 24

Assessment. See Needs assessment

Association of American Medical Colleges, 202, 288, 289

Academic Chronic Care Collaborative, 319

Curriculum Management and Information Tool, 291

Medical School Objectives Project, 290

Association of Cancer Online Resources, 109, 126, 365

Association of Community Cancer Centers, 354

Association of Oncology Social Work (AOSW), 34, 37, 38, 39, 286, 303, 365, 389

Association of Pediatric Oncology Social Workers, 286, 303

Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers, 306

Association of Social Work Boards, 302

Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards, 305

Asthma, 33 n.9, 37, 52, 56, 86, 196, 202, 233, 251, 258, 272, 319, 330, 336

Attention-deficit disorder, 105

B

Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form, 167, 177

Behavioral change interventions.

See also Cognitive-behavioral therapy

availability, 262-263

diet and physical activity, 100-102

effectiveness, 7, 98-102

needs and services, 10, 83, 106, 355

tobacco control, 98-100

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 16, 339

Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network, 109, 120, 126

Bloch Cancer Foundation, 110, 126

Board of Oncology Social Work Certification, 286, 303

Bone marrow transplantation, 28, 166, 168

Brain Tumor Society, 110, 120, 127, 132

Brain tumors, 27, 30 n.7, 105, 110, 115, 120, 127, 132

Breast cancer

adherence to medical regimens, 58

and cognitive impairment, 27-28, 104-105

coping mechanisms, 60

delivery of care, 41, 192, 196, 197, 272

educational interventions, 87, 123, 125, 234, 236, 385

emotional distress in caregivers and family, 4, 31, 184

evaluation of interventions, 391

exercise interventions, 102

and fatigue, 28

information resources and needs, 110, 116, 117, 118, 122, 123, 178, 180, 184, 186, 236

mortality, 41

nutrition interventions, 100

physician–patient communication, 162

prostheses and wigs, 102, 103, 138

and psychological distress, 4, 30, 31, 166, 168 n.6, 357, 382

psychosocial interventions/services and, 66, 87, 89, 90, 100, 110, 116, 117, 118, 122, 126, 127, 128, 331, 354, 357

quality-of-life assessment, 358-359

social supports and, 54, 66, 89, 90, 110, 126, 127, 128, 132, 380

treatment protocols, 24, 58, 162

Brief Symptom Inventory-18©, 167, 169, 177

Brief Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, 167

Bristol-Meyers Squibb Foundation, 318

British Columbia Cancer Agency, 170

Brown Cancer Center, 96 n.6

Building Health Systems for People with Chronic Illnesses, 155, 201

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

C

C3: Colorectal Cancer Coalition, 11

C-Change, 312, 314-315

Cancer.

See also Adult survivors of childhood cancer;

specific sites

and chronic illness, 26-27

prevalence, 2

psychological stress and incidence of, 63-64

reach and influence, 2-4, 24-26

survival rates, 2, 26, 66, 98, 100, 102, 107, 192, 363, 375, 388, 403

trajectories, 24, 25, 68

Cancer Action, 226, 227, 229

Cancer Hope Network, 127

Cancer Information and Counseling Line, 127

Cancer Information Service, 229, 230, 233, 235

Cancer Institute (Australia), 192

Cancer Legal Resource Center, 136, 265

Cancer Networks (UK), 203

Cancer Patient Need Questionnaire (CPNQ), 174-175, 177, 188

Cancer Patient Need Survey (CPNS), 174-175, 188

Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System (CARES), 174-175, 188, 358

Cancer Research and Prevention Foundation, 110

Cancer Support Network, 224-225

Cancer Survival Toolbox, 164, 243, 245

Cancer Survivors Network, 125

CancerCare, 4, 33-34, 39, 89, 103, 108, 110, 118, 120, 128, 133, 134, 137, 229, 230, 232, 233, 267, 318, 373

Candlelighters Childhood Cancer Foundation, 110

Cardiovascular disease, 3 n.2, 4 n.3, 24, 27, 33 n.9, 35, 37, 52, 54, 55 n.3, 56, 57, 58, 61, 62-63, 65, 94, 96, 100, 202, 233, 251, 330, 334, 336, 358

Care coordination.

See also Case management;

Collocation and integration of services;

Referral for psychosocial health services

competency of providers and, 287, 299, 303, 310, 313, 314

complexity of services and, 260

definition, 195

demonstration projects, 248, 259, 384, 392

economics of, 238, 256, 258

effectiveness, 98, 195-196, 198-199, 207, 225, 241

information technology and, 197-198, 201, 314, 395

mechanisms for, 155-157, 197-198, 203, 222-223, 227, 228, 336-337

Medicare program, 172, 191, 246, 248, 253-254, 255-258, 259, 274-275

multidisciplinary team care, 155-157, 195, 197

recommendations of prior reports, 379, 381, 384, 386, 387, 391, 392, 395, 405

reimbursement policies, 12, 241, 242, 246, 248, 250, 253-258, 268, 274-275, 276, 337, 384

research needs, 333, 336-337, 338

as standard of care, 7, 8, 9, 15, 41, 153, 154, 158, 199, 203, 220, 222

workforce supply and, 287

written care plans, 173

Care management. See Case management

Care/system navigators, 114, 190, 193-195, 196, 197, 223, 247, 254, 257-258, 260, 285, 287-288, 303, 314, 315, 316, 334, 336, 337, 388

Caregivers. See Families and caregivers

Case management

competency of providers, 299, 303, 315, 316

components, 199

demonstration projects, 259

depression, 154, 191, 205

effectiveness, 191-193, 196, 197

free services, 135

for high-cost beneficiaries, 256, 259

model programs and examples, 155, 157, 201, 205, 206, 207, 222

recommendations of prior reports, 384

reimbursement policies, 246, 249, 256, 257, 259

research needs, 227

training, 316

transportation issues, 39

workforce, 285, 287

Catholic Charities, 226

Center for Patient Partnerships, 236

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 260, 263, 366, 380, 392, 394, 396, 404

BRFSS, 16, 339

National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program, 200

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), 12, 13, 17, 18, 219, 239, 242, 259, 277, 321, 339, 340, 341, 372, 392.

See also Medicaid;

Medicare

Central nervous system cancers, 36

Charlson Comorbidity index, 168 n.6

Chemotherapy, 3, 24, 26, 28, 58, 102, 105, 196, 227, 228, 251, 271

Child care services, 34, 102, 132, 133, 172 n.12, 194, 336 n.3, 354, 357

Children. See Adolescent cancer patients;

Adult survivors of childhood cancer;

Pediatric cancer patients

Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 307

Chronic Care Model, 155, 201-202, 358, 373

Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, 96

CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), 15, 84, 85, 330, 363

Clinical practice guidelines

Australian Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Psychosocial Care of Adults with Cancer, 156, 203, 354, 380, 381, 383, 385, 389

inadequacies in, 41

incorporating tested interventions in, 92

NCCN Distress Management, 155, 169, 202-203, 356, 357, 379, 380, 382, 386, 389, 391

needs assessment, 171 n.10

psychopharmacological services, 95

recommendations of prior reports, 379-383, 385, 386, 389, 391, 395, 398

Clinical trials

design, 89, 91, 93, 94, 392

evidence of intervention effectiveness from, 92, 94, 101

information on, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 134

needs assessment instruments, 174

palliative care in, 403

recommendations, 392

referrals to, 128, 134

Clinician and Group Survey Instruments, 243

Cochrane Collaboration, 191

Cognitive-behavioral therapy, 92, 93, 95, 96, 99, 100.

