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Appendix B Biographical Sketches of Principals David M. Altshuler, Ph.D., M.D., is a clinical endocrinologist and human geneticist whose laboratory aims to characterize and catalogue patterns of human genetic variation and, by applying this information, better under- stand the inherited contribution to common diseases. He was a leader in the SNP Consortium and International HapMap Consortium, public-private partnerships that created genome-wide maps of human genetic diversity that now guide the design and interpretation of genetic association studies. His research has contributed to identifying the role of common genetic vari- ants in type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, age-related macular degeneration, and systemic lupus erythematosis. Dr. Altshuler is a Distinguished Clinical Scientist of the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation and a Clinical Scholar in Translational Research of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund. He is a member of the American Society of Clinical Investigation, and serves on advisory boards at the National Institutes of Health, Doris Duke Charitable Founda- tion, and the Wellcome Trust as well as editorial boards of Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, Current Opinions in Genetics & De- velopment, and Science Magazine (Board of Reviewing Editors). Marc Boutin, Esq., is the Executive Vice President at the National Health Council, an umbrella organization representing approximately 100 million people with chronic conditions. The Council promotes health care for all people, the importance of medical research, and the role of patient-based groups. Throughout Mr. Boutinâs career, he has been highly involved in health advocacy, policy, and legislation. He has designed and directed numerous strategies for issues ranging from access to health care to can- 177
178 EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE cer prevention. Before joining the Council, Mr. Boutin served as the Vice President of Government Relations and Advocacy at the American Cancer Society for New England and was a faculty member at Tufts University Medical School. In addition to senior government relations positions at Easter Seals and the Massachusetts Association of Health Boards, he was a civil rights litigator. Denis A. Cortese, M.D., is President and CEO of Mayo Clinic, chair of the Mayo Clinic Board of Governors, and a member of the Board of Trustees. He is a professor of medicine and a former director of the Pulmonary Dis- ease subspecialty training program. Dr. Cortese was a chair of the Clinical Practice and a member of the Board of Governors in Rochester before moving to Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida, in 1993. From 1999 to 2002 he served as CEO of Mayo Clinic and Chair of the Board of Directors at St. Lukeâs Hospital, both in Jacksonville. Dr. Cortese relocated back to Rochester and assumed his current position in February 2003. His major research interests have been in interventional bronchoscopy, including ap- propriate use of photodynamic therapy, endobronchial laser therapy, and endobronchial stents. He is a former president of the International Photo- dynamic Association, a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and chair of the Roundtable on Evidence-Based Medicine. Dr. Cortese received the Ellis Island Award in 2007. Molly J. Coye, M.D., M.P.H., is Founder and CEO of the Health Technol- ogy Center (HealthTech), a non-profit education and research organization established in 2000 to advance the use of beneficial technologies in promot- ing healthier people and communities. Dr. Coye has extensive experience in both the public and private sectors having served as Commissioner of Health for the State of New Jersey and Director of the California Depart- ment of Health Services, in addition to heading the Division of Public Health at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, leading marketing and product development for interactive health communication and disease management at HealthDesk Corp, serving as Executive Vice President for the Good Samaritan Health System, and directing the Lewin Groupâs West Coast office. She is on the Board of Trustees of the American Hospital Association, Aetna, Inc., and the Program for Appropriate Tech- nology in Health. She was also a founding board member of the California Endowment, the largest private healthcare philanthropy in California. Harvey V. Fineberg, M.D., Ph.D., is President of the Institute of Medicine. He served as Provost of Harvard University from 1997 to 2001, following 13 years as Dean of the Harvard School of Public Health. He has devoted most of his academic career to the fields of health policy and medical deci-
