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B Reprinted Workshop Report Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: A Workshop Report (Na- tional Research Council, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2008), which summarizes the National Research Council workshop âOptions to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraftâ held in June 2007 in Washington, D.C., is reprinted here in its entirety. Note that in the reprinted reportâs table of contents, the page numbers added in italic reflect the pagination that applies for inclusion in the current report, rather than the pages numbers of the original report. The original report is available online at http://www.nap. edu/catalog.php?record_id=12033. 82
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 83 Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft A Workshop Report Panel on Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft Space Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
84 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS â 500 Fifth Street, N.W. â Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study is based on work supported by Contract NNH06CE15B between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Contract DG133R07SE1940 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Commerceâs National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- tion. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:â 978-0-309-11276-5 International Standard Book Number-10:â 0-309-11276-1 Copies of this report are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Research Council The Keck Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 85 The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
86 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT OTHER REPORTS OF THE SPACE STUDIES BOARD Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (SSB, 2008) Science Opportunities Enabled by NASAâs Constellation System: Interim Report (SSB with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board [ASEB], 2008) Space Science and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Summary of a Workshop (SSB, 2008) United States Civil Space Policy: Summary of a Workshop (SSB with ASEB, 2008) Workshop Series on Issues in Space Science and Technology: Summary of Space and Earth Science Issues from the Workshop on U.S. Civil Space Policy (SSB, 2008) Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (2007) An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars (SSB with the Board on Life Sciences [BLS], 2007) Building a Better NASA Workforce: Meeting the Workforce Needs for the National Vision for Space Exploration (SSB with ASEB, 2007) Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop (2007) Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (2007) Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (SSB with the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, 2007) Grading NASAâs Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Review (2007) The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems (SSB with BLS, 2007) NASAâs Beyond Einstein Program: An Architecture for Implementation (SSB with the Board on Physics and Astronomy [BPA], 2007) A Performance Assessment of NASAâs Astrophysics Program (SSB with BPA, 2007) Portals to the Universe: The NASA Astronomy Science Centers (2007) The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (2007) An Assessment of Balance in NASAâs Science Programs (2006) Assessment of NASAâs Mars Architecture 2007-2016 (2006) Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Venus Missions: Letter Report (2006) Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Solar-Terrestrial Research: Report of a Workshop (2006) Issues Affecting the Future of the U.S. Space Science and Engineering Workforce: Interim Report (SSB with ASEB, 2006) Review of NASAâs 2006 Draft Science Plan: Letter Report (2006) The Scientific Context for Exploration of the MoonâInterim Report (2006) Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration (2006) Limited copies of these reports are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Research Council The Keck Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001 (202) firstname.lastname@example.org www.nationalacademies.org/ssb/ssb.html NOTE: These reports are listed according to year of approval for release, which in some cases precedes the year of publication.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 87 PANEL ON OPTIONS TO ENSURE THE CLIMATE RECORD FROM THE NPOESS AND GOES-R SPACECRAFT ANTONIO J. BUSALACCHI, JR., University of Maryland, Chair PHILIP E. ARDANUY, Raytheon Information Solutions JUDITH A. CURRY, Georgia Institute of Technology JUDITH L. LEAN, Naval Research Laboratory BERRIEN MOORE III, University of New Hampshire JAY S. PEARLMAN, The Boeing Company JAMES F.W. PURDOM, Colorado State University CHRISTOPHER S. VELDEN, University of Wisconsin-Madison THOMAS H. VONDER HAAR, Colorado State University FRANK J. WENTZ, Remote Sensing Systems Consultant STACEY W. BOLAND, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Staff ARTHUR A. CHARO, Study Director, Space Studies Board CURTIS H. MARSHALL, Program Officer, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate THERESA M. FISHER, Program Associate, Space Studies Board CATHERINE A. GRUBER, Assistant Editor, Space Studies Board
88 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT SPACE STUDIES BOARD LENNARD A. FISK, University of Michigan, Chair A. THOMAS YOUNG, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired), Vice Chair DANIEL N. BAKER, University of Colorado STEVEN J. BATTEL, Battel Engineering CHARLES L. BENNETT, Johns Hopkins University ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL, Los Alamos National Laboratory ALAN DRESSLER, The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution JACK D. FELLOWS, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research FIONA A. HARRISON, California Institute of Technology TAMARA E. JERNIGAN, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory KLAUS KEIL, University of Hawaii MOLLY MACAULEY, Resources for the Future BERRIEN MOORE III, University of New Hampshire KENNETH H. NEALSON, University of Southern California JAMES PAWELCZYK, Pennsylvania State University SOROOSH SOROOSHIAN, University of California, Irvine RICHARD H. TRULY, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (retired) JOAN VERNIKOS, Thirdage, LLC JOSEPH F. VEVERKA, Cornell University WARREN M. WASHINGTON, National Center for Atmospheric Research CHARLES E. WOODWARD, University of Minnesota GARY P. ZANK, University of California, Riverside MARCIA S. SMITH, Director
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 89 Preface NPOESS, which has been driven by the imperative of reliably providing short-term weather information, is itself a union of heretofore separate civilian and military programs. . . . The same considerations of expediency and economy motivate the present attempts to add to NPOESS the goals of climate research. The technical complexities of Âcombining seemingly disparate requirements are accompanied by the programmatic complexities of forging fur- ther connections among three different agencies, with different mandates, cultures, and congressional appropriators. Yet the stakes are very high, and each agency gains significantly by finding ways to cooperate, as do the taxpayers. B Â eyond cost savings, benefits include the possibility that long-term climate observations will reveal new phenomena of interest to weather forecasters, as happened with the El NiÃ±o/Southern Oscillation. Conversely, climate researchers can often make good use of operational data. In January 2007, the National Research Councilâs (NRCâs) Earth science decadal survey committee deliv- ered to agency sponsors a prepublication version of its final report, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. However, prior to the delivery of that report, NASA and NOAA requested that additional items be added to the committeeâs statement of task. The new tasks focused on recovery of measurement capabilities, especially those related to climate research, that were lost as a result of changes in plans for the next generation of polar and geostationary environmental monitoring satellites, NPOESS and GOES-R (see Appendix A). By mutual agreement, the new tasks were to be addressed by a separate panel in a report that would draw on the results of a major workshop. Specifically, the new tasks were as follows: 1. Analyze the impact of the changes to the NPOESS program that were announced in June 2006 and changesÂ to the GOES-R series as described in the NOAA testimony to Congress on September 29, 2006. These changes included reduction in the number of planned NPOESS satellites, the deletion or descoping of particular instruments, and a delay in the planned launch of the first NPOESS satellite. In addition, recent changes to the GOES-R series resulted in deletion or descoping of instrumentation and a delay in the first spacecraft launch. The committee should give Excerpted from the Foreword to National Research Council (NRC), Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research: II. Implementation, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2000. NRC, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2007. Note that acronyms not defined in the text, especially those denoting individual instruments and missions, are defined in Appendix D.
90 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT particular attention to impacts in areas associated with climate research, other NOAA strategic goals, and related Global Earth Observation System of Systems/Integrated Earth Observation System (GEOSS/IEOS) societal benefit areas. The analysis should include discussions related to continuity of existing measurements and development of new research and operational capabilities. 2. Develop a strategy to mitigate the impact of the changes described in the item above. The committee will prioritize capabilities that were lost or placed at risk following the changes to NPOESS and the GOES-R series and present strategies to recover these capabilities. Included in this assessment will be an analysis of the capabilities of the portfolio of missions recommended in the decadal strategy to recover these capabilities, especially those related to research on Earthâs climate. The changes to the NPOESS and GOES-R programs may also offer new opportunities. The committee should provide a preliminary assessment of the risks, benefits, and costs of placingâon NPOESS, GOES-R, or on other platformsâalternative sensors to those planned for NPOESS. Finally, the committee will consider the advantages and disadvantages of relying on capabilities that may be developed by our European and Japanese partners. This workshop report, prepared by the NRCâs Panel on Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft, presents the initial response to this request. It summarizes the presentations and discussions at a June 19-21, 2007, workshop but does not necessarily reflect the consensus views of the panel or the NRC. A second report, which will include recommendations for a strategy to recover recently descoped observational and measurement capabilities, is scheduled for transmittal by January 31, 2008. The workshop, titled âOptions to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft,â was held at the National Academiesâ Keck Center in Washington, D.C. Some 100 scientists and engineers from academia, government, and industry attended the workshop, which gave participants a chance to review and com- ment on the NASA-NOAA assessments of the impacts to climate observations associated with the changes made to the NPOESS program following the June 2006 Nunn-McCurdy certification, as well as potential mitigation strategies. Participants also discussed the impact of the September 2006 cancellation of the HES instrument on GOES-R, which was to have contributed to NOAA strategic goals and to GEOSS/IEOS societal benefit areas. The workshop was divided into morning plenary sessions and afternoon breakouts. To guide breakout discus- sions, participants were given templates to be filled out during discussions. The workshop agenda is shown in Appendix B. When considering questions regarding recovery of climate observation capabilities on NPOESS, participants were asked to discuss the impacts and mitigation options associated with the June 2006 Nunn-McCurdy certifica- tion and the GOES-R descoping in terms of both the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) essential climate variables (ECVs) and related climate data records, and in terms of the sensors themselves. Participants then reviewed the options discussed in a NOAA-NASA report to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP); however, participants were also asked to consider a wider universe of mitigation options, includ- ing free flyers, formation flying, and constellations; flights of opportunity; and international partner opportunities beyond the European MetOp program. At the request of OSTP, NASA and NOAA are also performing such an analysis as part of the second phase of their study, the final results of which were not available at the time of the workshop. Their preliminary assessment is summarized in Appendix C, which reproduces the text and figures of a presentation given at the workshop. See U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science and Technology, Hearing Charter, âThe Future of NPOESS: Results of the Nunn-McCurdy Review of NOAAâs Weather Satellite Program,â June 8, 2006, available at http://gop.science.house.gov/hearings/full06/ June%208/charter.pdf. Presentations made at the April 23-24, 2007, workshop organizing meeting and presentations made at plenary sessions and notes taken on the breakout sessions at the June 19-21, 2007, workshop are available at http://www7.nationalacademies.org/ssb/SSB_NPOESS2007_ P Â resentations.html. The GCOS was established in 1992 to ensure that the observations and information needed to address climate-related issues are obtained and made available to all potential users. It is co-sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, the United Nations Environment Programme, and the International Council for Science. For information on the GCOS ECVs, see http://www.wmo.ch/pages/prog/gcos/index.php?name=essentialvariables. NOAA-NASA, âImpacts of NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification on Joint NASA-NOAA Climate Goals,â draft white paper, January 8, 2007.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 91 Workshop participants were asked to consider how the following programs will or could play into a mitigation strategy in the period before and after NPOESS launches:Â 1. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP), 2. Extended-phase operations of instruments on the Earth Observing System spacecraft, and 3. Implementation of the recommendations made in the decadal survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space.10 Of the three items above, consideration of the potential impact of the decadal survey dominated participant discussions. In part, this emphasis resulted from recognition that with limited funds, recovery strategies, especially for NPOESS, would effectively compete with the new starts recommended in the decadal survey. In addition, the measurement capabilities of sensors on some of the missions recommended in the decadal survey overlap with those recently lost in the descoped NPOESS and GOES-R programs. 11 The organization of this report follows loosely that of the workshop agenda (Appendix B), which was designed to have participants consider the impact of changes to the NPOESS and GOES-R program according to the impact on the measurement of ECVs (breakout sessions on day 1 of the workshop) and on the specific sensors that con- stituted the pre-Nunn-McCurdy NPOESS and the pre-descoped GOES-R program baselines (breakout sessions on day 2 of the workshop). The panel recognized that there would be overlap in these discussions but thought it useful for participants to consider the broader issues of ECV measurement and development of climate data records apart from specific concerns about NPOESS sensors. Indeed, many workshop participants noted repeatedly that ensuring the measurement(s) of a particular climate variable(s) was only a necessary first step toward enabling the creation of time series of measurements of sufficient length, consistency, and continuity to determine climate variability and changeâthat is, to generate climate data records. 12 In closing, the panel notes with deep regret the sudden death of Anthony Hollingsworth, from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, on July 29, 2007. Tony was a world-class meteorologist and, as noted in the many tributes that followed his passing, a key figure in fostering international collaborations among EUMETSAT, the European Space Agency, and space agencies worldwide. At the time of his death, Tony was heading Europeâs GEMS environmental monitoring project; he also was advising the panel on the international dimensions of mitigation options for NPOESS. The National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) is a joint mission involving NASA and the NPOESS Integrated Program Office. See http://jointmission.gsfc.nasa.gov/. See http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/eos_homepage/description.php. 10NRC, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2007. 11For descriptions of the decadal survey missions, see Chapter 4 of NRC, Earth Science and Applications from Space, 2007. For discussions of decadal survey missions and NPOESS, see Chapter 2 and Tables 2.4 and 2.5 in that report. 12NRC, Climate Data Records from Environmental Satellites: Interim Report, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2004.
92 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Councilâs Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Eric J. Barron, University of Texas, Craig Donlon, Hadley Centre, Met Office, United Kingdom, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, University of Washington, Ralph F. Milliff, Colorado Research Associates, and R. Keith Raney, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Byron D. Tapley, University of Texas at Austin. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring panel and the institution.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 93 Contents SUMMARY 1, 95 1 IMPLICATIONS OF THE NPOESS NUNN-McCURDY CERTIFICATION 4, 98 AND THE DESCOPING OF GOES-R HES Cancellation and GOES-R, 5, 99 The NASA-NOAA Study, 8, 102 2 SUMMARY OF THE WORKSHOP SESSIONS 9, 103 Workshop SummaryâDay 1, 9, 103 Consideration of NPOESS and GOES-R, Priority Measurements for ECVsâBreakout Sessions, 10, 104 Climate Data Records Related to Observations of the Atmosphere, 10, 104 Climate Data Records Related to Observations of the Oceans, 13, 107 Climate Data Records Related to Observations of the Land, 16, 110 Workshop SummaryâDay 2, 18, 112 Breakout Sessions, 18, 112 Radiation Sensor Measurements, 18, 112 Visible and Infrared Imager and Sounder Measurements, 23, 117 Microwave Sensor Measurements, 27, 121 Geostationary Hyperspectral Measurements, 34, 129 Workshop SummaryâDay 3, 37, 131 Plenary Session on International Considerations, 37, 131 Breakout Sessions, 38, 133 Panel to Assess NASA-NOAA Mitigation Options, 39, 133 Panel on Issues Related to CDR Development, 39, 136 3 CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES 43, 137 Synergy Versus Competition with Decadal Survey, 43, 137 Continuity of Long-Term Records Versus New Measurements, 43, 137 Measurement Teams, 44, 138
94 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT Calibration and Characterization (Pre-, In-, Post-flight), 44, 138 Formation Flying, 44, 138 Stability Requirements Particular to Climate Studies, 44, 138 Integration on NPOESS Versus Free Flyers: Large Versus Small Programs, 44, 138 Structural Issues Associated with Procurement of Sensors That Support Climate Science, 45, 139 Lack of an Enterprise View, 45, 139 Proprietary Nature of Industry Contracts, 46, 140 Minimal Insight into Algorithm Development, 46, 140 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 47, 141 B Workshop Agenda 48, 142 C Mitigation Approaches Presented by NASA and NOAA at the Workshop 53, 147 D Abbreviations and Acronyms 65, 159 E Biographical Sketches of Panel Members 70, 164 Note that in the reprinted reportâs table of contents, the page numbers added in italic reflect the pagination that applies for inclusion in the current report, rather than the pages numbers of the original report. The original report is available online at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12033.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 95 Summary The nationâs next-generation National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) was created by Presidential Decision Directive/National Science and Technology Council (NSTC)-2 of May 5, 1994, whereby the military and civil meteorological programs were merged into a single program. Within NPOESS, NOAA is responsible for satellite operations, the Department of Defense is responsible for major acquisitions, and NASA is responsible for the development and infusion of new technologies. In 2000, the NPOESS program anticipated purchasing six satellites for $6.5 billion, with a first launch in 2008. By November 2005, however, it became apparent that NPOESS would overrun its cost estimates by at least 25 percent, triggering the so-called Nunn-McCurdy review by the Department of Defense. As a result of the June 2006 Nunn-McCurdy certification of NPOESS, the planned acquisition of six spacecraft was reduced to four, the launch of the first spacecraft was delayed until 2013, and several sensors were canceled or descoped in capability as the program was refocused on âcoreâ requirements related to the acquisition of data to support numerical weather prediction. âSecondaryâ sensors that would provide crucial continuity to some long-term climate records, as well as other sensors that would have provided new measurement capabilities, are not funded in the new NPOESS program. Costs for NOAAâs next generation of geostationary weather satellites, GOES-R, have also risen dramatically, and late last year NOAA canceled plans to incorporate a key instrument on the spacecraftâHES (Hyperspectral Environmental Suite). Note that acronyms not defined in the text, especially those denoting individual instruments and missions, are defined in Appendix D. SeeU.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, Hearing Charter, âThe Future of NPOESS: Results of the Nunn-McCurdy Re- view of NOAAâs Weather Satellite Program,â June 8, 2006, available at http://gop.science.house.gov/hearings/full06/June%208/charter.pdf. In congressional testimony, the NOAA administrator stated, âAlthough the primary mission for NPOESS is to provide data for weather forecasting, many of the core sensors mentioned above and some of the secondary sensors would provide some additional climate and space weather observations. Unfortunately, difficult choices and trade-offs had to be made and the cost to procure these sensors is not included in the certified program; however, the program will plan for and fund the integration of these sensors on the spacecraft. Some of these sensors provide continuity to certain long-term climate records while other sensors would provide new data. . . . We specifically decided that the NPOESS spacecraft will be built with the capability to house all of the sensors and the program budget will include the dollars to integrate them on the spacecraft. This decision was made because the [executive committee] agreed any additional funding gained through contract renegotia- tion or in unutilized management reserve would be used to procure these secondary sensors.â Written testimony of Vice Admiral Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr. (U.S. Navy, ret.), Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and NOAA Administrator, âOversight Hearing on the Future of NPOESS: Results of the Nunn-McCurdy Review of NOAAâs Weather Satellite Program,â before the Committee on Science, U.S. House of Representatives, June 8, 2006.