See also Behavioral change interventions

Cognitive impairment

in adults, 27-28, 104-105, 331

breast cancer and, 27-28, 104-105

in children, 27, 105-106

effectiveness of services, 104-106, 331

emotional distress/mental illness and, 5, 58-59

services to address, 10, 82, 104-106, 264-265

Collaborative care model, 204-205

Collaborative Care of Depression, 156

Collocation and integration of services, 158, 190, 195 n.17, 196, 201

approaches, 220-225

communication between providers, 193, 221

economics of, 238

education and training of clinicians and, 14, 41, 283, 310, 320, 322

effectiveness, 193, 221, 241, 336-337

mental health clinicians, 13, 268

recommendations of prior reports, 384, 399

and reimbursement policies, 241, 267-268, 275, 276-277

Colon cancer, 24, 30 n.7, 94, 110, 127

Colon Cancer Alliance, 110, 127

Colorectal cancer, 28, 110, 194, 272

Colorectal Cancer Network, 110

Commission of Rehabilitation Counselor Certification, 308

Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, 297

Commission on Rehabilitation Education, 308

Commission on the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, 308

Communication. See Patient–provider communication

Communities

effects of failure to address psychosocial needs of patients on, 67, 68

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

Community Cancer Centers Pilot Program, 195, 198, 403

Community care, 6, 44, 374

Community Tracking Study Household Survey, 35

Comprehensive Breast Cancer program, 168 n.6

Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (CHESS), 232-233, 235-236

Congestive heart failure, 27, 196, 202

Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials, 91, 94

Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS), 16, 17, 243, 245, 248, 271, 272, 278, 339

Coping skills

avoidant, 60-61

and health behaviors, 52, 57, 58, 60, 61

and information needs and resources, 10, 38, 82, 87, 113, 115, 116, 117, 119, 121, 123, 364

interventions, 10, 82, 88-95, 96, 106, 127, 309

logistical resources and, 39

and morbidity and mortality, 64, 66

needs assessment, 174, 188, 251, 336 n.1

physiological effects, 66, 334

positive mechanisms, 60

provider competency issues, 292, 300, 301, 318

psychological stress and, 5, 52, 54-55, 60, 88-95

screening instruments, 166, 172 n.12

social supports and, 53, 88, 89, 90, 127

with treatment and cancer effects, 24-25, 26, 357

Coronary artery disease, 62, 65

Council on Social Work Education, 301, 302, 303

Counselors

licensed, 93, 226, 283, 284, 286, 303, 304 n.18, 308

pastoral, 284, 286, 309, 374

peer, 110, 127

workforce, 286

CureSearch, 110

D

Dane County Latino Health Council, 236

Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, 168 n.6

Decision making on treatment

aids, 15, 86, 87, 112, 113, 118-119, 121, 123, 162-163, 164, 235, 311

competency of professional, 298, 310, 314, 317, 333, 337

coordination/integration of care and, 192, 198, 201, 204, 205

older adults, 26

and outcomes, 161-162, 358, 384-385

patient preferences, 11, 26, 86, 160, 161, 176, 184

patient–provider communication and, 159, 160-162, 163, 238, 243, 271, 333, 337

support services, 85, 86, 203, 233, 235, 405

Definitions. See Nomenclature standardization

Delivery of psychosocial health services.

See also Clinical practice guidelines

ambulatory care setting, 13, 18, 41, 44 n.19, 198, 221, 224, 228, 243, 251, 270, 271, 272, 277, 284, 292, 337, 340

approaches, 220-236

common components, 154, 155-157, 242

coordinating psychosocial and biomedical care, see Care coordination

for depression, 204-206

empirically validated models, 153-159, 201-207

examples, see Standard of care

follow-up, 8, 99, 116, 154, 155-157, 158, 169, 172, 173, 194, 197, 199, 201, 204, 205, 206, 222, 223, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 232, 242, 246, 255, 256, 257, 258, 271, 275, 375, 382, 383, 386, 387, 392, 395, 396

identifying patients with needs, 83, 153, 154, 164-173, 242, 246, 249-253;

See also Needs assessment;

Screening psychosocial problems

interventions for, see Psychosocial interventions

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

linking patients to services, 83, 98, 190-195, 242, 246;

See also Care/system navigators;

Case management;

Collocation and integration of services;

Referral for psychosocial health services

with local resources, 98, 225-229

monitoring progress, 16-18

patient–provider communication, 159-164, 243-249

payment and policy environment and, 6, 12-13, 41;

See also Reimbursement policies

planning care, 157, 173, 246

policy supports, see Policy supports and constraints

recommended demonstration and evaluation of approaches, 12, 17, 238-239

remote providers, 229-236

research needs, 93-94, 333-337

self-management support, see Illness self-management

standard-of-care recommendation, 199-200

supportive and palliative care for adults, 203-204

unifying model for, 7-8, 154, 158-199

Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 16, 17, 18, 321, 339, 340-341, 365, 366, 384, 397

Department of Veterans Affairs, 247, 373

Depression

in caregivers and family members, 4, 31, 32, 67

case management, 191, 205

chronic diseases and, 3 n.2, 56, 61-62

and cognitive impairment, 5, 58-59, 105

collaborative care model, 204-205

community effects of, 68

competency/expertise of clinicians, 267-268, 300, 301

and coping abilities, 54, 57

delivery of services for, 94, 191, 196, 204-206, 363

and disease development, 61-62, 64

effectiveness of services and interventions, 7, 81, 90, 91, 92-93, 94-95, 154, 191, 196, 204, 206, 332-333

and financial pressures, 4, 33 n.9, 55 n.3, 68

and functional impairment and disability, 5, 57

and health behaviors, 5, 37, 52, 57, 58, 59, 204

health services for, 69, 88, 95, 196, 301

and immunocompetence, 63, 64, 65

insurance coverage, 250, 256, 268

medications, 94-95

and morbidity and mortality, 52, 61-62, 63, 64

patient–provider communication and, 161, 315

and physical symptoms, 5, 57, 62

prevalence in cancer patients, 1, 30, 56-57, 62

prevention, 95

provider failure to recognize and address, 5, 23, 40, 165

psychological stress and, 1, 54, 61-62

quality-of-care measures, 270, 271, 272, 363, 364

recommendations of prior reports, 372, 381, 388, 392

research methods and needs, 332-333, 392

screening and assessment, 154, 156, 157, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 192, 203, 204, 226, 247, 250, 354, 381, 392

social supports and, 54

in survivors post-treatment, 388

treatment models for primary care settings, 204-206

Derdiarian Informational Needs Assessment (DINQ), 178-179, 189

Developmental problems, 32-33

Diabetes, 3, 4, 24, 33 n.9, 35, 37, 52, 55 n.3, 56, 58, 65, 86, 94, 96, 191, 196, 198, 202, 251, 258, 259, 272, 319, 330, 334, 336, 358