APPENDIX B 179 sion making. His past research has focused on the process of policy devel- opment and implementation, assessment of medical technology, evaluation and use of vaccines, and dissemination of medical innovations. Dr. Fineberg helped found and served as president of the Society for Medical Decision Making and also served as consultant to the World Health Organization. At the IOM, he has chaired and served on a number of panels dealing with health policy issues, ranging from AIDS to new medical technology. He also served as a member of the Public Health Council of Â Massachusetts (1976-1979), as chairman of the Health Care Technology Study Section of the National Center for Health Services Research (1982-1985), and as president of the Association of Schools of Public Health (1995-1996). Dr. Fineberg is co-author of the books Clinical Decision Analysis, Innovators in Physician Education, and The Epidemic That Never Was, an analysis of the controversial federal immunization program against swine flu in 1976. He has co-edited several books on such diverse topics as AIDS prevention, vaccine safety, and understanding risk in society. He has also authored numerous articles published in professional journals. Dr. Fineberg is the recipient of several honorary degrees and the Joseph W. Mountin Prize from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He earned his bachelorâs and doctoral degrees from Harvard University. Elliott S. Fisher, M.D., M.P.H., is Professor of Medicine and Community and Family Medicine at Dartmouth Medical School and Director of the Center for Healthcare Research and Reform within the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice. At Dartmouth, he was a founding director and is now Senior Associate of the VA Outcomes Group, teaches in the Clinical Evaluative Sciences Masterâs program, and is the Principle Investigator for the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care. His research focuses on exploring the causes of the two-fold differences in spending observed across U.S. regions and healthcare systemsâand the consequences of these variations for health and health care. Dr. Fisherâs work demonstrating that higher-spending regions and health systems do not achieve better outcomes or quality has had a major impact on current thinking about health care and healthcare reform. He has served on the National Advisory Council of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and was recently elected to the IOM. George C. Halvorson was named Chairman and CEO of Kaiser Founda- tion Health Plan, Inc. and Kaiser Foundation Hospitals, headquartered in Â Oakland, California, in March 2002. He has more than 30 years of healthcare management experience and was formerly president and CEO of HealthPartners, headquartered in Minneapolis. He is the author of widely acclaimed books on the U.S. healthcare system including the Ârecently
180 EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE released Health Care Reform Now! Mr. Halvorson also wrote Strong Medicine and Epidemic of Care, which Warren Buffet said was âby far the clearest explanation of how we have gotten to where we are in health care, and what is likely to happen.â He serves on a number of boards, includ- ing those of Americaâs Health Insurance Plans, where he is the 2007-2008 chairman, and the Alliance of Community Health Plans. He is the current president of the Board of Directors for the International Federation of Health Plans and a member of the Harvard Kennedy School Healthcare Delivery Policy Group. Mr. Halvorson also serves on the IOM Roundtable on Evidence-Based Medicine and on the Commonwealth Fund Commission on a High Performance Health System. Robert Hayward, M.D., M.P.H., F.R.C.P.C., is a practicing general internist, and a leading expert in health informatics and clinical decision support. He is Assistant Dean, Health Informatics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, at the University of Alberta and Director of the Centre for Health Evidence, where he leads a team of health information specialists and healthcare practitioners to develop information tools that bring evidence to the bedside for improved healthcare decision making. He serves a number of initiatives, including lead faculty for both SEARCH Canada (information and evidence literacy for middle management) and CHSRF EXTRA (information literacy for healthcare executives), the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group, and the Usersâ Guides to the Medical Literature. He is editor of JAMAâs Users Guides Interactive and has established industry-academic bridges to bring ideas, expertise, and products from research to implementation. Dr. Haywardâs current research initiatives include (a) appraisal and assess- ment of decision support, (b) presentation of health evidence to clinicians at the point of care, (c) appraisal and implementation of clinical practice guidelines, and (d) virtual learning communities. John K. Iglehart has held two editorial leadership positions in the world of health policy making for the last 25 years. He has been editor of Health Affairs, a bimonthly policy journal that he founded in 1981 under the aegis of Project HOPE, a not-for-profit international health education organiza- tion. Health Affairs, a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal, has made its mark by translating health services research and analysis into content that is more accessible to members of Congress and other key participants in federal and state health policy making. Over this same period, Iglehart also has served as national correspondent of The New England Journal of Medicine, for which he has written more than 100 essays called Health Policy Reports. Before 1981, he served for 2 years as a vice president of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and director of its Washington, D.C., office.