96 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT On June 19-21, 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) held a workshop, âOptions to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft,â in Washington, D.C., to review options to recover measurement capabilities, especially those related to climate research, that were lost as a result of the Nunn-McCurdy actions and the cancellation of the HES sensor on GOES-R. Some 100 scientists and engineers from academia, government, and industry attended the workshop, which gave participants a chance to review and comment on a mitigation plan developed by NASA-NOAA as well as to explore options that were not included in the NASA-NOAA study. This workshop report summarizes those discussions; by design, it does not present findings or recommendations. A follow-on study that will develop consensus findings and recommendations is underway; a report from that study is scheduled for transmittal on January 31, 2008. Subjects that were raised repeatedly by workshop participants, and that will be explored in more detail in the follow-on NRC study, include: â¢ Preservation of long-term climate records. Many participants noted that the demanifesting of climate s Â ensors from NPOESS has placed many long-term climate records at risk, including multidecadal records of total solar irradiance, Earth radiation budget, sea surface temperature, and sea ice extent. Some of these most fundamental data records require observational overlap to retain their value and require immediate attention to ensure their continuation. To ensure continuity of critical long-term climate measurements, many participants also stressed the need to pursueÂ international partnerships and, when feasible, the leveraging of foreign Earth observa- tion missions. â¢ The potential benefits of relatively minor and low-cost changes to the NPOESS program. In several cases, a workshop participant suggested small nonhardware changes to NPOESS that could address areas of climate inter- est. Such changes included improving prelaunch characterization and documentation of all NPOESS instruments, adding minor software improvements to the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to make the data more climate-relevant, and downlinking full-resolution spectral data from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) to enable creation of additional climate products. â¢ The potential role of spacecraft formation flying in mitigation strategies. Formation flight can allow for the synergistic combination of measurements from multiple satellites, sometimes launched years apart. To allow for subsequent formation flight with NPOESS platforms, some participants suggested consideration of the requisite orbit maintenance and operations requirements as part of the mitigation strategy for restoring deleted NPOESS and GOES-R climate-observing capabilities. â¢ Mitigation options beyond changes to NPOESS. While particular long-term records can be secured via the remanifesting of certain sensors onto NPOESS, many workshop participants noted that requirements for several could not be addressed even with the original suite of NPOESS instruments. Long-term records of sea level and ocean vector winds, for example, require different orbits and/or instruments to address critical climate observation needs. As a result, some participants heavily favored dedicated altimetry and scatterometry missions to fill this need. Further, some participants noted the critical importance of hyperspectral sounder measurements to climate science, suggesting restoration of CrIS/ATMS to the early-morning NPOESS orbit as well as the earliest-possible flight of a geostationary hyperspectral sounder to further improve temporal resolution. â¢ The challenge of creating climate data records. Although NPP- and NPOESS-derived environmental data records (EDRs) may have considerable scientific value, climate data records (CDRs) are far more than a time series of EDRs. Many participants at the workshop emphasized the fundamental differences between products that are generated to meet short-term needs (EDRs) and those for which consistency of processing and reprocessing VIIRS collects visible/infrared imagery and radiometric data. A key sensor on the NPOESS spacecraft, VIIRS contributes to 23 environ- mental data records (EDRs) and is the primary instrument associated with 18 EDRs. See description at http://www.ipo.noaa.gov/ÂTechnology/ viirs_summary.html. In conjunction with the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), the Cross-track Infrared Sounder collects atmospheric data to permit the calculation of temperature and moisture profiles at high temporal (~daily) resolution. See discussion at http://www.ipo.noaa. gov/Technology/cris_summary.html. See NRC, Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPP and NPOESS Meteorological Satellites, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2000, and NRC, Climate Data Records from Environmental Satellites: Interim Report, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2004.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 97 over years to decades is an essential requirement (CDRs). Creation and maintenance of CDRs require algorithms, data-handling systems, calibration/validation, archival standards, access protocols, and prelaunch characterization that are different from those for operational data products. â¢ The specifications of the MIS instrument. The specifications of the MIS (Microwave Imager and Sounder) instrument on NPOESS, which is to replace the now canceled CMIS (Conical Microwave Imager and Sounder) instrument, were not known at the time of the workshop. Thus, participants were unable to fully analyze mitigation options. In addition, several participants warned about the consequences of not having an all-weather sea surface temperature retrieval capability, emphasizing the importance of retaining a low- f Â requency 6.9 GHz channel as the instrument is reconsidered. â¢ Sustaining climate observations. In the view of many participants, the loss of climate observations from NPOESS is of international concern and also imperils U.S. climate science leadership. Further, many Âparticipants noted that discussions at the workshop were focused on solving near-term climate measurement continuity issues, but that there would remain a longer-term problem of sustaining support for climate science. Issues noted included finding an appropriate balance between new and sustained climate observations and managing infu- sion of technology into long-term observational programs (including the challenges of doing so with a multi- s Â pacecraftâblock-buyâprocurement). Workshop discussions also included what many participants cited as a key challenge: accommodating research needs within an operational program. Some participants argued that the relative priority of climate measurement needs would have to be heightened across the implementing agencies if climate and operational weather functions remain combined. Their concern was that in exploiting the commonalities of weather and climate observations, the unique needs of climate scientists would be overlooked. The perceived lack of attention to climate science needs within the Integrated Program Office, particularly calibration and validation requirements, led many participants to favor free-flyer options over integration with the NPOESS platforms.
98 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 1 Implications of the NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification and the Descoping of GOES-R Since the 1960s, the United States has operated two separate operational polar-orbiting meteorological sat- ellite systems: the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) series managed by NOAA, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the Air Force. These satellites obtain envi- ronmental data that are processed to provide graphical weather images and specialized weather products. These satellite data are also the predominant input to numerical weather prediction models, which are a primary tool for forecasting weather 3 or more days in advanceâincluding forecasting the path and intensity of hurricanes. The weather products and models are used to predict the potential impact of severe weather so that communities and emergency managers can help to prevent or mitigate its effects. Polar satellites also provide data used to monitor environmental phenomena, such as ozone depletion and drought conditions, as well as data sets that are used by researchers for a variety of studies such as climate monitoring. The history of the NPOESS program and events leading to its restructuring as part of the June 2006 Nunn- McCurdy certification can be found in a recent report by the Government Accountability Office. In June 2006, the Department of Defense (with the agreement of both of its partner agencies, NOAA and NASA) certified a restruc- tured NPOESS program, estimated to cost $12.5 billion through 2026. This decision approved a cost increase of $4 billion over the prior approved baseline cost and delayed the launch of the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) mission and the first two NPOESS satellites. Current estimates have the launch of the NPP spacecraft slipping approximately 3 years to January 2010 and the launch of the first and second spacecraft in the NPOESS series, C1 and C2, slipping approximately 3 years to January 2013 and January 2016, respectively. The new program also reduced the number of satellites to be produced and launched from six to four, and reduced the number of instruments on the satellites from 13 to 9âconsisting of 7 environmental sensors and 2 subsystems. The number of satellite orbits was also reduced from three to two, with the NPOESS satellite orbiting in the early morning and afternoon positions and the European MetOp satellites being relied on for midmorning orbit data. Figures 1.1 and 1.2 show NPOESS spacecraft, instruments, and orbits prior to and following the Nunn-McCurdy actions. Note that acronyms not defined in the text, especially those denoting individual instruments and missions, are defined in Appendix D. United States Government Accountability Office, Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites: Restructuring Is Under Way, but Challenges and Risks Remain, GAO-07-910T, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 2007. Available at http://www.gao.gov/Â cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-07-910T. NOAA-NASA, âImpacts of NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification on Joint NASA-NOAA Climate Goals,â draft white paper, January 8, 2007.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 99 FIGURE 1.1â NPP and NPOESS program summary prior to the June 2006 Nunn-McCurdy program review and revisions. With the exception of CrIS, ATMS, and SESS, all key operational instruments, including SARSAT and ADCS, were intended to be flown on all three orbits. Climate and research-oriented sensors were generally designated a spot on a single satellite at any one time. The overall NPOESS constellation was designed as a stand-alone system, with the European series of MetOp satellite viewed as a separate, independent, complementary system. SOURCE: Courtesy of NOAA. The Nunn-McCurdy process placed priority on continuity of operational weather measurements. Box 1.1 summarizes the effects of the Nunn-McCurdy action on previous objectives related to climate research. HES CANCELLATION AND GOES-R With the final two GOES satellites in the current GOES-N series completed, NOAA is now in the early stages of the acquisition process for the next generation of GOES satellites, called GOES-R. Late in 2006, NOAA announced the cancellation of plans to include the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) on GOES-R. At a For a description of HES, see T.J. Schmit, J. Li, and J. Gurka, âIntroduction of the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) on GOES-R and Beyond,â presented at the International (A)TOVS Science Conference (ITSC-13) in Sainte Adele, Quebec, Canada, October 18-November 4, 2003, available at http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/itwg/itsc/itsc13/proceedings/session10/10_9_schmit.pdf.
100 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT FIGURE 1.2â NPP and NPOESS program summary following the Nunn-McCurdy program review and revisions (status as of October 2006). The midmorning satellite coverage will be provided by the European MetOp satellite series, with descoped NPOESS satellites covering the early morning and afternoon orbits. Instruments removed from the core NPOESS program plan can be integrated and flown if outside funding will support the remaining development costs, as well as the cost of the instrument and its support. The canceled Conical Microwave Imager and Sounder sensor will be replaced by a sensor now called the Microwave Imager and Sounder (MIS). Although its specifications are not yet known, by design MIS will be a less expensive instrument with less developmental risk. SOURCE: Courtesy of NOAA.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 101 BOX 1.1 Summary of Effects of Nunn-McCurdy NPOESS Certification â¢ Priority placed on continuity of operational weather measurements â¢ Number of orbits and spacecraft reduced âBefore Nunn-McCurdy: 3 orbits and 6 spacecraft âAfter Nunn-McCurdy: 2 orbits and 4 spacecraft â¢ Impacts on climate sensors âFive climate-oriented sensors demanifested â¢ APS (aerosols), TSIS (solar irradiance), OMPS-Limb (ozone), ERBS (radiation budget), ALT (ocean altimetry) â¢ Instruments flown only if developed outside of NPOESS program âThree climate-oriented sensors have reduced coverage â¢ VIIRS (imagery), CrIS (thermal sounder), ADCS (data relay) â¢ Reduced diurnal coverage due to reduction in orbits used (VIIRS and ADCS) and demanifesting of CrIS from early-morning orbit âOne climate-oriented sensor will have reduced capability â¢ CMIS (microwave sounder) â¢ Less expensive, less capable instrument of the same type SOURCE: Adapted from J. Privette, J. Bates, and T. Karl, âClimate Goal Impacts and Possible Mitigations with a Certified NPOESS,â presentation at Polar Max 2006, available at http://www.npoess.noaa.gov/Â polarmax/2006/day03/4.5Privette_revised_NPOESS.Climate.POLARMAX.ppt. September 2006 hearing of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science and Technology, NOAA Administrator Conrad C. Lautenbacher explained: At first, we envisioned GOES-R as a satellite series that would contain significant technological advancements. . . . The Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) was conceived as an advanced sounder and coastal water imager that would provide a profile of atmospheric temperature and moisture content used in weather forecasting and take images of coastal areas for water quality monitoring and coastal hazard assessment. . . . While HES potentially could have provided a major improvement in our ability to characterize the atmosphere and the coastal environment, we did not think it was prudent to accept that much risk in an operational satellite for an acquisition program. We are examining alternate ways to maintain todayâs sounding capability for GOES-R. . . . Fulfilling the coastal waters component of the sounder capability remains a NOAA priority. Although most of the June 2007 workshop focused on recovery options for the demanifested and descoped climate sensors on NPOESS, sessions were also held to discuss recovery options for HES, including a potential role for the GIFTS instrument. Written testimony of Vice Admiral Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr. (U.S. Navy, Ret.), Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and At- mosphere and NOAA Administrator, Oversight Hearing on the Government Accountability Office Report on NOAAâs Weather Satellite Program Before the Committee on Science, U.S. House of Representatives, September 29, 2006, available at http://www.legislative.noaa. gov/ÂTestimony/lautenbacher092906.pdf. Developed under NASAâs New Millennium Program, the Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) was designed to obtain 80,000 closely spaced (horizontal ~4 kilometer), high-vertical-resolution (~1-2 kilometer) atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles, every minute, from geostationary orbit. GIFTS was intended to serve as a major element in risk reduction plans for GOES-R. Because
102 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT THE NASA-NOAA STUDY Shortly after the June 2006 announcement of the certified NPOESS program, the White House Office of Sci- ence and Technology Policy requested that NASA and NOAA study the climate science impacts attributable to the instrument deletions and scope reductions. Presentations by agency officials at the panelâs June 2007 workshop were effectively the starting point for many of the workshopâs discussions. In particular, âMitigation Approaches to Address Impacts of NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification on Joint NASA-NOAA Climate Goals,â reproduced as Appendix C, provided essential background information. of budgetary considerations, resulting partly from the Navyâs withdrawal of support for a spacecraft and launch vehicle, NASA discontinued funding for GIFTS beyond FY 2005. See W.L. Smith et al., âThe Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS),â pp. 700-707 in Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography, Madison, Wisc., October 15-18, 2001 (preprints), Call Number Reprint # 2999, American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 2001, available at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/71904. pdf. All presentations, as well as summaries of the workshop sessions, are available at http://www7.nationalacademies.org/ssb/SSB_NPOESS2007_ Presentations.html.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 103 2 Summary of the Workshop Sessions The workshopâs breakout sessions were designed to have participants consider the impact of changes to the NPOESS and GOES-R programs from many different perspectives. On day 1 of the workshop, participants con- sidered impacts in terms of their effects on the measurement of essential climate variables (ECVs), as specified by the GCOS Implementation Plan. On day 2, impacts were considered in terms of the specific sensors that consti- tuted the original programsâ baselines. The panel recognized that there would be overlap in these discussions, but thought it useful for participants to consider the broad issues of ECV measurement and development of climate data records (CDRs) apart from specific concerns about NPOESS sensors. Day 3 breakout discussions were more loosely organized, to allow for broad discussion of cross-cutting issues, long-term considerations critical to the production of CDRs, and the advance of climate science in general. Indeed, a recurring theme expressed by many participants at the workshop was that ensuring the measurement(s) of a particular climate variable(s) was only a necessary first step toward enabling the creation of time series of measurements of sufficient length, consistency, and continuity to determine climate variability and change, that is, to generate CDRs (see âPanel on Issues Related to CDR Development,â p. 39). WORKSHOP SUMMARYâDAY 1 The day 1 breakout groups were charged to consider, as a community, the various ECVs that might be affected by the Nunn-McCurdy NPOESS and GOES-R descopes. Participants considered each NPOESS-Âmeasured parameter, starting with ones in jeopardy of not meeting Integrated Operational Requirements Document (IORD) specifications, commenting on the relevance of the parameter to climate science and/or long-term climate records, the importance of maintaining the IORD-level value (and potential consequences if it is not met), and noting any additional considerations required to make the NPOESS programâs environmental data records (EDRs) more relevant to GCOS ECV climate parameters and to the climate community as a whole (e.g., additional instrument characterization, calibration, overlap requirements). Participants were also encouraged to suggest mitigation approaches where NPOESS current plans fall short of climate community needs, and to assess whether any of the missions recommended in the Earth science decadal survey might enable recovery of the NPOESS climate The GCOS Implementation Plan (GCOS-107) is available at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/ Publications/gcos-107.pdf. NRC, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2007.