Diabetes Self-Management Assessment Tool, 334

Diet and nutrition, 5, 15, 52, 57, 58, 60, 61, 98, 100-102, 109, 111, 114, 117, 119, 169, 338, 355

Disability

age and, 26

competency of service providers, 299, 305, 401

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

delivery of support services, 201, 404

and depression, 5, 57, 62

emotional distress and mental illness and, 57, 59-60

and employment, 389

financial assistance, 10, 266, 364

financial stress and, 55

formal support services, 10, 82, 104, 107, 108, 135, 264, 265, 266, 364

functional, 3, 5, 26, 52, 59-60;

See also Activities of daily living

legal protections, 10, 82, 104, 107, 264, 265, 364, 393

likelihood in cancer patients, 23, 24-25, 26-28, 68

peer support programs, 89

psychosocial factors, 2, 4, 5, 55, 57, 59-60

self-management programs, 96, 358

treatment-related, 26, 68

Discrimination, 33, 356, 388

Disfigurement, 33, 89

Distress Thermometer, 166-167, 168-169, 170, 230, 334

E

Education. See Informational support;

Patient and family education

Education and training in biopsychosocial approaches.

See also specific types of providers

accreditation and licensure standards, 283, 289-290, 291-292, 297, 298, 301-302, 304-305, 308, 311-312

barriers to, 40-41, 308, 310-319

communication skills, 163-164, 311, 315, 317-318

core competencies, 290-291, 297, 299, 307-308, 311-316, 319-320

current practice environment and, 310-311

faculty needs, 316

gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations, 292

interactive, multicomponent program, 318

interdisciplinary, experiential, statewide program, 318-319

learning collaborative, 319

licensure, 14, 254, 255, 283, 285, 286, 289, 291-292, 296, 298, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 312, 316, 320, 321-322, 374

monitoring progress in, 18, 291, 309, 320, 340-341

recommendations, 13-14, 18, 283-284, 320-322

specialty certification, 14, 18, 225, 245, 248, 268, 283, 284, 285, 286, 293-294, 296, 300-301, 302-303, 305-306, 307, 308, 309, 316, 320, 321-322, 341, 390, 391

teaching practices, 316-319

Effectiveness research

agenda, 330-333

behavioral change interventions, 7, 98-102

challenges, 330-331

cognitive and educational assistance, 104-106

committee approach, 83, 353-370

CONSORT criteria, 91, 95

counseling and psychotherapy, 91-94

family and caregiver support, 106-107

identifying effective services, 331, 360-363, 365-366

on information support, 85-87

legal protections and services, 107-108

material and logistical resources, 7, 102-103

mental health therapies, 7, 81, 88-95, 154, 191, 196, 204, 206, 332-333

needs, 93-94, 95

outcomes of interest, 90, 91, 101-102, 107, 363-365

on peer support groups, 38, 84, 88-90, 99

personal care services, 104

populations and scenarios, 331-332

psychopharmacological services, 94-95, 332-333

recommendations, 12, 17, 85, 238-239

robustness of methods, 332-333

self-management and self-care interventions, 95-98

taxonomy and nomenclature issues, 83-85

Electronic health records, 197-198

EMBASE, 15, 84, 85, 330, 363

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

Emotional distress and mental illness.

See also Coping skills;

Depression;

Psychological stress

and cognitive impairment, 5, 28, 58-59

economic costs of, 68

effects on cancer patients, 56-60

financial pressures and, 56

and health behavior, 3, 5, 57-58

insurance coverage, 261-267

and motivation, 5, 59-60

needs and services, 10

physical stressors and, 24-25

screening for, 168

and somatic problems, 5, 24-25, 28, 56-60, 94

Emotional support.

See also Peer support programs;

Psychotherapy and counseling

beneficial effects, 8, 53, 54, 66, 88-95, 107

competency of providers, 314

counseling and psychotherapy, 10, 91-94

defined, 53

effectiveness of services, 7, 81, 88-95, 154, 191, 196, 204, 206, 332-333

for families and caregivers, 106, 107

formal services, 92, 93, 94, 158, 231

free services, 125-132

health services, 82, 83, 241

informal sources, 83, 90, 261

information resources, 114, 115, 125-132

pharmacological therapies, 10, 94-95

remote providers, 229, 232-233, 235

Employee Assistance Programs, 249

Employment changes, 3, 10, 29, 33, 34, 35, 36-37, 39, 57, 67-68, 82, 114, 314, 359, 365, 375, 383, 385

Empowering Older People to Take Control of Their Health Through Evidence-Based Prevention Programs, 96 n.5, 249

End-stage renal disease, 58, 59, 206

European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, 358

Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology, 305, 307

Exercise/physical activity, 355, 358

assessment/monitoring, 82, 169, 364

benefits of, 28, 101-102, 106-107

and depression, 5, 57

information resources, 109, 114, 224

interventions, 10, 15, 95, 98, 100-102, 106-107, 224, 226, 338

as performance measure, 271

psychological stress and, 52, 60, 61

as response to cancer diagnosis, 57-58

F

Facing Our Risk for Cancer Empowerment, 110, 127

FAMCARE, 182-183, 189

Families and caregivers

depression in, 4, 31, 32, 67

effectiveness of services, 106-107

morbidity and mortality in, 4, 32, 67

needs assessment, 172, 182-187

nomenclature, 43

provider communication with, 159

psychological stress in, 31-32, 66, 67, 98

screening instruments, 169-170

support services, 10, 82, 106-107, 137, 262-263

value of nonreimbursed care, 21-32, 260-261, 263, 265, 267

Family and Medical Leave Act, 10, 82, 104, 107, 264, 364, 393

Family Inventory of Needs, 184-185, 189

Fatigue in cancer patients

ADL limitations, 28, 29, 104

assessment instruments, 167, 224, 226, 335

assistance services, 104

caregiver’s mental health and, 4, 31

competency of service providers, 300

definition of, 28

emotional distress and mental illness and, 5, 24-25, 28, 56-60, 94

information resources, 113

and management of illness and health, 37

mechanisms and manifestations, 28

pain and, 29

physical activity and, 101

prevalence rates, 28

psychosocial effects of, 28, 29, 364

treatment/management of, 28, 92, 96-97, 101, 113, 336, 358, 364, 372

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

fertileHope, 111

Financial stress.