APPENDIX B 181 Iglehart held a variety of editorial positions from 1969 to 1979, including the editorship of National Journal, a privately published weekly on federal policy making. He is a member of the IOM and served on its Governing Council (1985-1991); is an elected member of the National Academy of Social Insurance; and serves on the Advisory Board of the National Institute for Health Care Management and the Editorial Board of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Michael M. E. Johns, M.D., assumed the post of Chancellor for Emory University on October 1, 2007. Prior to that, starting in 1996, Dr. Johns served as Executive Vice President for Health Affairs; CEO, The Robert W. Woodruff Health Sciences Center; Chairman of the Board, Emory Health- care; Co-Chairman of the Board, EHCA, LLC; and Professor, Department of Otolaryngology, Emory University School of Medicine. As leader of the health sciences and Emory Healthcare for 11 years, Dr. Johns engineered the transformation of the Health Sciences Center into one of the nationâs pre-eminent centers in education, research, and patient care. From 1990 to 1996, he was Dean of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and Vice President of the Medical Faculty at Johns Hopkins University, after having served, beginning in 1984, as professor and chair of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and as Associate Dean for Clinical Affairs. He is a mem- ber of the IOM and has served on many IOM committees and as both a member and Vice Chair of the IOMâs Council. Dr. Johns also is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Mark B. McClellan, M.D., Ph.D., a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institu- tion, became the Director of its Engelberg Center for Healthcare Reform in July 2007. The Center will study ways to provide practical solutions for access, quality, and financing challenges facing the U.S. healthcare system. Dr. McClellan also is the Leonard D. Schaeffer Chair in Health Policy ÂStudies. He has a highly distinguished record in public service and in academic research. He served as administrator for the Centers for Medi- care and Medicaid Services (2004-2006), commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (2002-2004), member of the Presidentâs Council of Economic Advisers, and senior director for health care policy at the White House (2001-2002). In these positions, he developed and implemented m Â ajor reforms in health policy. In the Clinton administration, Dr. McClellan was deputy assistant secretary of the Treasury for economic policy (1998- 1999), supervising economic analysis and policy development on a range of domestic policy issues. He is a member of the IOM, a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research, and a Visiting Scholar at the American Enterprise Institute.
182 EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE J. Michael McGinnis, M.D., M.P.P., is a Senior Scholar at the IOM, leading its initiative on evidence-based medicine. From 1999 to 2005, he served as Senior Vice President and founding Director of the Health Group, and as Counselor to the President, at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF). From 1977 to 1995, he held continuous appointment as Assistant Surgeon General, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health, and founding Director, Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, through the Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton Administrations. Programs and policies cre- ated and launched at his initiative include the Healthy People process on national health objectives, now in its third decade; the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, now in its fourth iteration; the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (with USDA), now in its sixth edition; the RWJF Health & So- ciety Scholars Program; the RWJF Young Epidemiology Scholars Program; and the RWJF Active Living family of programs. His international service includes appointments as Chair of the World Bank/European Commis- sion Task Force on post-war reconstruction of the health sector in Bosnia (1995-1996) and State Coordinator for the World Health Organization smallpox eradication program in Uttar Pradesh, India (1974-1975). He is an elected member of the IOM, Fellow of the American College of Epi- demiology, and Fellow of the American College of Preventive Medicine. Current and recent Board memberships include the Nemours Foundation Board of Directors, the IOM Committee on Childrenâs Food Marketing (Chair); the NIH State-of-the-Science Panel on Multivitamins in Chronic Disease Prevention (Chair); the Health Professionals Roundtable on Preven- tive Services (Chair); the FDA Food Advisory Committee/ÂSubcommittee on Nutrition; and the Board of the United Way of the National Capital Area (Chair, Resource Development). Elizabeth G. Nabel, M.D., is Director of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute at the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Nabel oversees an extensive national research portfolio to prevent, diagnose, and treat heart, lung, and blood diseases. As a cardiovascular physician-scientist, she has made substantial contributions to the understanding of the mo- lecular genetics of vascular diseases, and has delineated the mechanisms by which cell cycle and growth factor proteins regulate the proliferation of vascular cells in blood vessels, a process important for the development of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. Her vascular biology laboratory has characterized the role of cell cycle inhibitors on vascular proliferation and inflammation, and this research has opened up new av- enues for therapeutic targets in the vasculature. More recently, she has studied the genomics of cardiovascular disease including the premature aging syndrome, Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome. An elected mem- ber of the American Society for Clinical Investigation and the Association