104 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT measurements. Participant feedback on each of these areas was captured in real time in a template, and a brief summary of the discussions is provided here. Consideration of NPOESS and GOES-R Priority Measurements for ECVsâ Breakout Sessions Climate Data Records Related to Observations of the Atmosphere The atmosphere ECV breakout group was asked to consider 10 ECVs related to observations of the atmo- sphere: Earth radiation budget (including solar irradiance); aerosol properties; ozone; carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases; cloud properties; precipitation; water vapor; surface wind speed and direction; upper- air wind; and upper-air temperature. Recognizing the linkages between the ECVs, the group organized itself into four subgroups: â¢ Radiation budget (Earth radiation budget, aerosol properties), â¢ Ozone and trace gases (ozone; carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases), â¢ Clouds and precipitation and water vapor (cloud properties, precipitation, water vapor), and â¢ Winds and temperature (surface wind speed and direction, upper-air wind, upper-air temperature). A summary of the discussions is provided here, organized according to ECV. Earth Radiation Budget (Including Solar Irradiance) Persistent small climate changes are difficult to detect within the diurnal, regional, and seasonal variance of Earthâs reflected (shortwave) and emitted (longwave) energyâhence a continuous long-term (decades) record ofÂ Earthâs radiation budget (ERB) is needed to identify subtle long-term shifts related to climate change. With the demanifesting of TSIS and ERBS from NPOESS, ERB measurements will end with the last CERES on Aqua (or perhaps NPP, pending addition of CERES FM-5 onto NPP), the TIM record will end with Glory, and the SIM record with SORCE. Planned or proposed international missions and instruments of relevance include EarthCARE, ScaRAB on Megha-Tropiques, and GERB; however, in the view of breakout participants who commented on them, these international missions are insufficient to maintain the ECVs. The Earth science decadal survey recommended that NOAA add CERES to NPP and that NASA develop CLARREO, which would provide spectral ERB measureÂ ments. It was noted that ERBS (Earth radiation budget sensor) needs VIIRS cloud imagery, and so flight near NPOESS was desirable. SIM and TIM could be on separate spacecraft from ERBS since they are Sun pointing. Aerosol Properties Measurement of aerosol properties is needed to understand the global distribution of aerosols and their impact on Earthâs energy balance, clouds, and precipitation. Aerosol impacts remain a source of major uncertainty in climate prediction in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report (2007). Recent and ongoing missions and instruments providing aerosol information include TOMS (1979-), AVHRR (1979-), MODIS (1999-), MISR (1999-), POLDER (2002-), (A)ATSR (1991-), PARASOL (2006-), SCIAMACHY (2003-), CALIPSO (2006-), GLAS (2003-), OMI (2004-), and AIRS (2002-). International missions of relevance include EarthCARE, GCOM-C/SGLI, ADM/Aeolus, and ATLID. The upcoming NASA Glory mission will fly APS, which was originally intended to be followed by subsequent NPOESS flights of APS to provide a continuing data record. With the demanifesting of APS from NPOESS, some aerosol information will be obtained through The filled-in templates are available at http://www7.nationalacademies.org/ssb/SSB_NPOESS2007_Presentations.html. See, for example, NRC, Solar Influences on Global Change, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1994. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Cambridge University Press, C Â ambridge, U.K., 2008, available at http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/assessments-reports.htm.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 105 VIIRS, OMPS, and CrIS/ATMS; however, these instruments will not provide polarimetry information. Workshop participants noted that the ACE mission, as described in the Earth science decadal survey, would provide signifi- cant advances. Attendees expressed a strong desire to move to a next-generation polarimeter rather than lock in to the technology of APS, as would have been required for accommodation on NPOESS.Â The 3D-Winds mission recommended in the decadal survey would provide aerosol heights, which would also contribute to measurement of the properties of this ECV. Ozone The ozone ECV is important to monitoring the long-term trends in surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation and recovery of the ozone layer. The ozone ECV is at risk due to the demanifesting of OMPS-Limb by the NPOESS program, although it has recently been restored to the NPP platform. After NPP, no ozone profile measurement is currently planned as part of NPOESS, which after the Nunn-McCurdy action carries only the OMPS-Nadir portion of the original suite. Ongoing missions and instruments of relevance to the ozone ECV include TOMS (1979-), SBUV (1979-), GOME (2006-), MIPAS (2003-), OMI (2003-), SCIAMACHY (2003-), TES (2005-), GOME-II (2006-), MLS (2004-), AIRS (2002-), and IASI (2006-). The decadal survey recommendation for GACM was considered relevant to the ozone ECV, although it was recommended for launch after 2016. In the breakout session, several participants noted that the NPOESS nadir ozone measurement (which is the only ozone measurement to be made by NPOESS) is more than adequately covered by GOME-II on MetOp and that ozone profile measurements would add more value than additional nadir measurements. Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Other Greenhouse Gases Measurements of key greenhouse gases, including COÂ2 and CH4, are essential parts of a program to understand climate forcings and trends. Indeed, measurements are needed with sufficient quality to detect sources and sinks at regional scales. The NPOESS CrIS instrument will contribute to this ECV, and some breakout participants noted that its value would be increased if all the spectra were downlinked. Ongoing missions and instruments related to the greenhouse gases ECV include IRS (2002-), SCIAMACHY (2003-), MIPAS (2003-), HIRDLS (2004-), MLS (2004-), TES (2004-), GOME-II (2006â), and IASI (2006-). AIRS and IASI both currently produce midtroposphere CO2 data products, although both remain to be validated. NASAâs planned OCO mission (scheduled for launch late in 2008) and the JAXA GOSAT mission will also contribute to the CO 2 measurement needs for this ECV. The decadal-survey-recommended ASCENDS mission is also of interest. Some workshop participants noted the desirability of a GIFTS- or HES-like instrument for geostationary measurements (with high temporal resolution) relevant to this ECV. Cloud Properties Ongoing missions and instruments of relevance to the cloud properties ECV include AVHRR/HIRS (1978-), (A)ATSR (1991-), MODIS (2000-), MISR (1999-), AIRS (2002-), SEVIRI (2003-), GOES (1994-), METSAT (2004-), MTSAT-1R (2005-), IASI (2006-), CloudSat (2006-), and CALIPSO (2006-). On NPOESS, contributions include VIIRS (which includes a day and a night imager) and CrIS/ATMS (and, prior to the Nunn-McCurdy action, APS). Planned missions/instruments of relevance include GLM and EarthCARE. The cloud properties ECV can be significantly advanced via the ACE mission recommended by the Earth science decadal survey, which would investigate aerosol-cloud interactions. Precipitation The water cycle plays a critical role in climate change. Precipitation measurements are key to understanding and predicting water vapor feedback, water supply, drought, severe storms, and floods. Ongoing missions and instruments of relevance to precipitation measurement include SSM/I (1987-), TMI (1997-), AMSR-E (2002-),
106 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT TRMM (1997-) CloudSat (2006-), MODIS (1999-), and AIRS (2002-) (the last two provide important informa- tion on clouds and water vapor). NASAâs upcoming GPM mission is of great relevance to this ECV. International plans for GCOM-W and AMSR F/O (2011) are also of interest. Participants discussed the relevance of the decadal surveyâs recommended ACE and PATH missions, which would provide important information on aerosol-cloud interactions and high-temporal-resolution precipitation, respectively. NPOESS CrIS/ATMS measurements will contribute to the precipitation ECV, but questions remain about the still-undefined MIS capability. Some partici- pants expressed concern that a capability for passive microwave precipitation measurements may not emerge in the revised MIS sensor, and they suggested that NPOESS place emphasis on the water cycle (water vapor, liquid water, ice water, and precipitation) when considering MIS requirements, possibly including giant magneto-Âimpedance (GMI) bands. Water Vapor With measurements available through CrIS/ATMS on NPOESS, IASI on MetOp, and ABI on GOES-R, there was little concern expressed about the water vapor ECV. MIS capabilities, still uncertain, should include total column water vapor information. Several participants suggested that the water vapor channel be added back to VIIRS to further strengthen the water vapor ECV, while also benefiting wind and aerosol measurements. ÂOngoing missions and instruments of relevance include SSM/I (1987-), SSMIS (2003-), (A)ATSR (1991-), AMSR-E (2002-), MERIS (2002-), HIRS (1979-), AIRS/AMSU (2002-), MODIS (1999-), TMI (1997-), and MLS (2004-). International plans include GCOM-W and AMSR F/O (2011). Decadal survey missions of relevance include GPS/RO and PATH. Surface Wind Speed and Direction Measurements of surface wind speed and direction are needed for both climate and operational purposes. For climate, vector winds are required to compute wind stress curl, an essential climate quantity that drives Ekman pumping and suction in the ocean, thereby implying vertical circulations (i.e., upwelling and downwelling). The zonal integral (east to west) of wind stress curl across an ocean basin is proportional to the western boundary current transport (i.e., the transport responsible for the dominant part of the poleward heat ï¬ux by the ocean). The climatology of storms (frequency and intensity) depends on vector wind measurement, and measurements are required in all conditions. Several participants noted that the CMIS replacement (MIS) is not expected to meet needs for data on these variables. Several participants also noted that the NPOESS key performance parameter is wind speed only, and so measurement of wind direction is not ensured as trade-offs are explored. Ongoing missions and instruments of relevance to this ECV include QuikSCAT (1999-), ERS (1992-), and WindSat (2003-). The international ASCAT measurement and the decadal survey recommendation for XOVWM were also discussed. Participants engaged in a lively debate over the relative merits of passive versus active measurement of surface wind speeds; they also discussed the merits of a future system that would combine the active measurement capa- bilities of ASCAT with the passive measurements to be provided by MIS. It was the strongly held view of many workshop participants that ASCAT and MIS would be inadequate to meet both operational and climate needs, and that an additional active surface wind speed and wind direction measurement was needed. This ECV was also considered by the oceans breakout group and is further discussed in the summary of its session below. Upper-Air Wind Three-dimensional upper-air wind, temperature, and moisture profiles with high vertical and temporal resolu- tion are key to improved prediction of hurricane track and intensity. The upper-air wind ECV is at moderate risk due to its partial reliance upon both NPOESS/VIIRS (which lacks the water vapor band needed to continue MODIS The ASCAT scatterometer is an active instrument; however, it does not provide the wide swath coverage or resolution afforded by Q Â uikSCAT.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 107 measurements of polar winds) and GOES-R/HES (for continuous full-disk four-dimensional wind vertical profil- ing, including diurnal coverage). GOES-R/ABI will provide cloud wind tracking and measurements of clear-sky water vapor layer-integrated winds, including diurnal coverage. Ongoing missions and instruments of relevance to the upper-air wind ECV include AVHRR (1979-), MODIS (1999-), (A)ATSR (1991-), GOES (1975-), Meteo- sat (1978-), GMS (1980s-), Feng Yun (2000s-), and INSAT (2000s-). The international ADM/Aeolus mission is relevant to this ECV, as is the 3D-Winds mission recommended by the Earth science decadal survey. Upper-Air Temperature The upper-air temperature ECV appears to be in good health with the planned flight of CrIS/ATMS on NPOESS and IASI on MetOp, although several participants noted that the inadequate diurnal coverage could be improved by addition of CrIS to the early AM (0530, descending) NPOESS spacecraft. Ongoing missions and instruments of relevance to the upper-air temperature ECV include MSU (1979-), AMSU (1999-), CHAMP (2001-), COSMIC (2006-), GRAS (2006-), HIRS (1979-), and AIRS (2002-). The decadal survey recommenda- tions for GPS/RO, CLARREO, and PATH are also considered relevant to this ECV. Some participants noted that a geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) flight of opportunity to fly GIFTS or another Pathfinder could further recover ability to observe and integrate upper-air temperature across the diurnal cycle. The breakout group also discussed air quality observation needs, though noted that air quality is not currently a GCOS ECV. Climate Data Records Related to Observations of the Oceans The oceans ECV breakout group was tasked to consider six ECVs related to ocean observations: sea level, SST, ocean color, salinity, sea state, and sea ice. Some participants also noted the need for ocean measurement input to several atmospheric ECVs (surface wind speed and direction, precipitation, surface radiation, surface air temperature, and water vapor). A summary of the discussions is provided below, organized according to ECV. Sea Level The 15-year record of sea surface height has provided a record of global sea level rise, built on TOPEX and Jason-1 data records. Discussions at the breakout focused on measures to ensure the continuity of this record, a strong desire among most participants. Ongoing missions and instruments of relevance include Jason-1, ENVISAT, and GFO. NASA plans include a Jason follow-on, the Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM)/Jason-2. There are international ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ although it will suffer from tidal alias- plans for an accurate altimeter aboard the European Sentinel-3ï¿½ , ing due to a Sun-synchronous orbit. The decadal survey recommendation for a NASA advanced altimetry Âmission called SWOT is also of key interest. Altimeters on NPOESS could help to provide global coverage and measure ocean heat content. However, the removal of the altimeter from NPOESS is not considered a critical issue for climate, as ALT would not have provided a climate-quality sea surface height record due to the NPOESS Sun-synchronous orbit, nor would it have provided information about inland waters and near-coastal areas. For measurements related to the needs of climate researchers, most breakout participants expressed a preference for free-flyer missions that achieve the same quality as Jason, either as a series of Jason follow-on missions such as Jason-3 followed by SWOT, or as a series of SWOT missions, started by advancing the timeline for the first SWOT mission. For information on the European Space Agencyâs planned Sentinel series, see http://www.esa.int/esaLP/SEMZHM0DU8E_LPgmes_ 0.html.
108 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT Sea Surface Temperature Remote sensing of sea surface temperature (SST) has a long heritage, dating back to 1980. Climate Âstudies require all-weather SST coverage, involving complementary infrared (IR) and microwave observations. IR observations provide high spatial resolution and radiometric fidelity in clear skies, and microwave observations provide SST measurements in the presence of clouds and aerosols. Ongoing missions and instruments of relevance include AVHRR (1979-), (A)ATSR (1991-), Aqua/AMSR-E (2002-), MSG/SEVIRI, GOES imagers, TRMM/TMI, TRMM/VIRI, and Aqua/Terra MODIS (1999-). International plans include OceanSat-1 and -2, Sentinel-3 series (2013-2020), MetOp (B, C, D), GCOM-C, and GCOM-W/AMSR-2. The decadal survey PATH mission is also of interest. On NPOESS, MIS will replace the canceled CMIS (but currently is not slated for inclusion until the second NPOESS spacecraft launches in 2016). Of particular concern to many workshop participants was the expectation that the certified NPOESS MIS configuration will lack the desired band for passive microwave SST (6.9 GHz), which would create a gap in the SST record. Many participants also suggested the need for sustained daily global coverage of the IR observations. Continuity of both IR and passive microwave SST observations on polar and geostationary platforms was considered by many participants to be essential for an accurate and robust SST CDR, as also noted by the International GHRSST-PP science team. Continuity by CMIS/MIS with current AMSR-E observations remains a major concern. Ocean Color Tracking of trends in ocean productivity via remote sensing of ocean color is an important aspect of ocean climate study. Measurements of water-leaving radiances are needed, and some participants expressed a desire for a more comprehensive approach than observation and monitoring of chlorophyll. Ongoing missions and instru- ments of relevance include SeaWiFS (1997-), MERIS (2002-), and Aqua/MODIS (2002-). International plans for OceanSat-2, Sentinel-3, and GCOM-C/SGLI are also of interest, as is the ACE mission recommended by the decadal survey. Ocean color measurements were to be provided by NPOESS/VIIRS and GOES-R/HES. The ocean color ECV is considered at risk due to removal of HES from GOES-R. Ocean color scientists noted that the NPOESS platform and its VIIRS sensor will not be satisfactory for ocean color science, in part because NPOESS does not provide for lunar calibration of VIIRS and in part because of VIIRS hardware issues involving increased optical cross-talk. Ocean color researchers at the workshop asserted that observations should have band cover- age ranging from UV to shortwave, and they suggested modifying the GCOS ECV to include ocean color records beyond chlorophyll. The ocean biology scientists who were present suggested development of a dedicated ocean biology sensor and mission to accommodate the need for lunar calibration, building on the approach taken by the ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ SeaWiFS instrument. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ In situ calibration with ocean buoys is also an important consideration. Salinity Measurement of sea surface salinity is a new capability. The European Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and the NASA Aquarius mission will provide the first satellite sensing of sea surface salinityï¿½ (which will require measurements of surface wind speed and SST as part of the retrieval process)ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ . There is as yet no satellite climate record to evaluate the results of these missions. For information on the Global High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Pilot Project, see http://ghrsst-pp.org. In remote sensing, optical cross-talk is an important error source that results when a detector responds to impinging light from out-of-Âchannel wavelengths (e.g., due to scattering, internal reflections, or other optical leaks). This out-of-channel component of the detector signal can be difficult or impossible to de-convolve with the in-channel (desired) signal. At the time of the workshop, VIIRS was at risk of not meeting the instrument requirement that limits the level of acceptable optical cross-talk. The optical filter assembly in VIIRS, which separates incoming signal into a number of smaller wavelength channels, is known to be the source of the optical cross-talk problem. Efforts are underway to seal light leaks and reduce scattered light. If the VIIRS optical cross-talk issue is not resolved, ocean color and aerosol products will be adversely affected.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 109 Sea State As winds over the ocean change in response to climate variability and climate change, there will be changes in sea state. The sea state is important for marine weather and for the safety of life at sea, forecasts, and Âwarnings. Some participants questioned whether the sea state ECV represented a fundamental measurement. From a climate perspective, the roughness of the sea surface plays a role in air-sea exchanges. It would be ideal to have full wave directional spectral capability, spanning surface gravity wave and surface swell periods. This is not at present a satellite capability. Sea Ice With MIS delayed until NPOESS C2, there is a need to continue the long (28-year) climate data record of sea ice extent and concentration collected by passive microwave radiometers; continued scatterometer and altimeter measurements are also required. Changes in sea ice and ice coverage are a critical indicator of climate change. Ongoing missions and instruments of interest include SMMR, SSM/I (DMSP), SSMIS, AMSR-E, Q Â uikSCAT, MODIS, and ASCAT. Planned missions include the DMSP missions, F19 and F20, carrying SSMIS; GCOM-W/AMSR-2; GCOM-C/SGLI; RADARSAT-2; and CryoSat-2. The decadal survey recommendations for SCLP, ICESat-II, XOVWM, and DESDynI are also of interest. With MIS delayed, a passive microwave data gap is anticipated. A synthetic aperture radar or equivalent capability is also needed in the production of the sea-ice climate data record for validation of sea ice concentration and edgeï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ . This could be provided by the XOVWM s Â catterometer. To fill the gap, a free-flyer QuikSCAT replacement combined with an AMSR-type instrument would be a backup against DMSP failures. Surface Wind Speed and Direction From an oceanographic perspective, there is a need for vector wind measurements, and many participants noted that surface vector winds from passive microwave did not fulfill the need for climate-quality surface vector winds and for observation of extreme weather events. Thus, to these participants, the removal of CMIS from NPOESS was not a major issue. Many of the breakout groupâs participants indicated the real need to enhance climate mea- surement capabilities beyond the QuikSCAT standard in a follow-on, active radar surface vector wind mission. The QuikSCAT mission has provided an 8-year record to date and has exceeded its design lifetime. Follow-on options discussed included relying on ASCAT on MetOp, duplicating QuikSCAT, and flying XOVWM (as rec- ommended by the Earth science decadal survey). The XOVWM option has the advantages that that sensor can measure higher wind speeds than can QuikSCAT, can provide improved vector wind retrievals in rain, and can detect surface rain rate. Higher spatial resolution (~1 km) is also desired. It was also noted that the incremental cost of XOVWM versus a QuikSCAT duplicate would be small, in part because QuikSCAT was designed and developed more than a decade ago. Precipitation, Surface Radiation, Surface Air Temperature, and Water Vapor Simultaneous knowledge of the surface forcing of the ocean (heat, water, momentum fluxes from the atmo- sphere) and ocean-atmosphere exchange is important to monitoring and understanding the oceanâs role in climate. Global ocean remote sensing coverage of rainfall, surface incoming and net shortwave and longwave radiation, and latent and sensible heat fluxes is needed. Latent and sensible heat flux can be parameterized given surface wind, SST, and surface air temperature and humidity. The oceanographic community supports collection of climate- q Â uality surface radiation and rainfall fields. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ It remains a significant challenge to retrieve surface air temperature and surface humidity from space, and existing data are not considered to be of the quality needed to generate CDRs.
110 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT Other Discussion Some participants felt that the requirements to instrument selection process did not sufficiently engage the ocean climate user community, and they expressed a continuing need for this engagement to ensure that the mis- sions flown support collection of climate-quality data records. NASA science teams are one model to ensure such engagement. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ The science team approach has worked particularly well in terms of federating international activities for several CDRs, including SST (the GHRSST-PP), ocean ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ color ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ (International Ocean Colour Coordination Group (IOCCG)), and altimetry (Ocean Surface Topography Science Team (OSTST)). Further, some participants noted that for SST, sea ice, and ocean surface vector winds there is possible syn- ergy and an optimum combination for accuracy, data gap limitation, spatial and temporal resolution, and CDR continuity that should be considered. All three of these CDRs would benefit from sensor collocation. A solution would be to pursue XOVWM and AMSR-type sensors on the same satellite or in formation, and in polar orbit. This approach would entail acceleration of the XOVWM schedule. Another approach would be to modify XOVWM to accommodate passive microwave (6.9 GHz) SST with surface wind speed (required for accurate SST retrievals at 6.9 GHz) together with sea ice monitoringï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ . An XOVWM+SST system in low-inclination orbit would enhance studies of tropical weather and climate. Climate Data Records Related to Observations of the Land The land ECV breakout group was asked to consider 10 ECVs related to surface observations: glaciers and ice caps/sheets, snow cover, soil moisture, fire disturbance, lakes, biomass, land cover, surface albedo, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR), and leaf area index (LAI). The primary NPOESS instrument for land surface climate variables is VIIRS, following the heritage of AVHRR and MODIS sensors. Likewise, for GOES the primary land climate instrument will be the imager (ABI on GOES-R). The first hour or so of the breakout addressed the VIIRS and its known problems, primarily con- cerning optical cross-talk. The cross-talk as it stands now will affect the aerosol EDRs and the land EDRs, the latter primarily through poor aerosol correction. It is not clear that the cross-talk issue for VIIRS will be fixed in time for its first flight on NPP. Although an improved filter is being constructed and is planned for installation, participants were informed that there remains at least a 30 percent chance that the fixes will not work and that the land EDRs will be out of specification. Participants considered the importance of land ECVs in terms of scientific impact and the availability of longer-term data sets for comparison and study. The land ECVs were then each evaluated in terms of risk. All risk evaluations in this summary assume that the cross-talk issue for VIIRS will be successfully alleviated. Glaciers and Ice Caps/Sheets The glaciers and ice caps/sheets ECV is of importance to climate models and albedo, water balance, sea level, and radiation budget climate studies. Ongoing missions/instruments of relevance include Landsat (1984-), SPOT, ASTER (2000-), GRACE (2002-), ICESat, MODIS (1999-), and MISR (2000-). The interna- tional Cryosat-2 Âmission, currently in its implementation phase, and the ICESat-II, GRACE-II, DESDynI, and SCLP missions recommended by the Earth science decadal survey are also relevant. NPOESSâ VIIRS is expected to contribute to this ECV; however, there is some risk to the ECV associated with the lack of ALT data required toÂ estimate mass balance, although other altimeter measurements (if secured) can meet the need.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 111 Snow Cover Measurement of snow cover is a high priority because of snow coverâs role in radiation budget and water cycle studies. Ongoing missions and instruments of relevance include AVHRR (originally VHRR; 1972-), MODIS (1999-), (A)ATSR (1991-), Landsat, SPOT, and SSM/I. NPOESS will contribute via VIIRS and ATMS; however, planned contributions by the CMIS replacement, MIS, are now uncertain. The snow cover ECV is also affected because VIIRS data can be used to map areal extent through time but a height/depth-related measure, which is required to make key calculations of mass, is missing. The decadal survey SCLP mission is relevant to this ECV, as it would provide passive and active microwave measurements of snow water equivalent. GOES-R ABI mea- surements are also of relevance, as are international plans for Sentinel-3. Soil Moisture The soil moisture ECV is important to climate science due to its impact on biogeochemical cycling, meso- scale climate models, vegetation dynamics, albedo, and surface roughness. Ongoing missions and instruments of relevance include AMSR-E (2002-), ALOS (2006-), Landsat, MODIS (1999-), and ASCAT (2006-). The planned NASA LDCM mission and international SMOS missions are also of interest. The NPOESS VIIRS and CMIS instruments are relevant to soil moisture; however, the soil moisture ECV is considered at high risk due to the CMIS descope, which effectively eliminates any possibility of retrieving this measurement. Even with CMIS, soil moisture measurements would have been limited to bare or very sparsely vegetated soils. Recommended by the Earth science decadal survey, SMAP, an active and passive L-band mission to directly measure soil moisture, would provide direct global soil moisture measurements with greater penetration depth. Fire Disturbance The fire disturbance record has climate science implications in terms of understanding biogeochemical cycling, disturbance, and disasters. Ongoing missions and instruments of relevance include AVHRR (1982-), (A)ATSR (1991-), SPOT (1998-), Landsat, ASTER, MODIS (1999-), and MERIS (2002-). International plans for GCOM-C/SGLI (2012-2025) and Sentinel-2 are also of interest. VIIRS on NPOESS and ABI on GOES-R are expected to contribute to this ECV; however, there is a moderate risk to the ECV due to the low saturation level ofÂ the VIIRS instrument and the lack of VIIRS in a midmorning orbit. The saturation issue prevents the retrieval of fire radiative power,10 which is an important component of this ECV, and the loss of the midmorning orbit reduces the measurement of fire diurnal cycles. Lakes The lakes ECV is of relevance to biogeochemical cycling, eutrophication, mesoscale climate models, human impact, vegetation dynamics, water cycle, and radiation budget climate studies. Ongoing missions and instru- ments of relevance include ERS-2/AATSR (1995-), MERIS (2002-), SeaWiFS (1997-), Jason-1 (2001-), Landsat (Landsat-7, 1999-), SPOT (SPOT-5, 2002-), and AVHRR (on NOAA POES). NASA plans for OSTM/Jason-2 and LDCM, international plans for Sentinel-3 and GCOM-C/SGLI, and the decadal survey recommendation for SWOT are also of interest. NPOESS/VIIRS can address the surface area of lakes; however, there remains a lack of three-dimensional measurement capability. 10It has been demonstrated in small-scale experimental fires that the amount of radiant heat energy liberated per unit time (the fire radia- tive power; FRP) is related to the rate at which fuel is being consumed. This is a direct result of the combustion process, whereby carbon- based fuel is oxidized to CO2 with the release of a certain heat yield. Therefore, measuring this FRP and integrating it over the lifetime of the fire provides an estimate of the total fire radiative energy (FRE), which for wildfires should be proportional to the total mass of fuel biomass combusted. See M.J. Wooster, G. Roberts, G.L.W. Perry, and Y.J. Kaufman, âRetrieval of biomass combustion rates and totals from fire radiative power observations: FRP derivation and calibration relationships between biomass consumption and fire radiative energy release,â Journal of Geophysical Research 110:D24311, doi:10.1029/2005JD006318, 2005.