See also Health insurance clinical practice guidelines, 203

and illness management, 55

medical debt, 33-34, 39, 55

problems of patients and families, 3, 4, 33-34, 37, 55-56

support services, 7, 10, 34-35, 82, 85, 108, 110, 111, 114, 119, 132-135, 194, 227, 229, 264-265, 266-267

uninsured patients, 35, 55

Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, 358

G

Geisinger Health System, 243

Gilda’s Clubs, 89, 120, 128, 229

H

Head and neck cancers, 30 n.7, 36, 99, 116, 131

Health behaviors.

See also Adherence to treatment regimens;

Behavioral change interventions;

Diet and nutrition;

Exercise/physical activity

coping skills and, 60

depression and, 5, 37, 52, 57, 58, 59, 204

financial stress and, 34, 55

screening for, 168

self-efficacy and, 38, 59, 66, 87

Health care providers.

See also Education and training in biopsychosocial approaches;

Workforce;

specific types of providers

information resources for, 115

knowledge of psychosocial resources, 5-6, 7, 11

recommendations for, 10-11, 237

Health insurance.

See also Reimbursement policies

absent or inadequate coverage, 3, 4, 34, 37, 55-56, 237, 261-267

and access to care, 261-268

accreditation standards, 268

capitated payment, 257

and delay in treatment, 34

and emotional/physical well-being, 56

incentives for effective delivery of services, 13, 16, 41

legislation, 267

monitoring progress, 17

recommendations, 12-13, 17, 275-277

research needs, 337

resources, 10, 85, 108, 110, 111, 114, 264-265

Health maintenance organizations, 190, 250

Health Resources and Services Administration, 321, 373, 396, 406

Health services. See Psychosocial health services

Health services research agenda

comprehensive illness and wellness management interventions, 336

improving patient–provider partnership, 333

linking patients with services and coordinating care, 336-337

needs assessment, 335-336

reimbursement arrangements, 337

screening tools, 334-335

Healthplan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS), 271

Hershey Medical Center, 318

Hill-Burton Program, 133, 267

HIV/AIDS, 3, 52, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 89, 90, 93, 191, 233

Hodgkin’s disease, 30 n.7

Home Care Study-Caretaker Form (HCS-CF), 184-185, 189

Home Care Study-Patient Form (HCS-PF), 176-177, 188

Home Caregiver Need Survey (HCNS), 184-185, 189

Hope Lodge, 135

Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), 167, 168, 169

Housing, 135

I

I Can Cope Program, 119

Illness self-management

case management and, 192-193

definitions, 84, 95, 195, 357-358

effective models of care delivery, 96-97, 155-157, 201, 202, 204, 205, 221, 223, 224, 313, 376

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

health behaviors and, 169

informational support and, 86, 95, 231-232, 233

need for services, 10, 364

patient–provider communication and, 37

policy support for, 248, 258, 259

research needs, 336

screening tools and approaches, 334

self-efficacy and, 38, 59, 88, 89, 95

social supports and, 55

Stanford model, 96, 358

support programs, 10, 38, 82, 86, 95-98, 106, 195, 204, 221, 223, 224, 249, 275, 357-358

Immune function, 5, 51, 52, 54, 61, 64-66, 101, 333

Improving Chronic Illness Care program, 202

Improving Mood—Promoting Access to Collaborative Treatment for Late-Life Depression (IMPACT) project, 157, 205-206

Improving Supportive and Palliative Care for Adults with Cancer, 156, 203-204

Income. See Employment changes;

Financial stress

Individual Cancer Assistance Network, 318

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 107, 265

Information and Support Needs Questionnaire, 186-187, 189

Information Needs Measure, 180-181, 189

Informational support.

See also Patient and family education

availability, 81, 82, 85-86, 109-117, 262-263

benefits of, 53, 86, 87, 95

decision-support tools, 87, 112

definition, 53

dissatisfaction with, 5, 37-38

effectiveness of, 38, 85-87

free sources on psychosocial health services, 81, 82, 85-86, 109-117

Internet, 87, 109-117

methods of delivery, 38, 86-87, 88

needs, 3-4, 10, 11, 37, 38, 82, 85, 87

for providers, 11, 197-198, 201, 314, 395

Institute for Healthcare Communication, 164, 243, 245

Institute for Healthcare Improvement, 202

Instrumental support, defined, 53

Insulin-like growth factor, 102

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, 102

Interferon, 95

International Association of Laryngectomees, 111

International Myeloma Foundation, 111, 121, 123

J

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 13, 18, 274, 277, 278, 340, 397

Speak Up™ initiatives, 245

K

Kaiser Permanente, 243, 373

Kansas City Cancer Center, 225-227

Kansas City Community Foundation, 227

Kansas City Free Health Clinic, 226

Kidney Cancer Association, 111, 121

L

Lance Armstrong Foundation, 111, 128, 134, 230, 273, 274, 366

Legal Information Network for Cancer, 265

Legal protections and services, 10, 38, 82, 104, 107-108, 136, 159, 264-265, 356, 359, 383, 385, 388, 389

Lehigh Valley-Allentown Cooperative Cancer Center, 318

Leukemia, 24, 30 n.7, 36, 89, 112, 121, 128, 133

acute lymphoblastic, 27, 105, 251, 267, 366

Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, 89, 112, 121, 128, 133, 267, 366

Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), 289-290

Liver cancer, 30 n.7

LIVESTRONG Survivorship Center of Excellence Network, 274

LiveStrong® Survivorship Notebook, 227

Living Beyond Breast Cancer, 118, 122, 128

Living with Breast Cancer program, 236

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

Long-term care, 201

Look Good … Feel Better Program®, 112, 119, 228

Lung cancer, 28, 30 n.7, 94, 98, 112, 114, 129, 330

Lung Cancer Alliance, 112, 129

Lung disease, chronic, 37, 52, 56, 57, 58, 96, 336, 358

Lustgarten Foundation for Pancreatic Cancer Research, 113

Lymphoma, 27 n.4, 28, 30 n.7, 36, 89, 112, 118, 121, 122, 128, 129, 133, 134, 136, 366

Lymphoma Foundation of America, 112, 118, 122, 129, 136

Lymphoma Research Foundation, 112, 122, 129, 134

M

MacArthur Initiative on Depression and Primary Care, 205

Man-to-Man Program, 125

Management of illness. See Illness self-management

Management of psychosocial stressors

health care system deficits, 40-42

information and education deficits, 37-38

knowledge and skills of health professionals and, 37-38

logistical resources, 39-40

obstacles to, 37-42

Mastery, 52, 107

Material and logistical resources, 7, 10, 82, 102-103, 137, 168, 194, 227.

