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Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 89 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. www.nap.edu
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Con- gress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its cor- porate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. Any opinions expressed in this memoir are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 978-0-309-11372-4 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 FIFTH STREET , N . W . WASHINGTON , D . C . 20001 COPYRIGHT 2007 BY THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ALL RIGHTS RESERVED PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
CONTENTS PREFACE vii ROBERT WAYNE ALLARD 3 BY MICHAEL T. CLEGG ROBERT JOHN BRAIDWOOD 23 BY PATTY JO WATSON HARMON CRAIG 45 BY KARL K. TUREKIAN GEORGE KELSO DAVIS 59 BY ROBERT JOHN COUSINS VINCENT GASTON DETHIER 77 BY ALAN GELPERIN, JOHN G. HILDEBRAND, AND THOMAS EISNER WALTER GORDY 97 BY FRANK C. DE LUCIA AND BRENDA P. WINNEWISSER KENNETH LOCKE HALE 115 BY MORRIS HALLE AND NORVIN RICHARDS v
vi CONTENTS CHARLES F. HOCKETT 151 BY JAMES W. GAIR HENRY M. HOENIGSWALD 181 BY GEORGE CARDONA WILLIAM WHITE HOWELLS 207 BY JONATHAN FRIEDLAENDER, WITH DAVID PILBEAM, DANIEL HRDY, EUGENE GILES, AND ROGER GREEN HENRY G. KUNKEL 225 BY JACOB B. NATVIG AND J. DONALD CAPRA HALLAM LEONARD MOVIUS JR. 243 BY HARVEY M. BRICKER WILLIAM DUWAYNE NEFF 263 BY JAY M. GOLDBERG AND NELSON Y.-S. KIANG DONALD OSCAR PEDERSON 285 BY DAVID A. HODGES AND A. RICHARD NEWTON JAMES MATHER SPRAGUE 307 BY ALAN C. ROSENQUIST AND S. MURRAY SHERMAN OWSEI TEMKIN 325 BY SAMUEL H. GREENBLATT JOHN GORDON TORREY 345 BY LEWIS FELDMAN AND ALISON BERRY JEROME VINOGRAD 357 BY ROBERT L. SINSHEIMER AARON CLEMENT WATERS 369 BY CLIFFORD A. HOPSON FRED LAWRENCE WHIPPLE 393 BY GEORGE FIELD
PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sci- ences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scien- tists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academyâs goal is to work toward in- creasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibli- ographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subjectâs work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sci- ences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in Americaâan important part of our nationâs contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. JOHN I. BRAUMAN Home Secretary vii