112 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT Biomass Measurements of biomass are important to studies of biogeochemical cycling, modeling, mesoscale climate models, human impact, vegetation dynamics, and surface roughness. Ongoing missions and instruments of rel- evance include ALOS/PALSAR (2006-), ENVISAT/ASAR, Landsat, MODIS (1999-), MERIS (2002-), ICESat, and ASTER. NASA plans for LDCM, international plans for Cryosat-2, ALOS, and ESA-BIOMASS, and the decadal survey recommendations for DESDynI and ICESat-II are also of interest. NPOESS/VIIRS is expected to contribute to this ECV; however, there remains a lack of three-dimensional measurement capability (e.g., from lidar or radar). Land Cover, Surface Albedo, Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation, and Leaf Area Index The above ECVs are important to climate studies due to their role in biogeochemical cycling, modeling, meso- scale climate models, human impact, vegetation dynamics, albedo, and surface roughness. Ongoing missions and instruments of relevance include AVHRR, MODIS (1999-), (A)ATSR (1991-), Landsat, SPOT, MERIS (2002-), GLI, ASTER, MISR (2000-), GOES, MSG, and POLDER. The NASA-planned LDCM mission, the international plans for Sentinel-3 and GCOM-C/SGLI, and the decadal survey recommendation for HyspIRI are also of inter- est. These ECVs are considered to be at low risk because they can be adequately addressed by VIIRS (assuming cross-talk is mitigated). If the VIIRS cross-talk issue is not resolved, there will be moderate risk to these ECVs. WORKSHOP SUMMARYâDAY 2 The breakout groups on day 2 focused on the impacts of NPOESS and GOES-R descopes sensor by sensor. Participants were asked to comment on the various mitigation options suggested by NASA and NOAA presenters on day 1 and to suggest other mitigations to recover lost capabilities of importance to the climate community. Where appropriate, participants also considered whether missions in the Earth science decadal survey mission set might enable the recovery of the NPOESS climate measurements.11 As on day 1, templates were filled in during the breakout sessions, and they are available online.12 After the workshop a short background section was added to each breakout session summary to provide context for the discussions. It is important for the reader to recognize that the mitigation options presented below do not include all that might be considered and that both the options and the analysis are necessarily the subjective and not always disinterested views of presenters and participants. Breakout Sessions Radiation Sensor Measurements Background TSIS, ERBS, and OMPS-Limb measure, respectively, the incoming solar energy, the energy reflected and emitted by Earth, and the height-dependent concentration of atmospheric ozone that modulates these energy fluxes. Since the balance of incoming and outgoing radiation (Figure 2.1) determines Earthâs global temperature, these quantities are critical physical components of climate variability and change. The 28-year-plus time series of total solar irradiance, total ozone, and outgoing longwave radiation allows researchers to address unique aspects of climate change, climate sensitivity, and cloud feedbacks; however, ques- tions remain. Termination of the solar irradiance, energy budget, and ozone profile time series will leave unan- 11The decadal survey missions represent a set of community consensus priorities spanning Earth science including, but not limited to, climate science. Participants were asked to consider whether missions in the decadal survey mission set might enable recovery of NPOESS climate measureÂments to determine whether there are opportunities for synergism between NPOESS climate measurement recovery strategies and implementation of the community consensus decadal survey plan. Mitigation strategies were considered entirely within the context of climate measurement recovery and are not to be construed as a review of decadal survey mission priorities. The notion of synergy versus competition with the decadal survey is further discussed in Chapter 3, âCross-Cutting Issues.â 12See http://www7.nationalacademies.org/ssb/SSB_NPOESS2007_Presentations.html.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 113 FIGURE 2.1â Diagram of Earthâs radiation budget 2.1 budget.eps identifying the components that the three demanifested NPOESS sensors were to measure. SOURCE: After NASA Langley Research Center, âThe Earthâs Energy Budget,â CERES SâCOOL Project: Clouds and the Earthâs Radiant Energy System Studentsâ Cloud Observations On-Line. Available at http://asd-www.larc.nasa. gov/SCOOL/budget.jpg. swered crucial questions concerning the Sunâs impact on climate, both from direct surface heating and indirectly through its modulation of ozone and the stratosphere; the recovery (or not) of the ozone layer from chlorofluoro- carbon reductions; the climatic impacts of a changing stratosphere; and the high-precision monitoring of clouds, aerosols, and ocean heat storage over the globe. Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance The TSIS instrument that would have flown on NPOESS comprises the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) components, copies of which are currently operating successfully on the NASA SORCE (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment) free-flying spacecraft (launched in 2003). The SORCE TIM sensor provides improved absolute accuracy and long-term stability relative to the Âradiometers flown on the Nimbus-7, Solar Maximum Mission, Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), ACRIMSAT,
114 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT and SOHO spacecraft. ACRIMSAT (launched in 1999) and SOHO (launched in 1995) are still operating. The SORCE SIM instrument is the first to measure the visible and near-infrared spectral irradiances, and it continues the monitoring of the middle UV spectrum, done earlier by UARS. A TIM instrument is scheduled to fly on the Glory mission (launch in late 2008, 3-year mission design life- time, 5-year goal), after which there are no current plans to ensure continuation of the 35-year record of total solar irradiance. The end of the SORCE mission in 2011 (assuming a 4-year extension of the core 5-year mission) will terminate a 9-year record of solar visible and infrared spectral irradiance and a 20-year record of solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance. Solar irradiance measurements from 1978 to 2013 will have sampled only three 11-year irradi- ance cycles, which alone is insufficient time to determine whether long-term irradiance trends occur or to quantify the broad range of irradiance changes possible in activity cycles of varying strength. Earth Radiation Budget Earthâs radiation budget parameters have, like solar irradiance, been measured since 1978 via instruments onboard seven different spacecraft. Each CERES instrument contains three scanning thermistor bolometer r Â adiometers to monitor the longwave and visible components of Earthâs radiative energy budget. CERES achieves high radiometric measurement precision and accuracy, and it measures comprehensive Earth radiation budget parameters at higher accuracy than did its predecessors. CERES instruments on TRMM (launched 1997), Terra (launched 1999), and Aqua (launched 2002) have significantly enhanced capability relative to that of the initial sensors flown on Nimbus 7, ERBS, NOAA-9, and NOAA-10. The paired CERES on Terra and on Aqua provide both of those missions with the possibility of coincident fixed azimuth plane scanning from one and rotating azimuth plane scanning from the other CERES, enhancing the quality of the final products. The CERES Terra and Aqua biaxial scan mode permits observations of the angular radiation fields in order to greatly improve the accuracy of the final fluxes of solar and thermal energy used to derive Earthâs radiation balance. These biaxial observations allow future missions in the same 10:30 or 13:30 orbits to fly a single CERES instrument while achieving the same accuracy as Terra and Aqua. The demanifesting of ERBS, which was to have had the same performance specifications as CERES but updated components, means that Earth radiation budget measurements will terminate with the CERES measurements on Aqua. While the CERES instruments are the most accurate broadband instruments yet flown, they are still not accurate enough to observe the subtle but critical decadal climate change signals unless the instruments are overlapped for at least 6 months in orbit according to the GCOS climate-monitoring principles.13 For this reason it is crucial that measurement record gaps are avoided. Both on-orbit CERES instruments have already exceeded their 5-year mission design life. Ozone Profile The total column and the vertical profile of ozone have been measured from space since 1978, primarily by the TOMS and SBUV instruments, respectively. The NPOESS OMPS-Nadir sensor is a combined TOMS/SBUV sensor. Although the SBUV is capable of measuring the ozone profile, its spatial resolution is poor (250 Ã 250 km), and the observations extend only above the peak ozone concentration. Therefore, the original OMPS design also included a limb sensor (OMPS-Limb) to achieve much higher spatial resolution and, in addition, measure the entire ozone vertical profile, including in the troposphere, below the stratospheric peak. Elimination of OMPS-Limb from NPOESS means that measurements of the complete ozone profile will end upon completion of the Aura mission (launched in 2004 with a 5-year mission design lifetime). The OMPS-Nadir sensor on NPOESS will continue only the total column ozone record. 13See http://www.gosic.org/gcos/GCOS-climate-monitoring-principles.htm.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 115 Summary of Breakout Group Discussions Participants in the breakout discussion considered various mitigation options for each demanifested sensor. A common theme throughout the session was the general preference for free flyers rather than a remanifesting of sensors on NPOESS, although the advantages of assimilation onto an operational platform in terms of data continuity were also noted. Should free flyers play a role in NPOESS mitigation, some participants indicated that there would be requirements for formation flight with the NPOESS platforms that might present a requirement for station keeping for NPOESS itself. The ability of the Integrated Program Office to accommodate such a require- ment is uncertain. TSIS. Although âabsolute calibrationâ has been a goal, expected accuracy has yet to be demonstrated, and so the overlap requirement remains. Ensuring the continuity of the solar irradiance record requires the flight of TSIS indefinitely, overlapping with the current observations. With the demanifesting of TSIS from NPOESS, the sensor can be flown only if provided to the program as government-furnished equipment. In the near term, TIM on Glory will overlap with TIM on SORCE. However, with the earliest flight of a remanifested TSIS on C2 in 2016, the likelihood of a measurement gap is high. Some participants noted that assimilation of total solar irradiance (TSI) and spectral solar irradiance (SSI) observations into the NPOESS operational environment would ensure eventual continuity of the measurements in the longer term, but with an increased risk of gaps in the near term. The participants considered several mitigation scenarios, which are summarized below. Mitigation Scenario 1. In scenario 1, the TIM instrument flies on Glory, as planned, in 2009 (continuing the record of total solar irradiance) and NASA builds two additional TSIS (containing TIM and SIM for total and spectrally resolved irradiance measurements) instruments for NPOESS C2 (2016) and C4 (2022). Most participants felt that this option, involving eventual restoration of the TSIS instrument to the NPOESS platform, provided for the eventual continuity of total and spectral irradiance observations in the longer term. However, the potential risk is high for creating gaps in total solar irradiance and SSI records. It was also noted that waiting for an NPOESS C2 launch would very likely create a gap, avoidable only in the (unlikely) event that SORCE continues beyond 2016, a mission life of over 13 years. Mitigation Scenario 2. Scenario 2 includes all the provisions of scenario 1 but adds TSIS to the LDCM in 2011. This scenario would provide the opportunity to avoid an otherwise-likely data gap, but a solar pointing platform or mechanism would have to be provided to accommodate TSIS. In this scenario, a gap in TSI observa- tions will likely be avoided, provided that there is sufficient overlap of SORCE, Glory, LDCM, and NPOESS C2. The probability of a gap in SSI is also reduced, since SORCE SSI measurements need only continue beyond 2011 (instead of beyond 2016). LDCM is a high-priority mission that reduces the probability of launch delays that could create a gap in the irradiance data. Mitigation Scenario 3. Scenario 3, which was preferred by most of the breakout session participants, involves flying TSIS on LDCM and then on subsequent free flyers in 2014 and 2020.Â Having a dedicated mission is con- sidered desirable in order to reduce the higher integration costs presumed for a multisensor Earth-pointed platform and to allow flexibility in planning and launches.Â During discussions, a participant noted that free flyers can be canceled more easily than can a multiple-sensor mission; he considered this a potential drawback.Â However, in the short time available for discussion, the potential trade-offs involved in free flyers versus alternatives could not be explored in detail. Other Mitigation Options. Participants also discussed other options for securing the TSIS data record, includ- ing acceleration of the decadal survey recommendation for CLARREO, flying a series of dedicated spacecraft,
116 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT and accommodation of TSIS on already-planned missions as an instrument of opportunity (e.g., on GOES-R or DSCOVR). The drawbacks of these options include the risk of relying on unapproved missions, the perceived higher risk of cancellation of single-instrument missions, and physical 14 and programmatic instrument accom- modation challenges, respectively. ERBS. Ensuring a long-term record of Earthâs radiation budget requires the flight of ERBS-type sensors indefi- nitely, overlapping with Aqua in the near term. CERES is currently manifested on C1 and the NPOESS ERBS was canceled, making an ERB gap likely. To avoid a gap with Aqua, many participants strongly suggested that CERES FM-5 should fly on NPP rather than C1 (2013). Participants considered several mitigation scenarios, which are summarized below. Some also offered several suggestions for CERES upgrades or improvements, including changes to the mirror attenuated mosaic (MAM) 15 to facilitate solar calibration, switching the 8-12 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Î¼ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ m window channel with the ERBE longwave channel to improve determination of longwave and shortwave flux components, and changing materials and instrument operation to avoid UV degradation of the solar channel. Mitigation Scenario 1. Scenario 1 involves flying CERES on NPP in 2009 rather than on NPOESS C1 to avoid a gap with Aqua, while developing ERBS or a CERES-II for NPOESS C1 and C3. This scenario ensures continuation of ERB measurements on an operational platform and reduces the risk of a gap by a factor of three for putting ERBS on C1 (based on an engineering model of instrument and spacecraft failure rates). A downside of choosing a CERES-II approach is that the original CERES instrument team has been disbanded and the technology is old, so costs, risks, and available capability for building the instruments are unknown. Mitigation Scenario 2. Mitigation scenario 2 for providing the needed measurement during the NPOESS program span is to fly the existing CERES on NPP and develop ERBS for launch on two subsequent free flyers. Because generation of the Earth radiation budget CDR requires inputs from other sensors on NPOESS, the free flyers would have to fly in formation with the NPOESS 13:30 spacecraft (within 5 minutes of VIIRS coverage). Some participants again noted the advantages of dedicated missions, which allow for flexibility in mission plan- ning and launch dates, but acknowledged the increased risk of cancellation of individual free flyers and of thus jeopardizing measurement continuity. Other Mitigation Options. Flying ERBS on the decadal surveyâs recommended CLARREO mission was con- sidered; however, the orbits were found to be incompatible, as the CLARREO mission concept (as it is currently defined) requires precessing orbits, whereas the ERBS continuation of CERES requires a 13:30 Sun-synchronous orbit. The CLARREO and ERBS observations could be directly compared, however, during orbit crossings of CLARREO with NPP and/or the NPOESS 13:30 orbit. OMPS Limb Subsystem. OMPS-Limb was removed from the NPOESS manifest as part of Nunn-McCurdy cer- tification. Omitting OMPS-Limb will result in the complete loss of precise information about the ozone-height profile after 2014, because OMPS-Limb was the only instrument planned to fly after Aura that would be capable of determining ozone profiles below the peak concentration in the stratosphere. Some participants noted that even though a descoped OMPS on NPOESS will continue total-column ozone measurements, the OMPS-Nadir sensor lacks the state-of-the-art capability for measuring other trace species 14Physical accommodation challenges include, for example, instrument sensitivity to the planned missionâs radiation and thermal environ- ment, as well as ability to fit within the spacecraftâs available payload resource allocations. Programmatic challenges include the perceived cost, schedule, and technical risk associated with accommodating an additional instrument. 15The mirror attenuated mosaic is a low-scattering mirror used to attenuate and reflect solar radiation into the fields of view for the broadband shortwave (0.2 to 5 Î¼m) and total (0.2 to 50 Î¼m) Earth Radiation Budget Experiment scanning radiometers.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 117 and for high spatial resolution, both of which are essential for advancing atmospheric research in the future. Furthermore, OMPS-Nadir measurements are duplicated by GOME-II on MetOp, which has a smaller footprint (~40 km Ã 40 km). The GOME-II instrument also measures aerosols, NO 2, SO2, BrO, and OClO. With the avail- ability of the higher-resolution OMI data, the science community has realized that OMPS-Nadir and GOME-II have inadequate spatial resolutionâthus, there is a desire for higher resolution and more capable sensors than OMPS-Nadir. For near-term mitigation, most participants would have the 2010-2014 NPP mission fly both OMPS-Nadir and OMPS-Limb, since OMPS-Limb is already built (NASA and NOAA have indicated that OMPS-Limb will indeed be flown on NPP16). Mitigation Scenario 1. The most basic mitigation scenario involves remanifesting of OMPS-Limb onto all NPOESS satellites flying OMPS-Nadir. Some participants suggested that because OMPS-Limb and OMPS-Nadir were designed as an integrated package and thus share common electronics, reintegration of OMPS-Limb would present a low risk and should be low in cost. The expected launch date of C3, however, presents a measurement gap risk beyond Aura and NPP. Mitigation Scenario 2. Scenario 2 involves flight of the OMPS suite (nadir and limb) as above, but replac- ing the C3 flight with a free flyer. Many participants again noted the advantages of dedicated missions, which allow for flexibility in mission planning and launch dates; however, they also acknowledged the increased risk of cancellation of individual free flyers, which jeopardizes measurement continuity. Mitigation Scenario 3. Participants discussed a scenario involving flight of solar occultation instruments (e.g., SAGE or Canadian ACE) on free flyers in inclined, precessing orbits to ensure continuity of measurements of stratospheric ozone and pertinent trace-gas profiles. Many participants again noted the advantages and risks associated with free flyers. Other Mitigation Scenarios. Participants also discussed the relevance of the GACM mission recommended by the Earth science decadal survey. Although it was noted that GACM would provide higher resolution than OMPS, its anticipated launch date is too far in the future for GACM to be relied on as a mitigation option. The flight of an OMI follow-on instrument would preserve the continuity of Auraâs higher-resolution ozone data, but only at nadirâmeaning that a limb capability would still be needed. GOME-II was also discussed as a possible source of some desired trace gas information, but the spatial resolution is relatively low, and the MetOp 9:30 orbit would present difficulty in merging the data into the current data record. Visible and Infrared Imager and Sounder Measurements Background Nunn-McCurdy NPOESS certification resulted in the demanifesting of APS and reduced the coverage of CrIS/ATMS. The VIIRS sensor has experienced hardware challenges that might impair the sensorâs ability to meet certain IORD objectives. A brief background on each of the sensors is presented below. Mitigation options were explored for APS (the demanifested sensor), and participants made suggestions and comments regarding VIIRS and CrIS/ATMS. VIIRS Operational 2010+ low-Earth-orbit (LEO) environmental monitoring will be provided by the NPOESS VIIRS. VIIRS combines and dramatically improves upon the POES AVHRR and the DMSP Operational Line Scanner 16Press Release: NOAA, NASA Restore Climate Sensor to Upcoming NPP Satellite, April 11, 2007, available at http://www.nasa.gov/home/ hqnews/2007/apr/HQ_07085_NOAA_NASA_instrument.html.