See also Financial stress;

Transportation for patients and families

Maternal and Child Health Programs for Children with Special Health Care Needs, 247

Mayo Clinic, 373

Medicaid, 13, 81, 103, 104, 228, 242, 243, 244, 248, 262, 264, 266

Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment, 246, 264

Medical Outcomes Short Form (SF-8), 168 n.6

Medical Outcomes Study, 358

Medical supplies, 262-263

Medicare.

See also Reimbursement policies

assistance in negotiating care from, 135

care coordination program, 172, 191, 257-258, 259

Care Management for High-Cost Beneficiaries, 259

claims paid, 253

coverage for psychosocial services, 13, 17, 35 n.12, 104, 228, 241, 249-250, 257-258, 260, 261, 262, 264, 266, 340

Health Outcomes Survey, 272

Health Support Demonstration, 259

monitoring quality of care, 397

payment rates, 254, 256

Physician Group Practice Demonstration, 259

prescription drug benefit, 393

relative value units, 255

technology assessment and coverage, 242

Melanoma, 30 n.7, 97, 113, 271

Melanoma Research Foundation, 113

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 313, 317, 373

Men Against Breast Cancer, 123

Mental health providers.

See also Counselors;

Psychologists

education and training, 303-309

workforce supply, 288

Mental illness. See Depression;

Emotional distress and mental illness

Metabolic syndrome, 102

Methylphenidate, 105

Metro CARE, 226

Moffitt Cancer Center, 268, 373

Moores Cancer Center, 222-224, 229

Motivation, 5, 28, 57-58, 59-60, 88, 206, 369

Mucositis, 97

Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation, 113, 123

N

National Association of Social Workers, 286, 302, 303, 318

National Board for Certified Counselors, 308

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

National Breast Cancer Centre (Australia), 95

National Cancer Control Initiative (Australia), 92, 95

National Cancer Institute, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 113, 160, 161, 163-164, 219, 237, 239, 242, 260, 263, 277, 330, 338, 339, 385, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391, 392, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 403

Cancer Information Service, 229, 230, 233, 235

Community Cancer Centers Pilot Program, 195, 198, 403

Metathesaurus, 84

Outcomes Research Branch, 273

Patient Navigation Research Program, 194-195

Physician Data Query, 204

Quality of Cancer Care Initiative, 200

Research Symposium on Consumer–Provider Communication, 245

website, 233

National Cancer Plan (UK), 203

National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship, 114, 123, 366, 385

National Committee for Quality Assurance, 13, 17-18, 274, 277, 278, 340, 397

National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 12, 17, 95, 154, 200, 277, 340, 366

Clinical Practice Guidelines for Distress Management, 155, 169, 202-203, 356, 357, 379, 380, 382, 386, 389, 391

Distress Thermometer, 166-167, 168-169, 170, 230, 334, 357

National Council Licensure Examination, 298

National Council of State Boards of Nursing, 298, 301

National Family Caregiver Support Program, 137

National Health Care Quality Report, 272

National Health Information Infrastructure, 197

National Health Interview Survey, 27, 29, 36, 334

National Health Service (UK), 197

National Institute for Clinical Evidence, 172, 203

National Institutes of Health, 6, 15, 16, 17, 18, 23, 43, 85, 321, 329, 338, 340, 341, 353, 355, 372, 394, 399

Medical Scientist Training Program, 401

Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research, 42, 289

PROMIS initiative, 335

National Latino Cancer Research Network, 236

National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, 297, 298

National Library of Medicine. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), 15, 24 n.3, 84, 85, 330, 363

National Lung Cancer Partnership, 114

National Lymphedema Network, 114

National Ovarian Cancer Coalition, 114, 129

National Prostate Cancer Coalition, 114

National Quality Forum, 13, 17, 270, 272, 274, 277, 278, 340, 366, 397

National Survey of U.S. Households Affected by Cancer, 5-6, 34, 35, 38, 40, 55

Nausea/vomiting, 92, 96

Need Evaluation Questionnaire, 176-177, 188

Need Satisfaction Scale, 186-187, 189

Needs assessment

caregivers, 182-187

case management, 192

definition, 171

domain comparison across instruments, 173, 188-189

effectiveness, 154, 165, 172

follow-up, 154, 169, 172, 199

instruments, 172-173, 174-189, 335-336

model programs, 156, 157

and patient–provider communication, 172

policy supports and barriers to, 247, 251-253

research needs, 173, 335-336

screening contrasted, 171

stage-specific, 180-183

Needs Near the End-of-Life Care Screening Tool (NEST), 182-183, 189

Needy Meds, 114

New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, 288

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

New York Legal Assistance Group, 107, 108

Nomenclature standardization

committee definitions, 43-44, 359-360, 363

conceptual framework, 355-359

confounding in research, 44, 363

defining psychosocial services, 43-44, 353-360

DMS-IV-TR, 355-357

in effectiveness research, 83-85, 363

existing definitions, 254-255

face validity of, 359

“fatigue,” 29

health-related quality of life, 358-359

illness self-management programs, 97, 98, 357-358

monitoring progress in, 18

NCCN, 357-358

recommendation, 14-15, 18, 85, 98

North American Brain Tumor Coalition, 115

Northland CARE, 226

Nurse Licensure Compact Agreement, 300

Nurse practitioners, 220, 225, 226, 227, 250 n.5, 254, 255, 286, 297, 300, 301, 388

Nurses

associate and baccalaureate education, 297-298

delivery of interventions, 41 n.18, 89, 96, 97-98, 99, 190, 192, 194, 224, 226

faculty, 316

licensure, 298, 300

registered, 296-301

reimbursement policies, 247, 249, 254

specialty certification and continued competency, 300-301

workforce, 286, 288

Nursing care, 106

Nutrition. See Diet and nutrition

O

Older adults

communication with providers, 159, 162

depression, 56-57

developmental problems, 32

immune response to stress, 65

need for services, 25-26, 254

Older Americans Act, 81, 104, 247

Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation, 300

Oncology Nursing Society, 13, 17, 34, 277, 286, 340, 366, 382, 385, 389, 391

Optimism, 52, 60

Oral Cancer Foundation, 115, 130

Osteopenia/osteoporosis, 100

Outcome Project, 293

Ovarian cancer, 66, 114, 115, 129

Ovarian Cancer National Alliance, 115

Overweight/obesity, 100

P

PACE (Patient Assessment, Care, and Education), 169

Pain

age and coping with, 26

assessment of, 167, 172 n.12, 182, 188-189, 224, 226, 251, 271, 314-315, 335, 336 n.1, 357

competency and education of health professionals, 300, 301, 306, 310, 314, 318

effectiveness of interventions, 92, 96, 364

emotional distress and mental illness and, 5, 25, 30, 57, 59, 62, 231

and fatigue, 29

information resources, 86, 113, 224-225, 231

and limitations in ADLs, 29, 104

and management of stressors, 37, 38

in pediatric patients, 251

psychosocial effects, 25, 29

treatment/management, 29, 60, 86, 92, 96-97, 107, 113, 196, 220, 224-225, 300, 301, 306, 310, 314, 336, 358, 372

Palliative care, 6-7, 43, 114, 180, 182, 183, 203, 206, 224, 296, 303, 313, 355, 399, 403

Palliative Care Assessment, 180-181, 189

Pancreatic cancer, 30 n.7, 113, 115, 119, 124, 130

Pancreatic Cancer Action Network, 115, 119, 124, 130

Partners in Care, 157, 206

Patient Advocate Foundation, 128, 134, 135, 267

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

Patient advocates and advocacy organizations, 11, 89, 164, 193, 237, 238, 257.