APPENDIX B 183 of American Physicians, Dr. Nabel has received numerous awards for her scientific accomplishments and several honorary degrees. She is a member of the IOM and serves on its governing Council. Peter Neupert is Corporate Vice President for the Health Solutions Group at Microsoft Corp. and is responsible for Microsoftâs collaboration with the healthcare ecosystem to address global infrastructure issues of significant scale. Under his strategic direction, the Health Solutions Group is devel- oping applications and solutions for clinical and business requirements of healthcare professionals in the enterprise, and which enable improved per- sonal health management for consumers. Neupert served as president and chief executive officer of Drugstore.com Inc. (1998-2001), and as chairman of the board of directors (1999-2004). He led Drugstore.com to become a top online retail store and information site for health, wellness, beauty, and pharmacy products. He served on President Bushâs Information Tech- nology Advisory Committee (2003-2005) where he co-chaired the Health Information Technology subcommittee and helped drive the 2004 report Revolutionizing Health Care Through Information Technology. In 2000, he received an Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year award for his work at Drugstore.com. Neupert is a member of the IOM Roundtable on Evidence- Based Medicine and sits on the Pacific Health Summit Advisory Board, as well as the boards of infiLearn.com and Cranium, Inc. Peter Orszag, Ph.D., is Director of the Congressional Budget Office. Previ- ously, he was the Joseph A. Penchman Senior Fellow and Deputy Director of Economic Studies at the Brookings Institution. While at Brookings, he also served as Director of the Hamilton Project, which provides a plat- form for scholars to offer proposals for promoting broad-based economic growth; Director of the Retirement Security Project, which focuses on promoting retirement security; and Co-Director of the Tax Policy Center, a joint venture with the Urban Institute providing analysis of tax issues. In 1997 and 1998, Dr. Orszag served as Special Assistant to the president for Economic Policy and Senior Economic Adviser at the National Economic Council. In 1995 and 1996, he was Senior Adviser and Senior Economist at the Presidentâs Council of Economic Advisers. His main areas of research have been pensions, Social Security, budget policy, higher education policy, homeland security, macroeconomics, and tax policyâtopics on which he has published widely in academic journals. Steven M. Paul, M.D., is Executive Vice President, Science and Technol- ogy, and President, Lilly Research Laboratories of Eli Lilly and Company. Dr. Paulâs research activities have established an important role for specific neurotransmitter receptors in mediating the central actions of various neuroÂ
184 EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE active drugs. Among his many contributions has been the delineation of the role of receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in mediating the behavioral effects of benzodiazepines, barbiturates, short-chain alcohols, as well as a novel class of neuroactive steroids. He is currently working on new therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer disease and his laboratory has recently discovered a novel monoclonal antibody directed at the amyloid Î²- peptide which is currently in clinical development as a potential therapy for Alzheimer disease. Dr. Paul has authored or co-authored over 500 Âpapers and invited book chapters. He serves on the editorial boards of several sci- entific journals and has served on several NIH extramural and intramural committees. Dr. Paul is a member of the executive committee of PhRMAâs Science and Regulatory committee and is currently its chairperson. He is a member of the IOM and served on its Board on Neuroscience and Behavior. He is a member of various other professional and honorary societies and is a recipient of many scientific honors. Eric D. Peterson, M.D., M.P.H., is a Professor of Medicine in the Division of Cardiology and the Associate Vice Chair for Quality at Duke University Medical Center. He is also an Associate Director and Director of Cardio- vascular Research at the Duke Clinical Research Institute. Dr. Peterson is a leader in quality research, with over 255 peer-reviewed publications in the field. He is also the Principal Investigator for the Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Cardiac Surgery Database, Data Coordinating Center for both the American College of Cardiologyâs National Cardiac Database and the American Heart Associationâs (AHAâs) Get With the Guidelines Data. He participates on multiple national committees including Chair