118 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT (OLS). Combining AVHRR and OLS capabilities into a single sensor will provide advantages of simultaneity along with dramatic improvements in spatial resolution and radiometry for vegetation index, SST, cloud top temperature, and day-night cross-terminator cloud imaging for DOD applications. Moreover, to satisfy the VIIRS EDRs prescribed by the NPOESS IORD, VIIRS will also provide many of the scientific remote-sensing features of the Earth Observing System (EOS) MODIS and SeaWiFS instruments. VIIRS offers most MODIS and SeaWiFS capabilities except near-IR and microwave/IR water vapor bands, IR sounding bands, and near-IR fluorescence radiometry not required to meet the prescribed VIIRS EDRs. VIIRS will also dramatically improve on MODIS and SeaWiFS spatial resolution (via a patented OLS-like 17 detector aggregation technique) and global coverage (via a 40 percent wider imaging swath), while offering comparable absolute radiometry and sensitivity as well as the long-term stability required by the IORD to support CDRs. Indeed, most of the 23 VIIRS EDRs are also ECVs. VIIRS is manifested on the NPP and is planned for a 13:30 Sun-synchronous orbit as part of the EOS âA- Train,â to augment the EOS Aqua spacecraft carrying MODIS, and to complement the NOAA Nâ² and DMSP midafternoon spacecraft. Following NPP, the NPOESS C1 spacecraft carrying a VIIRS will operate in the termina- tor orbit to replace the DMSP F16. Finally, the NPP will be replaced by NPOESS C3; the operational replacement for the DMSP, NOAA Nâ², and EOS Aqua satellites, all operating in midafternoon orbits. The pre-Nunn-McCurdy NPOESS constellation was also to include NPOESS C2 for the midmorning orbit with a VIIRS to replace the EOS Terra MODIS as well as the NOAA Nâ² and DMSP midmorning AVHRR and OLS, respectively. Post-Nunn-McCurdy, the midmorning orbit has been deleted, and the ESA/EUMETSATâs MetOp-A, which became operational in late 2006, substitutes AVHRR for the NPOESS midmorning VIIRS, offering no replacement for the midmorning OLS or MODIS. Along with the MetOp AVHRR in the 21:30 orbit (9:30 pm local ascending nodeââmidmorningâ refers to the 9:30 am local descending node), the NPP/MetOp pair will provide continuity of civil environmental imaging, but the deletion of the NPOESS 2130 orbit results in reduced capability, given that the AVHRR on MetOp will only address (and not meet) a fraction of the VIIRS EDRs. In particular, the requirements for VIIRS EDR long-term stability were specified to assist CDR production. The AVHRR is not specified to meet these requirements even for the limited set of VIIRS EDRs it does address. APS Aerosol information available from current operational and research satellite observations is primarily in the form of aerosol optical depth, with additional coarse information about particle size provided in the form of a coarse/fine mode discrimination of optical depth or in the form of an aerosol index. Much of this information is restricted to over-ocean observations, given the complexity that land surface adds due to variable surface reflec- tions. The information currently available is far short of what is neededâquantified aerosol absorption is needed to apportion the aerosol forcing contributions between atmosphere and surfaceâto monitor aerosol forcings of climate.18 APS offers limited ability for determining the absorbing properties of aerosols, which is nevertheless a significant step forward from existing capabilities. APS on Glory is scheduled for launch in 2008 and is expected to operate into 2013. With the removal of the APS instrument from NPOESS, VIIRS will by necessity become the principal sensor for deriving aerosol p Â arameters needed for estimation of aerosol climate forcing post-2013. Without a remanifesting of the APS, the monitoring of aerosol forcing beyond 2013 will likely decline to pre-2013 capability, particularly given the uncertain performance of VIIRS. 17The DMSP OLS is an oscillating scan radiometer designed for cloud imaging. A notable feature of the OLS is its equal resolution across the scan. 18NRC, Radiative Forcing of Climate Change: Expanding the Concept and Addressing Uncertainties, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2005.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 119 CrIS/ATMS The power of hyperspectral sounding has been amply demonstrated by the NASA EOS Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) flying on the Aqua mission in a 13:30 orbit19 in terms of improved retrieval uncertainty and a significant positive impact on forecast skill.20 Operational LEO atmospheric temperature and moisture sounding capability in the 2010+ time frame will be provided by two instrument pairs (three during the transition from the current system). The NPOESS program will fly an operational hyperspectral infrared sounderâthe Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS). The CrIS instrument will be accompanied by the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). The CrIS and ATMS instrument pair is currently manifested on the NPP flight, which is planned for a 13:30 Sun-synchronous orbit as a part of the EOS âA-Train.â The NPP will subsequently be replaced with the NPOESS flights C1 and C3; these are the operational replacements for NOAA Nâ². The NOAA M (midmorning), N, and Nâ² spacecraft carry the current-generation multispectral HIRS, along with the AMSU. In the midmorning orbit, the multispectral sounding capability of NOAA-M is being replaced by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding I Â nterferometer (IASI) carried on ESA/EUMETSATâs MetOp-A, which became operational in late 2006. The MetOp series carries additional profiling capability via the Microwave Humidity Sounder, Advanced Microwave Sounding Units (AMSU-A1 and AMSU-A2), and High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS/4). Retrieved variables from CrIS and ATMS include temperature, moisture, and pressure profiles, surface e Â missivity and temperature, total-column ozone, and additional possible data products such as trace gases (CO, N2O, CH4, and CO2). In particular, upper-air temperature and water vapor are considered to be global ECVs. The demanifesting of CrIS/ATMS from the NPOESS 17:30 orbit results in reduced coverage, because the CrIS/ATMS Â±48.3Â° cross-track scans and 2,250 km swaths do not provide global contiguous coverage. The reduc- tion from three to two orbit planes for atmospheric moisture and temperature profiling represents a loss in diurnal sampling (from 4- to 6-hour refresh) compared to the pre-Nunn-McCurdy NPOESS baseline, which will reduce the quality of diurnally averaged climate analyses. It should be noted, however, that the current operational satellite architecture of NOAA POES, DMSP, and MetOp does not include a 17:30 infrared sounder, and so coverage will not worsen, but rather fail to improve over that provided by the current system. This reduction in diurnal coverage is compounded by the recent NOAA decision to suspend taking operational geosynchronous upper-air temperature and water vapor profile measurements after the current GOES-N/O/P series until approximately 2025. Summary of Breakout Group Discussions A number of mitigation options and instrument improvements were considered for APS, VIIRS, and CrIS/ ATMS. An idea that received particular attention was that on all subsequent flight builds there would be extensive preflight characterization and improved documentation to increase climate science utility (to date this is not cur- rently planned); these preflight characterizations would ensure that the sensors are stable, as nearly identical as possible from sensor to sensor, and thus climate relevant. Two of the mitigation options discussed below were identified by some participants as involving small to moderate changes to existing instruments that might be accomplished with minimal additional investment and could yield high returns to the climate science community. Specifically: â¢ The VIIRS fire product (the VIIRS active fire EDR) can be improved by adding an M15 saturation flag. Participants familiar with the instrument design suggested that this might be possible to implement early in the program (as soon as NPP). â¢ CrIS/ATMS data can be downlinked at full spectral resolution to enable production of additional climate 19The Aqua orbit is controlled to maintain an ascending node equatorial crossing time of 13:30 local time. 20J. Le Marshall, âThe Use of Global AIRS Hyperspectral Observations in Numerical Weather Prediction,â 11th Symposium on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for the Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface, 87th American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, January 15-18, 2007, available at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/119660.pdf.
120 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT data products without changes to the hardware. Increased preflight testing and documentation would also be neces- sary to produce climate-quality greenhouse gas measurements from the instruments. VIIRS. A comparison of MODIS and VIIRS was presented. It was noted that the MODIS functional architecture is a flat âpaddleâ scan-mirror favored for midmorning and afternoon orbits while the VIIRS functional architecture is a rotating telescope required for terminator orbits. VIIRS will provide improved imagery (with more constant field of view than MODIS), but VIIRS has no IR channels sensitive to atmospheric H2O (or CO2). Regarding EDR per- formance, VIIRS is expected to meet all requirements, and in tandem with CrIS improves on most. 21 VIIRS is currently progressing through vacuum tests. While emphasizing the importance of not disrupting these tests so as to maintain schedule, several participants noted a number of highly desirable improvements. In par- ticular, the VIIRS fire product can be improved by mitigating the aggregation of saturated pixels with nonÂsaturated pixels, or at least providing a flag. In the future, a higher saturation level in the shortwave infrared window should be considered; this could be accomplished with a dual-gain sensor and likely not affect SST determinations. The inclusion of water-vapor-sensitive measurements that enable estimation of winds over the poles day and night is planned for the C3 VIIRS and should be pursued. It was noted that synergy with the visible/near-infrared (NIR) channels on ABI has been suggested and is planned; this synergy provides in-flight calibration opportunities for the geostationary ABI sensor (which lacks on-board visible/NIR calibration) leveraged from the LEO sensor (VIIRS with onboard calibration). Finally, to achieve comparable imaging capabilities in the midmorning orbit, participants advised that the Integrated Program Office work with EUMETSAT to fly a VIIRS imager on subsequent MetOp platforms so that an imager more capable than the AVHRR is flying in the midmorning (MetOp) orbit as soon as possible. One participant noted that MODIS displays problems with saturation that could be mitigated for VIIRS by incorporating dual gains especially for the 746 nm channel, and further suggested that signal-to-noise improve- ments by a factor of two in the 1,240 and 1,610 nm bands would enhance the ocean-sensing capabilities of VIIRS significantly. This participant noted that VIIRS could be very helpful to the ocean CDR (even more so with the above-mentioned improvements). APS. The APS instrument scientist for Glory, Brian Cairns, delivered a presentation regarding APS and APS- MODIS/VIIRS synergy. Dr. Cairns noted that aerosols come in various sizes and shapes; the key requirement is to determine the type of aerosol that is present. APS is intended to assist in measuring particle composition and size and shape. There are two cloud data products and an experimental product that are thought to be able to infer cloud base height. Instantaneous field of view cloud screening of APS at 6 km is accomplished using VIIRS/MODIS. Summarizing the APS and MODIS/VIIRS synergy, Cairns remarked, âAPS with MODIS/VIIRS tells you a lot, but alone APS tells you nothing.â Mitigation options considered by the participants are summarized below. Mitigation Scenario 1. In scenario 1, APS will fly on Glory as a demonstration, and if successful will be integrated onto NPOESS C3. Many participants believed APS on Glory would begin a valuable record; however, it was also noted that NPOESS C3 does not have a needed lunar calibration capability. Mitigation Scenario 2. Scenario 2 includes the elements of scenario 1 but adds a climate free flyer between Glory and C3. The added value of this scenario is the continuation of the aerosol data record, with the ability to lunar-calibrate APS on the free flyer. A variation on this option considers another free flyer in place of reintegra- tion onto C3. This approach would avoid the concern about lack of lunar calibration associated with C3, although likely at a higher cost. 21Formore detail, see C.F. Schueler and W.I. Barnes, âNext-Generation MODIS for Polar Operational Environmental Satellites,â Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 15(2):430-439, 1998.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 121 Mitigation Scenario 3. Another scenario involves proceeding with the ACE mission recommended in the Earth science decadal survey. This mission calls for cross-track polarimetric coverage, which is an advance over the single-pixel APS; however, the technology readiness of such an instrument was questioned by some participants. The perceived low technology readiness level22 of the polarimeter was also considered a risk of this scenario. CrIS/ATMS. The role of AIRS/IASI/CrIS-ATMS in climate research was discussed. It was noted that the require- ments for AIRS and CrIS are similar and that hyperspectral infrared measurements have been demonstrated to improve weather forecasting, largely accounting for the initial decision to include CrIS on NPOESS. AIRS has demonstrated a positive impact in weather forecasting, but the hyperspectral IR also helps in climate observations. AIRS radiances are accurate and traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standards. Further, AIRS is stable as verified by ground truth. With cross-calibrations, hyperspectral IR measurements have been used for quality control for other sensors (including MODIS). Some participants stated that the advent of spectrally resolved NIST-traceable infrared measurements will assist climate science appreciably. In subsequent discussion, breakout participants considered having CrIS/ATMS restored to the early morning orbit so that the diurnal cycle would be measured adequately. A breakout participant suggested that data with the full spectral resolution measured by CrIS be downlinked so that more accurate trace gas measurements could become available. Some participants also discussed their desire for additional improvements to hyperspectral sounding capability, including a dedicated sounder free flyer. Microwave Sensor Measurements Background The NPOESS altimeter, ALT, was demanifested as a result of the Nunn-McCurdy action, and CMIS is being restructured as a (still largely undefined) MIS instrument with reduced capability. In light of these changes, the microwave sensor breakout session divided its presentations and discussion into three subsessions: altimetry, radiometry, and scatterometry. While scatterometry was not considered as part of the NPOESS baseline, some participants felt that the pressing need for continuation of operational active ocean vector wind measurements warranted further discussion, particularly in light of the CMIS descope. Further, some participants asserted that passive microwave vector wind measurements did not constitute a climate data product, whereas the value for climate studies of scatterometry-derived wind measurements has been demonstrated. ALT/Altimetry A 15-year CDR of global sea level rise and interannual variability has been established by TOPEX/Poseidon (1992-2002) and Jason (2002-present).23 The duration of this data record is just beginning to provide insight into decadal variability. Altimeter data are used extensively in observationally based studies of ocean climate variability on seasonal and longer time scales. These data are also assimilated into many ocean circulation models. The 15-year sea level data record has established a unique record of the effects of global warming. As the ocean absorbs more than 80 percent of the heat from global warming, the information on the state of ocean circulation revealed from altimetry is also important for understanding climate change. The altimetry sea level record is crucial for checking the validity of the assessment of the extent of global warming and future projections and for monitoring the effects of global warming. The continuation of a precise sea level record is thus of unique and critical importance. 22Technology readiness levels are defined in J.C. Mankins, âTechnology Readiness Levels: A White Paper,â NASA Advanced Concepts Office, April 6, 1995, available at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/codeq/trl/trl.pdf. 23The rate of sea level rise has been approximately 3.5 mm/year. See E.W. Leuliette, R.S. Nerem, and G.T. Mitchum, âResults of TOPEX/ Poseidon and Jason-1 calibration to construct a continuous record of mean sea level,â Marine Geodesy 27:79-94, 2004, and B.D. Beckley, F.G. Lemoine, S.B. Luthcke, R.D. Ray, and N.P. Zelensky, âA reassessment of global and regional mean sea level trends from TOPEX and Jason-1 altimetry based on revised reference frame and orbits,â Geophysical Research Letters 34(14):L14608, 2007.
122 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT There are a number of other altimetry missions planned for the next decade: the France/India AltiKa/SARAL mission, the ESA Sentinel-3 mission, and the Chinese HY-2 mission. These missions will certainly complement precision altimetry missions but cannot be relied on as alternate approaches to the continuation of the sea level record because of their non-optimal orbits for resolving ocean tides, less accurate orbit determination, and the lack of an associated well-balanced science program focused on sea level and ocean circulation. Although the present record will be continued by the follow-on mission to Jasonâthe OSTM/Jason-2 to be launched in 2008 as a joint mission of NASA, NOAA, Centre National dâEtudes Spatiales (CNES), and EUMETSATâthe next mission after OSTM/Jason-2 is not yet confirmed. The certified NPOESS program does not include an altimeter. CMIS/MIS/Radiometry CMIS represented the state of the art in satellite microwave radiometers and was intended to continue, with a higher degree of accuracy and resolution, the time series of many fundamental climate variables, including SST and wind, sea ice and snow coverage, soil moisture, and atmospheric moisture (vapor, clouds, and rain). The ability of CMIS to measure surface characteristics through cloud cover made it a unique and essential sensor for climate. CMIS had a number of advanced capabilities that are not available from the current operational microwave imaging radiometers SSM/I and SSMIS. These included: 1. Low-frequency channels at 6.9 and 10.7 GHz, 2. Higher spatial resolution (a factor of three better than SSM/I and SSMIS), and 3. Better spatial/temporal coverage: three orbit times as compared to two. CMIS also had polarimetric channels capable of inferring wind direction, which is addressed elsewhere (see âScatterometryâ below). The capabilities of the MIS instrument that is to replace CMIS are still largely undefined; however, there were indications that certain low-frequency channels were likely to be lost. The loss of the low-frequency channels, particularly at 6.9 GHz, would mainly impact the measurement of SST and soil moisture, although it also would degrade the accuracy of some other retrievals such as measurements of wind speed. Loss of high spatial resolution would have a detrimental effect on measurements of all parameters, including sea ice, snow cover, and precipitation. Reduced spatial/temporal coverage, due to the deletion of MIS from the midmorning orbit, will significantly limit the ability to characterize the climateâs diurnal cycle, especially with respect to global precipitation. The impact on climate monitoring and research of losing these advanced capabilities is substantial. Microwave âthrough-cloudâ SST measurements have proven to be a boon for climate research and ocean- ography. Unlike IR measurements, which are limited to cloud-free areas, microwave retrievals provide a largely uninterrupted view of the surface temperature over the worldâs oceans. The importance of SST to climate research is hard to overstate. SST is a key parameter in determining how the water and energy fluxes at the air-sea interface affect the hydrologic cycle and the surface radiation balance. The intensity, frequency, and location of hurricanes are in part determined by where the necessary oceanic heat is available to sustain, encourage, or dissipate these storms. Climate oscillations such as the El NiÃ±o Southern Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Pacific Decadal Oscillation all have distinctive SST signatures that characterize the relevant forcings. The endemic cloud cover at high latitudes prevents monitoring of ocean temperatures by IR radiometers, and microwave radiometers provide the only way to continually measure SST in these vital Arctic regions, which are now experiencing rapid climate change. Tropical convergence zones are also prime examples of persistently cloudy regions where SST detection by AVHRR is problematic. Microwave measurements in the 5-7 GHz band are required to retrieve SST over the full range of global temperature (â3Â°C to 35Â°C).