See also individual organizations

Patient and Caregiver Education program, 113

Patient and family education.

See also Informational support

free services, 119-125, 229

interventions, 10, 87, 89, 97, 10, 106, 194, 227, 232, 234

monitoring progress in, 16-17, 339

providers, 220

recommendations, 11, 237-238

reimbursement policies, 248

Patient and Liaison Services, 115

Patient Care Monitor, 166, 169, 170, 224, 334

Patient Health Questionnaire, 167, 168 n.6, 226, 250

Patient information. See Informational support

Patient Information Need Questionnaire, 178-179, 189

Patient Navigation Research Program, 194-195

Patient Needs Assessment Tool, 176-177, 188

Patient–provider communication.

See also Decision making on treatment

barriers to, 40-41

coached care, 162

cross-cultural, 244-245, 315

current, 160-161

and depression, 161, 315

effective model for, 159-164

and illness self-management, 37, 97

importance, 161-162

interactive videos, 162-163

interventions to improve, 97, 114, 162-163, 243-245

key aspects, 159-160

needs assessment and, 172

passive patients, 161

performance measures, 272

policy support, 243-245, 248-249

poor or lack of, 3-4, 5, 37, 38, 40

promoting behavioral change, 98, 99

remote resources, 230, 231

research needs, 161, 333

training providers in, 163-164, 311, 315, 317-318

Pediatric cancer patients.

See also Adult survivors of childhood cancer

cognitive impairment, 27

communication with providers, 159

developmental problems, 32-33, 332

and health outcomes, 161-162

information resources, 110

psychological stress in families and caregivers, 31, 59, 169-170

PTSD/PTSS in, 54

research needs, 331, 332

school re-entry and reintegration programs, 105-106, 265, 331

screening and needs assessment, 169-170, 246

social functioning, 33

Peer support programs

availability, 4, 10, 38, 82, 262-263, 364

competency of providers, 312

components and uses, 88-90

counseling services, 98, 99, 118, 374

defined, 88

delivery of services, 232

effectiveness, 38, 84, 88-90, 99

emotional support services, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131

information resources, 38, 110, 112, 232

nomenclature/terminology issue, 84

outcome measures, 89

provider involvement, 89

provider knowledge of and referrals to, 38, 232

provider workforce, 284

research needs, 90

transportation issues, 39, 55

virtual, 87, 90, 232

Pennsylvania Cancer Control Program, 318

People Living With Cancer, 115, 228

Performance measurement

adopted/endorsed, 271-272

ensuring use of, 270, 272

as incentive, 274

infrastructure, 274

instruments and initiatives, 243, 269-272

leadership role, 273-274, 278

mental health care, 269-270

patient–provider communication, 243

monitoring progress in, 340

in quality oversight, 13, 18, 242, 269-274, 277, 340

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

recommendations, 13, 17-18, 277-278

reimbursement linked to, 12, 242

Personal care services, 10, 82, 104, 230, 236, 262-263, 364

Personal health records, 198

Pew Health Professions Commission, 297

Pharmacotherapies, 94-95, 105, 114, 227, 262-263, 268, 271, 332-333

Phone Buddy Program, 129

Physical stressors, cancer-induced.

See also Disability;

Fatigue in cancer patients;

Management of psychosocial stressors;

Pain

health impairment, 26-28

limitations in ADLs, 3, 29

screening for, 169

Physician assistants, 220, 250, 254, 388

Physicians.

See also Patient–provider communication

continuing education and certification, 18, 164, 296

family medicine, 294

graduate medical education, 164, 293-296

internal medicine and oncology subspecialty, 293-294

medical licensure, 291-292

pediatric training programs, 294-295

psychiatry residency program, 295-296

supply, by specialty, 284-285

undergraduate medical education, 289-291

Picker Institute, 321

Planet Cancer, 115, 130, 232

Policy supports and constraints.

See also Performance measurement;

Reimbursement policies

for availability of services, 260-268

on identifying psychosocial needs, 249-253

information resources on, 115

for interventions, 246-259

on patient–provider communication, 243-245, 248-249

on self-management of illness, 258-259

Post-traumatic stress disorder, 3, 30, 31, 54, 56, 95, 167, 168 n.6, 332-333

Post-traumatic stress symptoms, 30, 31, 54, 56, 167

Preferred provider organizations, 250

Pregnant With Cancer, 130

President’s Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry, 276

President’s Cancer Panel, 40

Press-Ganey Oncology Outpatient patient satisfaction survey, 223

Primary Care PTSD Screen, 167, 168 n.6

PRO-SELF program, 97

Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID), 334

Projects in the Promoting Excellence in End-of-Life Care Program, 157, 206-207

Prostate cancer, 24, 30 n.7, 55-56, 89, 94, 97, 114, 115, 117, 124, 125, 131, 178-179, 188, 235, 330

Prostate Cancer Foundation, 115

Prostate Cancer Needs Assessment, 178-179, 188

Prostheses and wigs, 34, 85, 102, 103, 138, 223, 233

Psychological stress.

See also Emotional distress and mental illness

adherence to treatment regimen and, 59, 63 n.7, 69

chronic, 65

clinician awareness of, 6

and disease, 61-64

in families and caregivers, 31-32

manifestations in patients, 30-31

measures of, 63 n.7

and morbidity and mortality, 32, 52, 53-54, 61-62, 63, 64, 67, 88-89

psychosocial resources and, 52, 54, 60, 332

physiological effects, 52, 61, 64-66

prevalence, 30

screening for, 6

Psychologists

accreditation, 304-305

certification, 305-306

competencies and curricula, 307

graduate training, 306

licensure, 305

pre/postdoctoral internships, 306-307

reimbursement, 251-253

self-assessment model, 313

workforce, 286

Psychoneuroimmunology, 5, 64-65

Psychosocial Assessment Tool©, 169-170

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

Psychosocial health services.