of the AHAâs Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Work- ing Group, the Veterans Administrationâs Quality Enhancement Research Initiative Executive Committee, the National Quality Forum Technical Advisory Panel for Priorities, Goals and a Measurement Framework: Ef- ficiency and Episodes of Care, and the IOM Committee on Redesigning Insurance Benefits, Provider Payments, and Accountability Programs to Promote Quality of Health Care Delivery. Dr. Peterson is also a Contribut- ing Editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Michael E. Porter, Ph.D., is the Bishop William Lawrence University Profes- sor at Harvard Business School. A leading authority on competitive strategy and the competitiveness of nations and regions, his work is recognized in governments, corporations, non-profits, and academic circles across the globe. Professor Porterâs core field is competition and strategy, and this remains the focus of his research. His ideas have also redefined think- ing about competitiveness, economic development, economically distressed a Â reas, and the role of corporations in society. He is the author of 17 books
APPENDIX B 185 and Ânumerous articles. Professor Porter has recently devoted considerable attention to understanding and addressing the problems in health care evident in the United States and abroad. His book, Redefining Health Care (with Elizabeth Teisberg), develops a new framework for understanding how to transform the value delivered by the healthcare system. John W. Rowe, M.D., is Professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. From 2000 until his retirement in late 2006, he served as Chairman and CEO of Aetna, Inc., one of the nations leading healthcare and related benefits organizations. From 1998 to 2000, Dr. Rowe served as President and CEO of Mount Sinai NYU Health, one of the nations largest academic health care organizations. From 1988 to 1998, prior to the Mount Sinai- NYU Health merger, he was President of the Mount Sinai Hospital and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. Before joining Mount Sinai, Dr. Rowe was a Professor of Medicine and the founding Director of the Division on Aging at the Harvard Medical School as well as Chief of Gerontology at Bostonâs Beth Israel Hospital. He has authored over 200 scientific publications, mostly on the physiology of the aging process, including a leading textbook of geriatric medicine, in addition to more recent publications on healthcare policy. He has received numerous honors and awards for his research and health policy efforts regarding care of the elderly. Currently, Dr. Rowe leads the MacArthur Foundationâs Initiative on An Aging Society. A member of the IOM, he also chairs its Committee on the Future of Health Care Workforce for Older Americans. Donna E. Shalala, Ph.D., is Professor of Political Science and president of the University of Miami. She has 25 years of experience as an accom- plished scholar, teacher, and administrator. In 1993, President Clinton appointed her U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) where she served for eight years, becoming the longest serving HHS Secretary in U.S. history. In that position, she directed the welfare reform process, made health insurance available to 3.33 million children through the approval of the State Childrenâs Health Insurance Program, raised child immunization rates, led major reforms of the Food and Drug Adminis- trationâs drug approval process and food safety system, revitalized the NIH, and directed a major management and policy reform of Medicare. P Â resident Shalala has numerous honorary degrees and a host of other honors. She is a director of Gannett Co., Inc.; UnitedHealth Group, Inc.; and the Lennar Corporation. She also serves as a Trustee of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation and is a member of the IOM and previously served on its governing Council.
186 EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE William W. Stead, M.D., is Associate Vice Chancellor for Strategy and Transformation and Director of the Informatics Center at Vanderbilt Uni- versity. In this role, he functions as Chief Information Architect for the University. As an undergraduate at Duke University (1960s), he was a member of the team that developed the Cardiology Databank, one of the first clinical epidemiology projects to change practice by linking outcomes to process. As a faculty member in Nephrology, he was the physician in the physician-engineer partnership that developed the Medical Record, one of the first practical computer-based patient record systems. He helped Duke build one of the first patient-centered hospital information systems and led two prominent academic health centers at Duke (1980s) and Vanderbilt (1990s), through both planning and implementation phases of large-scale integrated advanced Information Management Systems Projects. His Van- derbilt team created informatics techniques for linking information into clinical workflow, overcame the barriers to technology adoption, and re- duced the cost and time required to implement enterprise-wide information technology infrastructure. Dr. Stead is Founding Fellow of the American College of Medical Informatics and American Institute for Engineering in Biology and Medicine, and an elected member of the IOM and the Ameri- can Clinical and Climatological Association.