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 123 Soil moisture is a key determinant of the interaction between the land and the atmosphere. In many respects, it plays a role similar to that of SST in the case of air-sea interactions. Soil moisture controls the relationship between actual and potential evapotranspiration and hence is a key determinant of the recycling of moisture from the land surface to the atmosphere. Notwithstanding that 6.9 GHz is limited to sensing soil moisture in the top few centimeters of the soil only in areas of sparse vegetation, the portion of the globe so covered is substantial. Furthermore, the areas where construction of a CDR would be feasible include substantial areas (e.g., of the African continent) where hydrologic extremes have great consequences both economically and in terms of loss of human life. Given the potential for acceleration of the hydrologic cycle associated with global warming, construction of a long-term CDR for soil moisture would have significant scientific and societal value. Furthermore, planned soil moisture missions (ESA/SMOS, NASA/SMAP) at the L-band, while emphasizing a product technically superior to the product that could be derived from a 6.9 GHz channel, are experimental in nature and are not alone intended to produce long-term, multidecadal CDRs. These planned L-band missions would, however, have great value in terms of refining and characterizing the temporal and spatial variability of the 6.9 GHz retrievals. Sea ice plays a key role in global climate change by regulating ocean-atmosphere transfers of energy and water and helping to control ocean surface salinity. Sea ice albedo feedbacks amplify climate impacts in the polar regions. Variables such as ice extent, concentration, and type are important for navigation as well as for marine habitat assessment. The passive microwave satellite record of sea ice concentration and extent extends from 1979 to the present. Documented decreases of Arctic sea ice extent currently exceed 8 percent per decade and appear to be accelerating. Snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere has also been declining at a rate of about 3 to 5 percent per decade during spring and summer. This decline in snow cover is significant because, compared with other land cover types, snow has a very high albedo and climate feedbacks are felt on local, regional, and even hemispheric scales. Moreover, snowmelt runoff is a key component in the hydrologic cycle and the primary source of fresh water for many millions of people. At a time when Arctic sea ice and snow cover are changing most rapidly, the loss of the all-weather monitoring capability of CMIS represents a major setback. Global measurements of precipitation will be adversely affected by all three lost capabilities. Accurate measurements of heavy rain require the 11 GHz channels. Higher spatial resolution is essential to discriminate convective versus stratoform features and to measure the intense rain that often comes from small rain cells. Finally, better spatial/temporal coverage is a main prerequisite for improving current knowledge of global rainfall over the complete diurnal cycle. The advanced capabilities of CMIS will be dearly missed by the precipitation community. The cancellation of CMIS leaves JAXAâs AMSR-E and the U.S. Navyâs WindSat as the only low-frequency, high-spatial-resolution microwave radiometers in space. Scatterometry Data derived from ocean scatterometers is vital to scientists in their studies of air-sea interaction and ocean circulation, and their effects on weather patterns and global climate. These data are also useful in the study of unusual weather phenomena such as El NiÃ±o, the long-term effects of deforestation on our rain forests, and changes in the sea-ice masses around the polar regions. These all play a central role in regulating global climate. An 8-year CDR of ocean surface vector winds has been established by QuikSCAT (1999-present). This data set has been crucial in advancing scientific research into marine meteorology, wind-driven upper-ocean circulation, and air-sea interaction processes from local to basin-wide scales. The QuikSCAT measurements have revealed energetic small- scale structure in the surface wind field that was not previously known to exist. The Ekman upwelling from the wind stress curl associated with these structures plays an important role in ocean circulation theory, as well as in ocean biology from upwelling of nutrients from the deep water into the upper ocean where they can be utilized
124 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT by phytoplankton. The QuikSCAT data record is approaching the 10-year duration that is considered the baseline minimum for use in numerical simulations of wind-forced ocean circulation. QuikSCAT is also heavily used in operational severe weather forecasting. The QuikSCAT measurements have had a major impact on tropical cyclone forecasting, especially for cyclones outside the range of aircraft reconnais- sance. QuikSCAT data have helped in the estimation of the intensity of tropical storms, in determining the radial extent of winds of tropical storm force in tropical storms and hurricanes, and in locating circulation centers for tropical depressions and tropical storms. QuikSCAT occasionally provides earlier detection of surface circulations in developing tropical cyclones, and some studies have indicated a positive impact on hurricane track forecasts by numerical models, especially over the open-ocean regions that are not accessible by aircraft. The high resolution of QuikSCAT measurements has improved forecasting, warnings of localized wind events, and ability to locate frontal systems over the ocean. In midlatitudes, QuikSCAT revolutionized wind warning categories by enabling the introduction of hurricane-force wind warnings in 2000. Hurricane-force winds were rarely forecast outside the tropics prior to the availability of QuikSCAT data. During the months of September 2006 through May 2007, forecasters at the NOAA Ocean Prediction Center used QuikSCAT wind measurements to identify 114 individual extratropical cyclones (64 in the North Atlantic and 50 in the North Pacific) containing extreme hurricane-force wind conditions. In the original configuration of NPOESS, the ocean surface vector wind data record established by QuikSCAT was to be replaced by passive microwave measurements of wind speed and direction by the polarimetric CMIS radiometer. From the beginning, there were serious concerns within the scientific community (both research and operational) about the viability of passive microwave measurements of ocean surface vector winds, especially in storms and in other areas of rain and large amounts of cloud liquid water. In preparation for CMIS, the U.S. Navy launched WindSat in January 2003 as a ârisk reduction demonstra- tion project.â24 WindSat is similar but not identical to CMIS, allowing insight into the accuracy of vector wind retrievals that could be expected from CMIS. WindSat results thus far have not allayed scientistsâ concerns about passive microwave measurement of ocean vector winds.25 Summary of Breakout Group Discussions ALT/Altimetry. Workshop participants considered currently operating and planned altimetry missions and their adequacy to meet climate measurement needs. Since the Sun-synchronous orbit of the NPOESS platforms is not acceptable for measuring global sea level change with the required precision, the loss of the NPOESS altimeter has little impact on continuation of this CDR. The Jason altimeter is expected to continue operating at least long enough to overlap its successor, Jason-2 (also known as OSTM), which is expected to launch in June 2008. Jason-2 is essentially equivalent to the cur- rently operating Jason altimeter. The overlap of TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason enabled the identification of a 14 cm bias between the two altimeters. It is likely that a similar bias will exist between Jason and Jason-2; therefore, an overlap of Jason and Jason-2 is highly desirable in order to cross-calibrate the two altimeters and ensure accurate continuation of the sea level CDR. If there is no overlap, tide gauge data will provide a viable alternative to cross- calibration, as long as the gap between Jason and Jason-2 is not long. While Jason-2 may continue to operate for more than its nominal 5-year lifetime, it is critical that a successor to Jason-2 be launched by 2013 to ensure continuation of a sea level CDR that is indispensable for monitoring the state of the global ocean and its role in future climate variability. Because of its Sun-synchronous orbit, the currently operating ENVISAT altimeter and its successor Sentinel-3 are not viable mitigation strategies for continuation of the sea level CDR beyond Jason-2. Three mitigation Âscenarios were discussed. All three consist of a sequence of two successors to Jason-2, referred to here as Jason-3 and Jason-4. 24Windsat is a joint IPO/DOD/NASA risk reduction demonstration project intended to measure ocean surface wind speed and wind direction from space using a polarimetric radiometer. It was launched in January 2006. See http://www.ipo.NOAA.gov/Projects/Windsat.html. 25See, for example, M. Brennan, R. Knabb, P. Chang, J. Sienkiewicz, Z. Jelenak, and K. Schrab, âThe Operational Impact of and Future Requirements for Satellite Ocean Surface Vector Winds in Tropical Cyclone Analysis,â 61st Interdepartmental Hurricane Conference, March 6, 2007, available at http://www.ofcm.gov/ihc07/Presentations/s4-04brennan.ppt.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 125 Mitigation Scenario 1. In the first scenario, which was the scenario most preferred by participants, Jason-3 consists of a Jason-2-type altimeter to be launched by NOAA and EUMETSAT, and Jason-4 consists of a wide- swath altimeter, referred to in the Earth science decadal survey as the SWOT mission, to be developed and launched by NASA and CNES. To allow for precise intercalibration, the preferred orbit for Jason-3 is the same as that of TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason, and Jason-2. The orbit for SWOT would have to be changed to a higher inclination and longer repeat period in order to satisfy the sampling requirements for the terrestrial water (lakes and rivers) applications. In addition to broadening applications to include measurements of terrestrial water, the synthetic aperture radar-interferometric technology of SWOT will provide much higher resolution measurements for studies of ocean eddies and measurements very near land for coastal applications. An advantage of this scenario is that Jason-3 would be a clone of Jason-2, in terms of both hardware and being a jointly funded project with EUMETSAT and other European partners. Many components have already been manufactured as spares for Jason-2, including a spare Proteus bus. If partnerships could be secured, the United States would only be responsible for approximately half of the cost of the mission. A potential disadvantage of this two-mission scenario is that the launch of Jason-3 could jeopardize a subsequent launch of the decadal surveyâs recommended SWOT mission if sufficient funding is not provided for both missions sequentially. Intercalibration issues between Jason-3 and a SWOT altimeter for Jason-4 would be unavoidable because of the need to change to a different orbit for SWOT. An overlap between Jason-3 and Jason-4/SWOT is therefore highly desirable, although the tide gauge network could also be a viable method for intercalibration. The 10-day repeat orbit for Jason-3 in this scenario would not satisfy Navy requirements. SWOTâs higher-inclination orbit provides a wider swath and a repeat period that would satisfy Navy requirements. Mitigation Scenario 2. In the second scenario, Jason-3 and Jason-4 are both Jason-2-type altimeters in the same orbit that has been used for TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason, which is also to be used for Jason-2. This scenario would eliminate any issues with cross-calibration and would thus ensure continuation of the CDR for sea level rise. The primary disadvantage of this scenario is the delay in the launch of a SWOT altimeter, thus postponing the capabilities to measure the full spectrum of eddy variability in the ocean, to measure sea surface height near land, and to measure terrestrial water. Another issue for this scenario is that there are no spare satellite buses available for Jason-4. Mitigation Scenario 3. Jason-3 is a SWOT-type altimeter. The advantage of scenario 3 is the near-term broad- ening of applications of satellite altimetry to include studies of ocean eddies, near-coastal sea level variability, and terrestrial water. A potential disadvantage is the possibility of a gap occurring in the sea level CDR due to limitations in how quickly SWOT could be built, tested, and launched. Since the orbit of SWOT would be different from that of TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason, and Jason-2, potential problems with cross-calibration for continuity of the sea level CDR would be an issue. An overlap between Jason-2 and Jason-3/SWOT is therefore highly desirable, although tide gauge data could also be a viable method for intercalibration. CMIS/MIS/Radiometry. Participants in the radiometry breakout session focused on the likely loss of capability of the CMIS instrument, which was canceled and is to be re-competed as a simpler, less capable instrument launching no earlier than 2016 on NPOESS C2. This descope and delay were of most concern for applications requiring the 6.9 GHz band, which is of prime importance for measurement of global SST and soil moisture. As noted earlier, many participants were less concerned about the potential loss of ocean vector winds measurements from CMIS, because this CMIS data product was considered inadequate even prior to the descoping; ocean vector wind mea- surement is addressed further in the section âScatterometryâ below. Two presentations were given on the importance of microwave SST retrievals to climate studies. One talk stressed the strong synergism that is obtained when microwave SST retrievals are combined with IR SST retrievals; both are necessary for doing climate research. The other presentation focused on the detrimental impact associated with the cancellation of CMIS and then suggested several possible mitigation strategies. Global SST Âretrievals require a channel near 6.9 GHz, and currently only AMSR-E and WindSat have this low-frequency channel.
126 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT CMIS also had a 6.9 GHz channel, but with its cancellation there is a very high risk that a break will occur in the microwave SST climate record when AMSR-E and WindSat cease to operate. Both sensors are past their mission design lifetimes, and AMSR-E is experiencing some torque anomalies. The soil moisture CDR, which also requires the 6.9 GHz channels, will suffer a break as well. Without any mitigation measures, the future for low-frequency, high-resolution microwave radiometry looks austere. A follow-on AMSR-2 is scheduled to fly on JAXAâs GCOM-W platform, but not until 2012, and no follow-on is planned for WindSat. NASAâs GMI radiometer is scheduled for launch in 2013, but it does not have the 6.9 GHz channels or the high spatial resolution of CMIS and AMSR. In addition, GMI will not view the high latitudes due to its low-inclination orbit. In 2016, assuming no more delays, NPOESS will launch MIS, a descoped version of CMIS with capabilities yet to be defined. One participant noted that this âthin thread of current and future microwave missions is completely inadequate for climate monitoring and research.â It was pointed out that a significant launch delay of MIS past 2016 could be disastrous. The DMSP F-series of satellites comes to an end at the end of the next decade. The microwave imagers SSM/I and SSMIS on these DMSP satellites have provided the research community with extremely important CDRs, including sea ice coverage, water vapor, wind speed, rainfall, and cloud water. A break in any of these time series due to a delay or aborted launch of MIS would be devastating to climate monitoring. With respect to descoping CMIS to MIS, there was strong support for maintaining the low-frequency Âchannels, particularly 6.9 GHz, and also for maintaining the high spatial resolution of AMSR-E and WindSat. Most partici- pants considered these capabilities more important than maintaining the polarimetric channels for wind direction retrievals; the preferred approach for obtaining wind direction was via scatterometry. Several mitigation strategies were discussed. Mitigation Scenario 1. The first scenario involves making the most of what is possible now with AMSR-2 and MIS by advising NASA and NOAA to establish a memorandum of understanding with JAXA that would make the AMSR-2 data and the supporting documentation that is required to develop CDRs freely available to the research community. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ The workshop discussion stressed the need for proper documentation for each satellite data stream to be freely available to the user community as an aid to application of the data within the CDR. In ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ addition, science teams need to be funded to utilize the AMSR-2 data for climate research. However, there were some concerns expressed about relying too much on AMSR-2 because of past problems with platform stability and longevity, and some additional mitigation was thought to be highly desirable. Mitigation Scenario 2. The second mitigation scenario is to add a 6.9 GHz channel to GMI. Currently the lowest channel on GMI is 11 GHz, and it is feasible that a 6.9 GHz channel could share the same feedhorn as the 11 GHz channel. It is also possible that the size of the GMI antenna could be increased. However, the GMI project has already undergone several delays, and it is not clear if these new modifications would be possible considering the current schedule. Another drawback is that SST in polar areas will not be observed by GMI. Mitigation Scenario 3. The third mitigation scenario, most intriguing to many participants, is to enhance the microwave radiometer onboard the planned (but not yet funded) XOVWM, which has a suggested launch date around 2012. The synergy of an active scatterometer and a passive radiometer on the same platform is significant and would improve both the scatterometer vector wind retrievals and the radiometer SST retrievals. As currently planned the XOVWM radiometer has channels at 6.9 and 14 GHz. It also has a very large antenna that will provide higher spatial resolution than would AMSR-E. To obtain accurate SST retrievals, at least one higher-frequency channel would be required and the onboard calibration system would have to be improved. The feasibility of these enhancements needs to be investigated. Mitigation Scenario 4. A final mitigation strategy is a free-flyer radiometer with AMSR-type capabilities. Existing radiometers such as GMI (with a 6.9 GHz channel), JAXA AMSR-2, or WindSat are all possibilities. However, this would be a costly scenario in that it would require an entirely new mission.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 127 Other Breakout Group Discussions. In addition to mitigation strategies, a few other matters were discussed, including the idea of reinstating microwave sounding channels on the morning NPOESS platform. For this pur- pose, ATMS is preferable to sounding channels on MIS. Interest in this approach comes from the need to continue the MSU/AMSU tropospheric and stratospheric temperature CDRs without any spurious discontinuities. These temperature time series have been based on a combination of morning and afternoon orbits for the last 28 years and represent one of the most important CDRs coming from satellite remote sensing. Scatterometry. Breakout group participants discussed the CDR that exists thus far for ocean vector winds, based primarily on 8 years of QuikSCAT measurements. Other platformsâ contributions were discussed, including those of ASCAT and WindSat. These discussions are briefly described here, although the discussion was extensive. Some participants noted that the currently operating ASCAT scatterometer on MetOp will not maintain the CDR established by QuikSCAT, primarily because of sampling inadequacy; the combined coverage of the two parallel measurement swaths of ASCAT is only approximately 55 percent that of QuikSCAT. The 720 km gap between the two ASCAT swaths exacerbates these sampling problems. In addition, the spatial resolution of ASCAT is half that of QuikSCAT, which limits ASCATâs usefulness in coastal applications to those that are about 50 km or farther from land, and in the resolution of small-scale features in the wind field such as hurricane structure, fronts, and jets. ASCAT also has a different wind directional ambiguity structure that results in larger potential errors in the interpretation of vector wind fields. Further, because of the reduced sensitivity of vertically polarized radar returns to high winds compared with horizontal polarization and the fact that ASCAT is a single-channel vertically polarized radar, the performance of ASCAT in high-wind conditions remains to be demonstrated. Some participants also remarked on the difficulty of assessing the accuracy of WindSat estimates of wind speed and direction due to frequent updates of the wind retrieval algorithms under development by the Navy, although the evolving nature of these algorithms was not considered surprising in view of the newness of the passive microwave technology for measurements of ocean surface vector winds. In presentations to the participants, WindSat wind retrievals (based on 4 years of data) were compared with QuikSCAT observations. Based on analyses of these comparisons, the following observations were made: â¢ There is significantly larger wind direction uncertainty in WindSat retrievals at low-to-moderate wind speeds; â¢ Depending on the version of the algorithm, WindSat wind retrievals can be biased either high or low in high-wind-speed conditions such as hurricanes and extratropical cyclones; â¢ WindSat retrievals of wind vectors are more susceptible to error in cloudy and rainy conditions, which are often associated with extreme weather events; this susceptibility may affect the use of WindSat data in forecast systems and for wind warnings and the development of accurate climatologies of such events; â¢ The spatial resolution of WindSat is less than half that of QuikSCAT; â¢ The coverage of the WindSat measurement swath is only approximately 55 percent that of QuikSCAT; and â¢ Passive measurements are much more subject to contamination by land in the antenna sidelobes; as a result, WindSatâs retrievals are not possible within approximately 75 km of land. While some of these issues are being addressed by ongoing improvements in the WindSat retrieval algorithms, several participants expressed the strongly held view that passive microwave measurements would never be com- parable in accuracy, coverage, or resolution to the measurements from a radar scatterometer. Passive microwave measurements would be especially problematic in cloudy and rainy conditions and for measurement of winds near land. In the certified NPOESS program, CMIS has been descoped to MIS, which has not yet been defined in detail. Participants frequently commented that CMIS was adopted with no input from the scientific user community and with limited evidence of the capabilities of passive microwave for estimation of ocean surface vector winds. Regard-
128 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT less of whether MIS includes the polarimetric measurements required to estimate wind direction, it would result in a degradation of the accuracy, coverage, and resolution of ocean vector winds provided by QuikSCAT, especially in rainy conditions. Moreover, MIS would worsen the sampling of the wind field near land compared with QuikSCAT. MIS is therefore not a viable mitigation strategy for maintaining the ocean surface vector winds CDR. India and China plan to launch scatterometers in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The instrument designs for these scatterometers are unknown and data availability remains uncertain for both missions. Neither of these Âscatterometers can therefore be considered viable mitigation strategies for continuation of the ocean surface vector winds CDR. While QuikSCAT has provided many benefits and has established a baseline CDR for ocean surface vector winds, there are important limitations to the QuikSCAT data. For example, the Ku-band QuikSCAT radar cannot measure extreme winds or winds in heavy rain (although it can measure wind speeds of up to about 90 kt, if those winds occur outside of rain and are not confined to a very small area, both of which are the case in most hur- ricanes). QuikSCAT measurements are also limited to a spatial resolution of 12.5 km and are not routinely made closer than about 30 km from land.26 Many in the microwave breakout group argued that high priority should be given to a sustained, more capable, next-generation scatterometer program that can meet these requirements while at the same time continuing the ocean surface vector winds CDR established by QuikSCAT. Since QuikSCAT is already 3 years past its designed instrument lifetime, it was a widely held view that con- tinuation of the ocean surface vector wind CDR is in serious jeopardy. None of the currently operating or future planned instruments can continue the ocean surface vector winds CDR. Two mitigation scenarios were discussed. Both consist of a dedicated free-flyer scatterometer mission at the nearest possible opportunity in order to avoid, or at least minimize, a gap in the ocean surface vector winds CDR. This mission is envisioned as the first in a sequence of such missions. Mitigation Scenario 1. The first scenario involves a QuikSCAT clone, which is the minimal solution for continuing the accuracy, resolution, and coverage of the 8-year ocean surface vector winds CDR established by QuikSCAT. The advantage is that a QuikSCAT clone is preliminarily estimated by NASA to be approximately 10Â percent less expensive and could be readied 6 months sooner than the advanced scatterometer considered in the second scenario. The small percentage cost differential is because QuikSCAT is based on 1980s technology that would have to be updated to currently available electronic components. This updating would lead to a redesign of major instrument subsystems, thereby losing many of the cost advantages of a true âbuild-to-printâ duplication of the QuikSCAT instrument. The disadvantage of a QuikSCAT clone is that some of the most important NOAA operational requirements established at the June 2006 NOAA Operational Ocean Surface Vector Winds Require- ments Workshop27 would not be met (e.g., measurements of extreme winds, higher spatial resolution, and reduced contamination from rain and land). Mitigation Scenario 2. The second scenario, preferred by many participants, consists of a next-generation synthetic-aperture-radar-based scatterometer mission referred to in the Earth science decadal survey as XOVWM. XOVWM would include a dual-frequency Ku-band and C-band radar and an X-band radiometer, which would allow measurements in rainy conditions, as well as measurements of the extreme winds in hurricanes and extra- tropical cyclones. The next-generation system would provide measurements with a resolution of better than 5 km and to within 1-3 km of land. XOVWM would thus satisfy most of the NOAA operational requirements, while at the same time maintaining the ocean surface vector winds CDR established by QuikSCAT and beginning a more 26See âOceans Community Letter,â April 6, 2006, available at http://cioss.coas.oregonstate.edu/CIOSS/Documents/Oceans_Community_ L Â etter.pdf. 27The NOAA Operational Ocean Surface Vector Winds Requirements Workshop, held June 5-7, 2006, at the National Hurricane Center in Miami, Florida, was sponsored by the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology. The final report of the workshop is available at http://www.ofcm.gov/tcr/reference/Ocean%20Surface%20Vector%20Winds_ workshop_report_final.pdf.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 129 accurate record of strong storms at sea, including hurricanes. The relatively minor disadvantages of XOVWM over a ÂQuikSCAT clone are an approximate 10 percent cost increase (based on preliminary NASA estimates) and a 6-month longer delay to launch. The minor cost increase for XOVWM versus a QuikSCAT clone reflects the reality that even an attempt to duplicate the existing QuikSCAT would incur many of the nonrecurring costs of XOVWM, in part because of the long delay since QuikSCATâs initial development and the obsolescence or unavailability of the hardware components used. XOVWM is a mission recommended in the decadal survey; several workshop par- ticipants argued that the proposed schedule for launch of this missionâ2013-2016âbe accelerated. Finally, while discussing this mitigation scenario, some participants indicated the desirability of an enhanced XOVWM+SST mission, a point that was also made during day 1 discussions. Geostationary Hyperspectral Measurements GOES-R is being developed as NOAAâs next generation of geostationary weather satellites. In late 2006, following large increases in estimates for completion of the program, NOAA canceled plans to incorporate a key instrument on the spacecraftâHES. HES was planned to provide both an advanced sounding capability for mea- surements of atmospheric temperature and moisture content and an imager for monitoring coastal water quality and assessing coastal hazards. Background on the HES instrument, along with a summary of the breakout participant discussions, is provided below. Background Geostationary sounders provide unique, rapidly updated moisture profile measurements. In 1980, through the Operational Satellite Improvement Program (OSIP), NASA and NOAA partnered to fly a critical demonstration missionâthe Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS). VAS was the first atmospheric temperature and moisture profiler flown in GEO. Subsequent three-axis-stabilized operational GOES-I-class sounders significantly improved upon VASâs precision and have collected long-term records of atmospheric variables and diurnal cycles over the Western Hemisphere through the present time. These measure- ments will continue through the flight of the GOES-N/O/P series. With the termination of the GOES-R sounder, these long-term records will end. The value of sounding from GEO, however, goes beyond maintenance of a long-term record. The ability to sense water vapor in the atmosphere is crucial for monitoring and predicting hazardous weather conditions. Large variations in atmospheric water vapor occur over fine scales of 10 km in the horizontal and 1 km in the vertical, and over tens of minutes; therefore, high-temporal-resolution monitoring is essential. The current GOES-N-class sounder temperature and moisture profiles provide relatively coarse temporal and spatial coverage, which is informative for indicating the synoptic-scale severe weather threat to areas, but insufficient for ânowcastingâ cell development on the mesoscale or adequately resolving boundary-layer structures critical for nowcasts of severe thunderstorms. Summary of Breakout Group Discussion The GOES-R/HES breakout group session focused on mitigation options to restore the high-vertical-resolution temperature and water vapor sounding products and associated derived products planned for the HES payload on the GOES-R series. The breakout group did not address the coastal water imager because the ocean color com- munity was not sufficiently represented. As noted above, the reader is advised that the options presented do not include all that might be considered, and that both the options and the analysis are necessarily the subjective and not always disinterested views of presenters and participants.