See also Collocation and integration of services;

Delivery of psychosocial health services;

Effectiveness research;

Psychosocial interventions;

individual services

availability, 7-8, 81-83, 108-138, 260-261, 262-267, 379-380

deficiencies, 5-6

definition, 9, 43-44, 69, 82-83, 359-360

diversity, 82-83

evidence of, effectiveness 7, 81, 85-108

examples of needs and services, 10

free programs, 118-138

importance, 8-9, 66, 68-69

interventions to secure services, 69;

See also Care/system navigators;

Case management;

Referral for psychosocial services;

Screening psychosocial problems

provider knowledge and attitudes about, 5-6, 7, 11, 40, 41

utilization rates, 190

workforce shortages and maldistribution, 41

Psychosocial interventions.

See also Care coordination;

Needs assessment;

Referral for psychosocial services;

Screening psychosocial problems

common components, 7

constraints on, 242-259

defined, 9, 354-355

informational, see Informational support needs, 82

Psychosocial Needs Inventory, 178-179, 188

Psychosocial Screen for Cancer, 170-171

Psychosocial services, defined, 9, 84, 354

Psychosocial stressors, 2.

See also Emotional distress and mental illness;

Psychological stress;

Social problems

effects on community, 67-68

effects on families, 67

effects on patients, 53-60

obstacles to managing, 37-42

physical, 3, 4-5, 26-29

Psychosocial support, defined, 354

Psychosomatic medicine, 13, 268, 276, 291, 295, 313

Psychotherapy and counseling.

See also Peer support programs

availability, 118, 262-263

child and adolescent, 88 n.1, 108-109

cognitive-behavioral, 92, 93

competency of providers, 94

effectiveness, 91-94, 106

family and couples, 93

free programs, 118

interpersonal, 92-93

remote resources, 93-94

research needs, 93-94

supportive, 92-93, 98

utilization rates, 192

PsycINFO, 15, 84, 85, 330, 363

PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, 167

Q

Quality improvement initiatives, 200, 206, 268.

See also Performance measurement

Quality of Cancer Care Initiative, 200

Quality of care.

See also Performance measurement;

Standard of care

measurement, 269-270

needs assessment, 172

oversight, 1, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 41, 44, 241, 277, 288, 309, 320, 338, 340

status of, 269

Quality of life

conceptual models, 356, 358-359

effectiveness of interventions, 60, 92, 96, 101, 192, 202, 206, 235-236

information resources, 117, 120, 122

interventions, 393

logistical and material resources and, 103

outcome measure, 101, 332, 382, 392, 396

provider education issues, 299, 300, 318, 390

psychosocial stressors, 56

research needs, 400

screening and assessment, 169, 170, 171 n.10, 172, 192, 224, 334, 335, 358-359

Quality of Life Breast Cancer Instrument, 358

Questions Are the Answer Campaign, 243, 245

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

R

Radiotherapy, 3, 26, 58, 97, 105, 196, 221, 225

RAND Corporation, 202

Reach to Recovery program, 88, 118, 126

Recommendations

access to care, 394

to assure provision of services, 379-380

caregiver (informal) support, 387-388

for continuity of care, 382-384

coordination of care, 386

data systems, 394-395

demonstration and evaluation of delivery approaches, 12, 17, 238-239

employment, 388-389

health care providers, 10-11, 237

illness self-management, 385

monitoring progress in delivery of services, 16-18

nomenclature standardization, 14-15, 18, 85

palliative care, 403

patient and family education, 11, 16-17, 237-238, 385

patient-centered care, 381

of prior reports, 6-7, 379-406

public education, 386

public health, 404

for quality improvement, 382, 395-396, 404-406

quality measurement, 397-398

quality oversight, 13, 17-18, 277-278

reimbursement policies, 12-13, 17, 233-239, 241-242, 275-277, 386-387, 404

research and demonstrations, 14, 15-16, 320-330, 337-338, 391-393, 398-400, 404

standard of care, 9, 16, 199-200

workforce education and training, 13-14, 18, 320-322, 389-391, 401-403

Referral for psychosocial health services, 5, 9, 69, 113, 118, 120, 129, 136, 155, 156, 166, 171, 190-191, 193, 194, 203, 221, 229, 254, 300, 319, 336, 360, 384, 385, 386, 388, 389, 391, 396

Reimbursement policies

capitated payments, 257, 275

for care coordination, 12, 241, 242, 246, 248, 250, 253-254, 255-258, 268, 274-275, 276, 337, 384

for case management, 246, 249, 256, 257, 259

collocation and integration of services and, 241, 267-268, 275, 276-277

CPT codes, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251-252, 253, 254, 255 n.10, 258

Evaluation and Management (E/M) services, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 253, 254, 255, 256, 258, 262

H/B codes, 251-253, 258, 262

information technology, 242, 257

managed care plans, 247, 249, 257-258, 268

Medicare Advantage, 242-243, 246, 250

Medicare fee-for-service, 228, 242, 244, 246, 248, 249-250, 252, 253-257, 274-275, 276, 337, 367, 374

mental health services, 261-268

monitoring progress in, 339-340

patient/family education, 248-249, 258

and patient–provider communication, 244-245, 248-249

performance incentives, 12, 241, 242, 248-249, 259

recommendations, 12-13, 17, 233-239, 241-242, 275-277, 386-387, 404

research needs, 238-239, 337

for screening or needs assessment, 231, 246-247, 249-250, 264

for telephone calls, 254

Remote providers

counseling and psychotherapy, 93-94

implementing use of, 230-232

model program, 229-230

obstacles to use, 236

resources, 232-236

Reproductive aspects of cancer, 111

Research.

See also Effectiveness research;

Health services research agenda

evaluation of impact of this report, 338-341

recommended priorities, 14, 15-16, 320-330, 337-338

scope of this study, 6-7, 42-44, 366-370

scope of work of this study, 370-376

study methods for this report, 353-376

taxonomy and nomenclature issues, 83-85, 329-330, 353-360

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

Respite care services, 106, 107, 137

Road to Recovery, 39, 136

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 201, 319, 366

Depression in Primary Care Initiative, 256

Improving Chronic Illness Care program, 202

Projects in the Promoting Excellence in End-of-Life Care Program, 206

Rotterdam Symptom Checklist, 167, 179

S

Samuel Rodgers Health Center, 226

San Diego Hospice, 223

Sarcoma Foundation of America, 116

Science of Caring Program, 222-224

Scope of study, 6-7, 366-370

Screening for cancer detection, 194

Screening psychosocial problems.