130 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT The breakout group heard a presentation regarding the importance that high-temporal-resolution hyperspectral observations of key atmospheric state variables and their trends have for climate data records. Such measurements are not easily made except from a geostationary orbit. The role of geostationary hyperspectral measurements in characterizing diurnal variations, identifying the sources, sinks, and transport of pollutants and greenhouse gases, and a potential key role in sensor intercalibration,28 were also discussed. The case was then presented for advanced geostationary sounding capabilities as a contribution to GEOSS societal benefit areas, atmospheric ECVs, Numerical Weather Prediction capabilities improved by four-dimensional data assimilation, nowcasting capability, and sensor intercalibration. 29 The value of nonclimate applications of such measurements was emphasized. A presenter then reviewed the NESDIS Office of Systems Development Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) study,30 which considered a broad array of advanced geosynchronous sounder alternatives and trade-offs. The AoA studyâs conclusions were discussed, particularly the need for an advanced sounder and space-based technology demonstra- tion as early as feasible. It was suggested that previous ground system cost estimates were driven up by the inclu- sion of the coastal waters imager and that a recent proposal by NESDIS/STAR, 31 considering only the advanced sounder in a demonstration mode, reduced the cost estimates significantly from the original estimates. In addition, the presenter noted the similarities between the AoA and Earth science decadal survey recommendations, which endorse the need for (at reasonable cost and risk) an operational advanced imaging sounder for GOES and an early demonstration. GIFTS was then introduced as a potentially viable option to get a demonstration instrument into GEO as early as possible. The presenter suggested that if launch services could be identified, such a mission could be done for approximately $150 million. This proposed track would not interfere with the GOES-R schedule but would retain the timing necessary to influence the design of the operational version for GOES-T. Concurrently, the presenter argued, reduced-capability advanced sounders should be developed for the GOES series. Some attendees at the breakout group argued forcefully that an advanced sounder with HES-like Âcapabilities would revolutionize short-term prediction, most notably of severe weather. Some workshop participants also refer- enced a NOAA/NESDIS-commissioned analysis of the potential economic benefits of the GOES-R ABI and HES instruments,32 which supported the economic justification for a HES-like capability. Advocates for including HES- like capabilities on GOES-R, which in this self-selected breakout group seemed to be most of the attendees, were very displeased by the indication during a plenary presentation by a NOAA official that an advanced hyperspectral sounder was âoff the tableâ for GOES-R/S, and would most likely be next considered as a demonstration instrument on GOES-T. Some participants suggested that NASA and NOAA partner to achieve earlier GEO hyperspectral sounder capability, taking advantage of the inherent strengths of both agencies (and reinvigorating the OSIP). Mitigation Scenario 1. Scenario 1 involves use of simulated sounder products taking advantage of only ABI observations. Many participants considered this option to be generally undesirable, as ABI lacks spectral, and therefore vertical, resolution and would be unable to provide the many products expected from HES. Mitigation Scenario 2. Scenario 2 involves adding CrIS/ATMS back to the early morning (05:30) NPOESS orbit 28For example, geostationary hyperspectral sounders are identified as a key component of a Global Space-Based Inter-calibration (GSICS) system. See http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/spb/calibration/icvs/GSICS/index.html. 29P. Ardanuy, B. Bergen, A. Huang, G. Kratz, J. Puschell, C. Schueler, and J. Walker, âSimultaneous Overpass Off Nadir (SOON): A method for unified calibration/validation across IEOS and GEOSS system of systems,â in Atmospheric and Environmental Remote Sensing Data Processing and Utilization II: Perspective on Calibration/Validation Initiatives and Strategies (A.H.L. Huang and H.J. Bloom, eds.), Proceedings of SPIE, Volume 6301, 2006. 30NESDIS and OSD, Analysis of Alternatives, 2007. Participants in the AoA study included NOAA/NESDIS offices, university/cooperative institutes, contractors, DOD, and NASA. 31NESDIS/STAR (Center for Satellite Applications and Research) is the new name for the former Office of Research and Applications. 32Centrec Consulting Group, LLC, An Investigation of the Economic and Social Value of Selected NOAA Data and Products for GeoÂ stationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). GOES-R Sounder and Imager Cost/Benefit Analysis, NOAA/NESDIS, 2007. The economic analysis suggested that the inclusion of hyperspectral sounding capability in addition to ABI would nearly double the socioeconomic benefit of GOES-R from $2.4 billion to $4.3 billion.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 131 platforms. This remanifesting would add a useful additional pair of diurnal observations that would provide hyper- spectral information. It would not, however, approach the temporal refresh available from geostationary orbit. Mitigation Scenario 3. Participants suggested a scenario involving an opportunity for an early demonstration of GEO hyperspectral capabilities by launching GIFTS on a near-term flight of opportunity (i.e., free flyer or inter- national partnership) to advance user readiness and allow algorithm development. It was noted that savings in nonrecurring engineering would be lost with this approach, as the demonstration unit (i.e., GIFTS) would not be the same as subsequent units, requiring subsequent demonstrations. Flight of an engineering model (rather than GIFTS) as a demonstration was seen as a way to save on nonrecurring engineering costs. However, there were differences of opinion among the group on the question of whether it would be less expensive or more desirable to launch GIFTS, build a different early demonstration model, or build the first flight model of the desired sounder. Mitigation Scenario 4. Another potential approach to retaining (and advancing) the sounder capabilities on GOES was presented by a representative of ITT Space Systems who argued that the ITT âABXâ sounder is a simpler approach that could bridge the gap between the GOES-N legacy sounder and a full hyperspectral sounder on GOES-T. For GOES-R, the ABX would involve 18 sounding channels by reducing the ABI scan rate to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. This could âevolveâ into a full hyperspectral capability by GOES-T using the preplanned prod- uct improvement (P3I) track. This option would allow retention and enhancement of existing capabilities, provision of GIFTS-like bands, and the potential for extensive reuse for subsequent flights. The perceived negative aspect of this solution is that a full hyperspectral demonstration may be delayed until GOES-T. Other proposed GOES-R series sounder options and paths have been considered by industry; given the competitive nature of such options, however, the representatives at the workshop indicated that they were not at liberty to share the specifics. Other Discussions. It was stated that much of the cost of HES was attributable to the ground system requirements of NPOESS, which are driven by latency requirements. However, according to participants at the breakout session, latency is not a large concern of the hyperspectral community. Thus, most participants also argued that the cost savings that could result from a relaxation of the latency requirement should be pursued. Indeed, the demonstration mode referred to by presenters largely implies relaxation of latency as a cost-savings strategy. Due to session time limitations, the HES breakout group was not able to consider the merit of a HES Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE).33 However, an expert on OSSEs provided a background handout for the group and suggested to the chair of the session that a mesoscale OSSE for the HES instrument could be extremely valuable if done correctly. However, it would require considerable development and a great deal of caution for the conclusions of such a study to be deemed credible. Such a mesoscale OSSE has, to the workshop participantsâ knowledge, never been done. Additional comments on the OSSE topic by European experts during the international videoconference session on day 3 suggested that the HES OSSE would be very difficult and likely not possible in a timely manner. WORKSHOP SUMMARYâDAY 3 Plenary Session on International Considerations On Thursday morning, the workshop held a joint international session, through videoconference, with par- ticipants at the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) âWorkshop on the Re-design and Optimization of the Space-based Global Observing Systemâ that was underway in Geneva, Switzerland. WMO workshop participants included high-level representatives of operational and research and development space agencies, the Committee on Earth Observations Satellites (CEOS), Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), the WMO Space Programme, the WMO Open Programme Area Group/Integrated Observing System (OPAG/IOS), and the Expert Team on Evolution of the Global Observing System (ET-EGOS). That workshop is expected to result in recommenda- tions for both weather and climate monitoring from space being forwarded to the appropriate levels of WMO, 33For details on OSSEs, see http://www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/research/osse/.
132 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS), and CEOS. Anthony Hollingsworth (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting; ECMWF) also participated in the videoconference from Read- ing, England. WMO coordinates efforts for meeting the needs for climate information, such as for climate monitoring, c Â limate-data management, climate-change detection, seasonal-to-interannual climate predictions, and assessments of the impacts of climate change. In the view of WMO representatives, measurements of the climate system should be considered as an operational requirement, and climate monitoring and climate measurements should be given equally high priority within the Global Observing System (GOS). In the WMO Rolling Review of Requirements process, climate requirements are represented by the GCOS Implementation Plan. The WMO presentation noted that taken as a whole, there has not been a concerted strategy for sustained climate observations from space. Instead, the climate community has relied on suboptimal sensors to create a climate record, resulting in significant challenges in terms of handling bias differences, orbit drift, data gaps, and spectral differences between follow-on instruments when reprocessing multiple-satellite dataâoften at considerable cost. The CEOS presentation provided valuable insight into how various thematic issues could be addressed on a global basis utilizing the CEOS constellation concept, which considers virtual constellations of research and operational satellites to meet observational needs. Study teams have been established and international coopera- tion among space agencies has been stimulated to explore four representative Constellation prototypes, including atmospheric composition, global precipitation, land surface imaging, and ocean surface topography. It was noted by several speakers that the impact of NPOESS descoping was immediately significant in terms of GOS/GCOS planning and the quality of the CDRs for several variables. The Global Monitoring for Environmental Security (GMES) and climate modeling presentation addressed key uncertainties identified by the IPCC Fourth Assessment report,34 global satellite provisions for atmospheric composition in the 2003-2019 time frame, European launch plans for 2007-2015, the GMES Sentinel program, and progress on the Global and regional Earth-system (Atmosphere) Monitoring using satellite and in situ data (GEMS) atmosphere project at ECMWF. The need for hyperspectral observations from geostationary satellites was also addressed, including a dis- cussion of their potential role in calibration of the space-based observing system (within those spectral ranges); monitoring of the diurnal cycle; and provision of spectrally resolved radiances (hyperspectral visible/near-IR and IR) as a climate reference. Barbara Ryan, U.S. Geological Survey, reminded the teams that CEOS was strongly promoting an integrated observing system that included in situ data for ongoing verification and validation of satellite observations. In situ data are essential and complementary to the space segment data streams, enabling long-term monitoring of satellite data quality and as an independent component of the long-term climate record. A number of other important considerations were brought forth during the videoconference. The importance of sustaining climate-quality climate data from space was addressed, along with the need to keep valuable space assets in operation after they have passed their design lifetime (e.g., Terra, Aqua, and Aura, which provide data for a variety of applications). There was recognition of the importance of determining how to preserve the heritage of past and current instruments with the natural evolution to advanced future instruments for extending climate records. It was further recognized that with limited financial and human resources, a response to GCOS requirements can be achieved only through enhanced international cooperation. Such cooperation should involve global planning with international contributions, in such a way that implementation problems encountered by an individual agency do not dramatically affect the global system. It was recognized that a number of missions planned in Europe will be of great value for climate analysis and that there is an acute need for better international collaboration and awareness spanning the full spectrum of activities from high-level data access agreements to pragmatic documentation exchange. Concerning the NPOESS configuration, many participants supported: 34Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Cambridge University Press, C Â ambridge, U.K., 2008, available at http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/assessments-reports.htm.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 133 1. Remanifesting hyperspectral IR and microwave sounders in the early morning orbitâboth for operational purposes and for reanalysis and climate-related activity. 2. Maintaining continuity of microwave SST measurements at 6.9 GHz (AMSR-E type). With the loss of CMIS on C1 and increasing concern regarding the health of the AMSR-E on-board Aqua (indications of a fail- ing antenna bearing), there is a significant risk of a microwave SST data gap prior to the launch of the Japanese GCOM mission; this could be addressed by the future MIS. 3. Maintaining a high-precision Jason-type altimeter in non-Sun-synchronous orbit (to mitigate the impact of tidal aliasing on sea level measurements) complemented by at least two other altimeter missions (Sentinel-3 will be one) in a Sun-synchronous orbit. This was stated as an urgent need by many participants. 4. Flying a CERES-class instrument for continuity of Earth radiation budget measurements. 5. Accelerating development of an active vector wind mission to replace QuikSCAT. Finally, during the closing plenary session, there was discussion again of the requirements for constructing, managing, and maintaining CDRs. As in previous sessions, participants discussed the intellectual and resource challenges in developing CDRs, which require attention and adequate budgets in the space segment, ground seg- ment, and CDR production units themselves. It was noted that at present, the last is often limited in resources so that problems with satellite data are only discovered following dedicated ad hoc CDR processing projects. Some participants stated that considerable cost benefits would almost certainly be realized if CDR processing could be sustained in an operational near-real-time-style environment. A general theme of the videoconference echoed the need for organizations to work together with synergies among international satellite programs and the importance of multilateral agreements in addressing climate moni- toring. In the future, it is through effective international cooperation and global partnerships that useful climate monitoring from space will be realized. A frequently expressed sentiment was that the joint Geneva-Washington session was extremely important in terms of bringing the international satellite climate community together and that such communication should be encouraged through future meetings. Breakout Sessions The breakout groups on day 3 were loosely organized to enable participants to offer comments. Two panels were given specific topics, namely, to assess the NASA-NOAA suggested mitigation options and to further explore the intricacies of CDR development. These two breakout sessions are summarized here. A third breakout s Â ession allowed participants to comment on any topic within the scope of the workshop, and key points have been integrated into this report where relevant (many are covered in Chapter 3) and will be considered further during a follow-on study. Panel to Assess NASA-NOAA Mitigation Options The breakout panel reviewed a summary (see Appendix C) of the draft NASA-NOAA white paper titled âMitigation Approaches to Address Impacts of NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification on Joint NASA-NOAA Goals.â35 The Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) had asked NOAA and NASA to provide this analysis of possible options for mitigation of the climate research impacts of the NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy certi- fication through 2026, along with an assessment of the potential costs of these options, with the primary goal of ensuring the continuity of long-term climate records. The primary goal of the NASA-NOAA white paper was to identify means for ensuring the continuity of long-term climate records. NASA noted that the white paper was based on a single sentence from the June 5, 2006, Nunn-McCurdy Acquisition Decision Memorandum: â[The restructured program] does not include funding for the following 35Joint NASA-NOAA Study for OSTP (Phase II), June 19, 2007. The report does not consider GOES-R.