See also specific instruments

clinical practice guidelines, 203

competency of providers, 165, 311, 313, 314

current practice, 6, 164, 165-167, 247

defined, 165, 171

for depression, 154, 156, 157, 165, 167, 205, 226, 247, 250

domains, 334-335

effectiveness, 154, 167, 231

with follow-up, 154, 199, 223, 232

information resources, 114

instruments, 15, 52, 165, 166-171, 176, 182, 224, 226, 230, 249, 250, 334-335, 337

limitations, 167 n.5, 168

in model programs, 155, 156, 201, 222, 223, 224, 226, 228

needs assessment contrasted, 171

non-English-speaking, 169, 170

performance measures, 270, 272

policy supports and barriers, 246, 247, 249-250

for PTSD, 167, 168 n.6

recommendations of prior reports, 380-381, 384, 391

reimbursement for, 231, 239-250, 264

research needs, 15, 333, 334-335, 337

in self-care programs, 98

Second opinions, 112

Self-efficacy, 38, 59, 66, 87, 88, 89, 90, 95

Self-esteem, 31, 52, 90

Self-management. See Illness self-management

Services. See Psychosocial health services

Sexual dysfunction, 31, 33, 54, 93, 96, 97, 172 n.12, 174, 176, 188, 300, 301, 314, 336, 388

Shop Well With You, 116

Short Form (SF) Health Survey instruments, 358

Skin Cancer Foundation, 116

Sleep, 5, 28, 57, 58, 61, 101, 200, 231, 358

Social integration, 53, 54

Social isolation, 11, 15, 31, 51, 54, 62, 66, 238, 334, 338

Social networks, 33, 53, 61, 88-89, 170, 172 n.12, 178, 260, 336 n.1, 368

Social problems. See Employment changes;

Financial stress;

Health insurance;

Social supports

Social role functioning, 5, 30, 32, 33, 51, 54, 56, 57, 68, 102, 104, 169, 172, 192, 206, 299, 309, 358, 359

Social Security Disability Income, 10, 82, 108, 134, 264, 267, 364

Social supports.

See also Peer support programs

availability, 7

and coping abilities, 54

definition and dimensions, 53

and health practices, 55

informal, 39-40, 102-103, 260-261, 263, 265, 267

and mental illness, 54

morbidity and mortality effects, 53-54, 62-63, 65, 66

screening for, 168

weaknesses in, 39-40, 53-55

Social workers, 39

baccalaureate and master’s degrees, 301-302

licensure, 286, 302

recommendations for training, 374, 390, 391, 401, 402

reimbursement, 223, 254

specialization and continuing education, 302-303, 318, 319

support services of, 89, 112, 113, 194, 222, 223, 224, 228, 254, 255, 283, 284, 315, 316, 337, 388

workforce, 286

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

Society for Pediatric Psychology, 307

Somatic problems. See Fatigue in cancer patients;

Pain;

Psychosomatic medicine;

Sleep

Spanish, intervention/services in, 112, 117, 169, 232, 233, 236

Spiritual issues and needs, 31, 169, 172, 178, 182, 184, 188, 203, 207, 226, 297, 299, 300, 309, 315, 334, 336 n.1, 354-355, 357, 359

Standard of care.

See also Delivery of psychosocial health services;

Performance measurement

collocated, integrated care, 221-225

dissemination and uptake, 17, 339

examples of implementation approaches, 220-236

monitoring compliance with, 16

performance rewards, 13, 16

recommendations, 9, 237-239

Stanford University, 96, 358

Starlight, Starbright Children’s Foundation, 130

State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), 243, 244, 246, 248, 262, 264, 266

State policies.

See also Medicaid

Primary Care Case Management, 246

Stroke, 54, 56, 57, 94, 96, 105 n.8, 196, 334, 336, 358

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 321, 373

Sun protection, 98

Supplemental Security Income (SSI), 10, 82, 108, 134, 264, 267, 364

Support for People with Oral and Head and Neck Cancer, 116, 131, 262

Support Team Assessment Schedule, 182-183, 189

Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS), 176-177, 188

Supportive Care Network, 169

Survivor care plans, 190

Susan G. Komen for the Cure, 116, 273

Swope Parkway Health Center, 226

T

Tahoe Forest Cancer Center, 227-228

Tahoe Forest Hospital, 228

Tamoxifen, 58

Telepsychiatry, 93

Terminology. See Nomenclature standardization

Testicular Cancer Resource Center, 116, 131

Three Component Model (3CMTM), 157, 205

Thyroid Cancer Survivors’ Association, Inc., 117, 124, 131

Tobacco use

assessment/monitoring, 10, 82, 168 n.6, 169, 271, 364

cessation interventions, 15, 98-100, 271, 272, 306, 331, 338, 355

depression and, 5, 57

mortality, 54

motivation to quit/use, 57, 60, 61

as outcome measure, 271

research needs, 331

screening for, 168 n.6

Toronto Informational Needs Questionnaire-Breast Cancer, 180-181, 189

Transportation for patients and families

grants and services, 7, 33-34, 39, 136, 194, 260

and illness management, 55

need for, 3, 4-5, 39, 55, 102

Turning Point: The Center for Hope and Healing, 226-227

U

Ulman Cancer Fund for Young Adults, 131

University of Louisiana, 96 n.6

University of Pennsylvania, 318

University of Pittsburgh, 318

University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, 236

URAC (Utilization Review Accreditation Committee), 13, 18, 277, 340

U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), 291-292

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 164

US Too, 89, 117, 124, 131

V

Veterans Health Administration, 263

Employee Education System, 243

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2008. Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11993.
×

National Cancer Strategy, 200

National Symposium on Clinician-Patient Communication, 245

W

Washington State University, 243

Weight reduction, 98, 100, 102

Weight Watchers, 100

Wellness Community, 89, 125, 132, 223-224, 229, 230, 232, 236, 373, 385

West Clinic, 224-225

Wings Cancer Foundation, 224

Women’s Cancer Network, 117, 132

Women’s Healthy Eating & Living Study, 100

Women’s Intervention Nutrition Study (WINS), 100

Workforce.

See also Education and training in biopsychosocial approaches;

Health care providers

forecasting supply, 387-388

licensed providers, 284-285

nonphysician providers, 285-287

size and diversity, 6, 108-109, 283, 284-288

volunteer and peer support component, 284, 287

Workforce Development Collaborative on Psychosocial Care During Chronic Medical Illness, 14, 18, 320, 321

WyJoCARE, 226

Y

Y-ME National Breast Cancer Organization, Inc., 117, 125, 132, 138

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Cancer care today often provides state-of-the-science biomedical treatment, but fails to address the psychological and social (psychosocial) problems associated with the illness. This failure can compromise the effectiveness of health care and thereby adversely affect the health of cancer patients. Psychological and social problems created or exacerbated by cancer--including depression and other emotional problems; lack of information or skills needed to manage the illness; lack of transportation or other resources; and disruptions in work, school, and family life--cause additional suffering, weaken adherence to prescribed treatments, and threaten patients' return to health.

Today, it is not possible to deliver high-quality cancer care without using existing approaches, tools, and resources to address patients' psychosocial health needs. All patients with cancer and their families should expect and receive cancer care that ensures the provision of appropriate psychosocial health services.

Cancer Care for the Whole Patient recommends actions that oncology providers, health policy makers, educators, health insurers, health planners, researchers and research sponsors, and consumer advocates should undertake to ensure that this standard is met.

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