134 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT BOX 2.1 Generation of Climate Data Records The instruments and data system for NPOESS are designed to produce a number of operational geophysi- cal products, which are called environmental data records (EDRs). EDRs are generally produced by applying an appropriate set of algorithms to raw data records. Although NPP- and NPOESS-derived EDRs may have considerable scientific value, climate data records (CDRs)a are far more than a time series of EDRs. Participants at the workshop emphasized the fundamental differences between products that are generated to meet short- term needs (EDRs) and those for which consistency of processing and reprocessing over years to decades is an essential requirement. Climate research and monitoring often require the detection of very small changes against a naturally noisy background. For example, sea surface temperatures can vary by several degrees between daytime and night- time, or from year to year, whereas the climate signal of interest may change by only 0.1 K over a decade. Moreover, changes in sensor performance or data-processing algorithms often introduce artificial noise that may be greater than the climate signal. In addition to natural and artificial noise, spatial and temporal biases in the measurements confound climate researchers. A CDR suitable for studying interannual to decadal climate variability and trends includes a time series produced with stable, high-quality data, and error characteristics that have been quantified by accounting for all of the above sources of error and noise. The production of a CDR requires considerable refinement of the raw data and the blending of multiple data streams. These streams may come from multiple copies of the same sensor, or they may be ancillary data fields that are used in synergy with the primary data stream.b ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Thorough analysis of sensor performance and improved processing algorithms are also required, as are quantitative estimates of spatial and temporal errors. Figure 2.1.1 illustrates the notional pathways that result in generation of an EDR and a CDR.c The past experience of the climate research community with the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) provides a constructive case study in the challenges associated with constructing CDRs with satellite data. Starting in late 1978, nine polar-orbiting satellites carried identical copies of the MSU to measure atmospheric temperatures. In a 2000 National Research Council report,d it was noted that the last MSU occupied the afternoon orbit slot (NOAA-14), while the morning slot was monitored by the AMSU on NOAA-15.e Constructing CDRs from MSU instruments revealed that even though the prelaunch instruments were essentially identical, postlaunch differences among them were as large as the climate signal being sought. Once in space, each was found to have a unique response to variations in direct solar heating. Others experienced shifts in responses to onboard calibration targets. Another was found, after launch, to have been improperly calibrated in the laboratory. A final complication was due to the fact that the frequencies moni- tored with the new AMSU were slightly different from those monitored with the legacy MSUs. Scientists who were interested in stable, long-term temperature records from the MSU were required to commit considerable resources to discover the aforementioned problems and to test adjustments. A similar example is seen in the generation of sea surface temperature CDRs. Sea surface temperature (SST) CDRs were improved through several joint agency efforts (e.g., NOAA-NASA Pathfinder program)ï¿½ and, more recently, merging of complementary infrared and passive microwave satellite data having global daily coverage together with in situ observations as part of the international Global High Resolution SST Pilot Project (GHRSST-PP).f The GHRSST-PP is also pioneering the development of a high-resolution SST CDR within a dedicated reanalysis project, led by the NOAAâsï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ National Oceanic Data Center, for the satellite era (1981-present).ï¿½ Calibration and validation in the context of CDRs can be considered a process that encompasses the entire system, from sensor to data product. The objective is to develop a quantitative understanding and characteriza- tion of the measurement system and its biases in time and space, which involves a wide range of strategies that depend on the type of sensor and data product.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 135 Data (Direct and Remotely Sensed) Time-tagged Geo-Referenced and Calibrated Sensor Data Records (SDRs) Converted to Homogenization Bio-Geophysical and Inter-Calibration Variables Environmental Fundamental Data Records Climate Data (EDRs) Records (FCDRs) Converted to Climate Data Bio-Geophysical Records or Variables Homogenized Time Series Thematic Climate Data Records (TCDRs) FIGURE 2.1.1â Pathways in the development of EDRs amd CDRs. SOURCE: J.J. Bates, NOAA National C Â limatic Data ÂCenter, âNPOESS EDRs vs. Climate Data Records (CDRs),â presentation to the Panel on Op- tions to Ensure the Climate Record from the CDRs.eps GOES-R Spacecraft, April 23, 2007. 2.1.1 NPOESS and a See National Research Council (NRC), Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPP and NPOESS Meteorological S Â atellites, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2000, and NRC, Climate Data Records from Environmental Satellites: Interim Report, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2004. b Robust climate data records rely on the complementary nature of seemingly duplicate observations. For example, highly accurate and high-resolution infrared SST observations are confounded by the presence of clouds, whereas coarser- r Â esolution passive microwave SST observations are able to measure SST through clouds. By combining synergistic use of the two data streams, the CDR can be improved. c From J.J. Bates, NOAA National Climatic Data Center, âNPOESS EDRs vs. Climate Data Records (CDRs),â presentation to the panel on April 23, 2007. d NRC, Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPP and NPOESS Meteorological Satellites, 2000. e NOAA 14 was decommissioned on May 23, 2007. f Proceedings from the Fourth GODAE High Resolution SST Pilot Project Workshop, Pasadena, Calif., Sept. 22-26, 2003. GHRSST-PP Report No. GHRSST/18 GODAE Report No. 10. Available at http://dup.esrin.esa.it/files/project/131-176-149- 30_20068812258.pdf. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ More general information about GHRSST is available at http://www.ghrsst-pp.orgï¿½ .
136 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT s Â ensors: APS, TSIS, OMPS-Limb, ERBS, ALT, SuS, and the full SESS; however, the program will plan and fund for integration of these sensors onto the satellite buses, if the sensors are provided from outside the program.â 36 The options presented in the draft white paper represent a departure from the traditional NPOESS/EOS/MetOp big-platform approach. They are a combination of NPOESS operational flights, accommodations of opportunity, and âclimate free flyers.â These focused missions would be dedicated to a limited number of specialized Âsensors; simpler instruments could have dedicated functions (e.g., to separate reflective from emissive bands). The Âapparent intent is to use a constellation approach to obtain as many complementary measurements as possible through formation flight. The panel was encouraged by the imagination shown by the NASA-NOAA team and was extremely sup- portive of their ideas for implementation flexibilityâspecifically including flights on diverse platforms, includ- ing formation flight with NPOESS. However, the white paper options focused on only five instruments: TSIS, ERBS/CERES, ALT, OMPS, and APS. NASA noted that the white paper does not consider mitigation options for VIIRS, CrIS/ATMS, CMIS/MIS, and SESS. Some workshop participants commented that the lack of attention to the other instruments should not be construed as a de facto lower prioritization of their suitability as options for mitigation of lost Âcapabilities. NASA and NOAA will expand the white paper options to consider the other s Â ensors that will fly, revising the white paper based on comments from this workshop. They plan to deliver a revised draft to OSTP by late summer. Panel on Issues Related to CDR Development Underemphasized during certain sessions of the workshop, but recognized as fundamental for ensuring the climate record from space, is the technical issue of generating the needed CDRs from the operational EDRs. Crucial issues include the accommodation of ancillary observations critical for CDRs but absent from the current and planned satellite systems, and the ability to adequately develop and maintain CDRs. The breakout session considered requirements for CDRs (particularly in contrast to EDR retrievals) and the adequacy of current (post- Nunn-McCurdy) plans for prelaunch instrument calibration and characterization; on-orbit calibration and valida- tion; measurement overlap and replenishment requirements; and data storage, archiving, distribution, reprocessing, analysis, and interpretation concerns. Presenters and many participants at the breakout session echoed a concern that the fundamental definitions of EDRs and CDRs and the requirements for CDR generation and maintenance are not adequately understood by the operational and research community. Proper communication of requirements for CDRs requires that these distinc- tions be clearly understood. According to presenters from the NOAA National Climatic Data Center, even though the sensor signals used to generate EDRs are also used for CDRs, the EDRs themselves are frequently of little use for climate research. EDRs are (in general) poorly calibrated, quick-turnaround products that lack long-term repeatability, whereas CDRs are fully calibrated time series having high precision (repeatability) and accuracy, often requiring reprocessing of entire data sets as algorithms are improved (Box 2.1). Many participants noted that CDR science teams are crucial for maintaining the CDRs over many years ( Â climate change time scales are long compared with those for weather), a task that is expected to require additional research, analysis, and validation of the observations (and thus funding, well beyond that applied to the EDRs). Prelaunch calibration and characterization that meet EDR requirements do not always (typically) meet the more exhaustive requirements for CDR accuracy and stability. Data-handling requirements are also completely different from those for EDRs and will likely require an independent CDR system. Whereas functionally the EDRs are short-lived operational products, the CDRs must be permanently stored and continuously accessible for considerable additional ongoing research and analysis if they are to be of use in climate change policy making and societal applications. Given that data requirements for CDRs can exceed those for EDRs, a list of missing data should be developed and considered as part of the mitigation option analysis. 36Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, Acquisition Decision Memorandum, dated June 5, 2006, Office of the Secretary of Defense, Washington, D.C.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 137 3 Cross-Cutting Issues A number of issues were mentioned in multiple workshop plenary sessions or breakout groups and are thus included here as cross-cutting issues. A detailed treatment of any of the issues is beyond the scope of the workshop; however, summaries are included here for completeness. SYNERGY VERSUS COMPETITION WITH DECADAL SURVEY As noted in the statement of task for the workshop, NPOESS/GOES-R mitigation strategies should take into account the plans for execution of the recent National Research Council (NRC) Earth science decadal survey. However, it is important to note that the decadal survey covers all of Earth science, including, but not limited to, climate science. Discussions at the workshop focused on climate science; however, the ultimate implementation of NPOESS/GOES-R climate observation mitigation will occur in parallel with NASAâs intent to implement a bal- anced Earth science program. This will be challenging, particularly because of the very constrained Earth science budget at NASA. As highlighted in the NRC decadal survey report, Earth science budgets have declined signifi- cantly in real-year dollars, while mission costs have risen, due to large increases in launch costs, the Âunanticipated effects of full-cost accounting, and inflation, and as demand for and reliance on Earth science remote sensing observations have continued to increase. Some workshop participants noted that NASA and NOAA will be greatly challenged to find the appropriate balance between maintaining continuity of key climate parameters and continu- ing to advance Earth science; these participants also argued that this cannot be an âeither/orâ decision. It was frequently noted that one way to address the challenge of balance between measurement Âcontinuity and scientific advance was to consider areas of potential synergy between options for climate observation mitigation and missions recommended by the decadal survey. As the decadal survey mission concepts mature, these synergies could be further explored to determine areas where synergyârather than competition for scarce resourcesâexists. CONTINUITY OF LONG-TERM RECORDS VERSUS NEW MEASUREMENTS Just as climate science is one part of Earth science, so also are sustained measurements but one part of climate science. At the workshop, there was discussion regarding the need to find a balance between providing for conti- NationalResearch Council, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, The N Â ational Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2007.
138 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT nuity of certain key long-term climate records and advancing climate science through taking new measurements to elucidate key climate processes and initialize climate models. Again, this is not an âeither/orâ decision, and finding the proper balance between sustained and new measurements will be challenging. Starting with the evident proposition that the climate science program cannot afford to continue all, or even many, remote sensing measurements indefinitely, participants sought to distinguish between measurements that represent state variables that are so fundamental that they must be continued in perpetuity and those that are valu- able and have shorter-term measurement campaigns. The list of state variables should be as short as practical to allow for sustained funding commitments without overwhelming the already-limited budget and precluding new or improved measurements critical to advancing climate science. One suggestion was for implementation of a peer- review process that would periodically review the list of essential variables to consider the science justification for continuation of each sustained record, keeping the list to the minimal measurement set practical. MEASUREMENT TEAMS The need for sustained attention to the establishment and maintenance of climate data records (CDRs), which can involve many missions over many decades, led numerous workshop participants to suggest the need for climate measurement teams, independent of mission science teams. CALIBRATION AND CHARACTERIZATION (PRE-, IN-, POST-FLIGHT) During the workshop it came to the attention of participants that all subsequent flight builds of the various NPOESS instruments were not planned to undergo the extensive preflight characterization expected for the first builds. Many participants felt it was essential to urge continuation of a rigorous preflight testing and characterization program with subsequent flight builds, and to request improved documentation to increase the climate science utility of data returned from later NPOESS platforms (to date this is not currently planned). Preflight characterizations would ensure that the sensors are stable, as nearly identical as possible from sensor to sensor, and thus climate relevant. FORMATION FLYING Some participants at the workshop discussed the advantages of formation flying and how this concept, dem- onstrated on the Earth Observing System âA-Train,â might affect mitigation options in the future (Figure 3.1). The principal benefit of formation flying is the ability to combine multiple, synergistic measurement types without incurring the cost, complexity, and risk of large monolithic observatoriesâas long as sufficient pointing and posi- tion knowledge are achieved and orbits are sufficiently maintained. There are, of course, operational challenges associated with formation flight (e.g., maneuver coordination, orbit insertion, and end-of-life considerations), although these can be minimized through careful plans and procedures and by taking advantage of the lessons learned through NASAâs A-train operations. It was suggested by some participants that NASA and NOAA fully consider formation flying, including the requisite orbit maintenance and operations requirements, as a deliberate part of the mitigation strategy for restoring deleted NPOESS and GOES-R climate-observing capabilities. STABILITY REQUIREMENTS PARTICULAR TO CLIMATE STUDIES It was noted that even when there is perceived synergy between climate research and operational needs based on resolution, care must be taken in assessing the stability requirements that are unique to long-term trend studies and that can drive instrument design costs dramatically. INTEGRATION ON NPOESS VERSUS FREE FLYERS: LARGE VERSUS SMALL PROGRAMS Small programs often can succeed with a leaner systems engineering and management approach than can larger programs. Given the large national investment already made in NPOESS, agency commitments to allow for
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 139 FIGURE 3.1â Artistâs conception of the A-Train. The A-train satellites are, from left, Aura, PARASOL, CALIPSO, CloudSat, 3.1 Atrian 112931main_a-train.eps Aqua, and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), which will lead the formation after its planned launch in 2008. SOURCE: NASA, Washington, D.C. Available at http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/cloudsat/multimedia/a-train.html. remanifesting of canceled instrument payloads, and spacecraft margins that include on the order of a metric ton of mass, kilowatts of power, millions of bits per second of spare bandwidth, and large, unused parts of the optical bench, it is natural to consider NPOESS platforms for the flight of climate-relevant sensors. However, based on presentations from the agencies to the workshop, it appears that the incremental cost of the accommodation (inte- gration and test, with management and systems engineering overheads) might equal or even significantly exceed the total cost of a free-flyer accommodation. The lack of a cost-effective process for integrating climate payloads onto NPOESS, given the significant investment in developing the capacity to fly the payloads once integrated, is a significant impediment in terms of low-cost access to space. Because of the extraordinarily high cost of integration with NPOESS, free flyers appear to be no more expen- sive, and may even be cheaper, than reintegrating the demanifested sensors into the existing NPOESS bus. The use of free-flying spacecraft to ensure the continuity of CDRs was frequently suggested as desirable by workshop participants. Free flyers provide increased launch flexibility, which decreases the risk of a gap in the measure- ments. It was considered noteworthy that none of the climate sensors are considered of sufficiently high priority for sensor failure to trigger the launch of a new NPOESS bus to preserve the data record. However, free flyers are not without risk, as they are typically more susceptible to cancellation compared with a single large, operational spacecraft bus. Some participants also noted that regardless of their desirability, NOAA has no history of utilizing free flyers as operational space platforms. STRUCTURAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH PROCUREMENT OF SENSORS THAT SUPPORT CLIMATE SCIENCE Lack of an Enterprise View Progress in climate research depends on continuous, multidecadal time series measurements for a stable underpinning as well as new measurements to advance process understanding. However, it often appears that the United States lacks such a fundamental enterprise view for the maintenance and stewardship of a climate observing system. Some workshop participants noted that communication between NASA and NOAA appears to be improving; however, there was continuing concern because the agencies have yet to demonstrate a pragmatic Apurposeful undertaking, especially one of some scope, complication, effort, boldness, and risk, as defined in the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004; WordNetÂ® 3.0. Princeton University, July 8, 2007.
140 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT success-oriented process that seamlessly ties together cutting-edge research demonstrations with continuity of operational measurements. In the view of many participants, critical and unique measurement time series, such as that for over-ocean near-surface vector winds, are placed at risk through the lack of a planned transition when an existing instrument (e.g., QuikSCAT) ages and ultimately fails. Not only are improvements to existing Western Hemisphere geo- synchronous atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles deferred, but the measurements themselves are also eliminated, due to a lack of agility in the block procurement process. When operational budgets are tight, there is a temptation for NOAA to declare relatively new but demonstrated capabilities (e.g., hyperspectral soundings) as âdemonstrationsâ and then look to NASA for the funding. Similarly, NASA has indicated it would like NOAA to fund the cost of extended research missions that have operational utility. Developing a more effective national and international climate observation enterprise would greatly benefit climate science. Some participants mentioned the Earth science decadal survey recommendation, directed to the Office of Science and Technology Policy, which calls for a national plan to provide for sustained Earth observations. Proprietary Nature of Industry Contracts The competitive process, properly executed, can yield better-value products and services that may be of higher quality, and lower risk and cost, than those obtained through sole-source acquisitions. Industry invests to obtain, retain, and increase competitive advantagesâand so do nations. Much of the climate observing and remote sensing technology has multiple uses. Thus, there is an understandable need to safeguard proprietary intellectual property, and a corresponding need to safeguard the purity of the procurement process. The combined protections of International Traffic in Arms Regulations, brown-outs and black-outs associated with government procurements, firewalls to separate programs and people, and competitive pressures combine to create a significant obstacle to the sharing of sensor information, and they stifle the collaboration of industry, government, academia, and nations in climate observations. Creating mechanisms for collaboration and partnership could greatly benefit climate science. For example, one of this reportâs reviewers noted the progress made within the IOCCG, OSTST, and GHRSST-PP in both operational system development and reanalysis. Minimal Insight into Algorithm Development Algorithms and science applications represent the intellectual core of the process that turns sensor observa- tions (inputs) into climate, weather, and other environmental products and services (outputs)âand ultimately socioeconomic benefits. Developing improved algorithms that go beyond todayâs state of practice requires indi- viduals with a deep intellectual background in specific science disciplines. For example, every improvement in spectroradiometric quality (e.g., an increase in the âbit depthâ of an observation from 8, to 10, to 12, to 14 bits), while providing new abilities to resolve phenomena of interest, also creates the need for improved algorithms that untangle the desired signal from the environmental ânoise.â Many participants stated that it is critical that communities of interest, often government-academic-contractor teams with careers spent in the field, be at the center of the algorithm development process. When systems are procured in a turn-key fashion, decisions are often dominated by the highest-cost and highest-schedule-risk items (e.g., spacecraft, launch, sensor, computing system). As a consequence, a less-than-optimal algorithm development solution may be selected without community input or oversight. When algorithm development becomes decoupled from the communities of interest and practice, higher-cost, higher-risk, and lower-performing solutions can be unintended but unavoidable consequences. While recognizing that algorithms must be reliably implemented and maintained as operational code, ensuring maximum insight, oversight, participation, and leadership of the most relevant science communities could greatly benefit climate science. NRC, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2007, p. 14.
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 141 Appendix A Statement of Task In January 2007, the SSB Earth science decadal survey committee delivered to agency sponsors a pre- p Â ublication version of its final report, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. However, prior to delivery of the report, NASA and NOAA requested that additional tasks be added to the survey statement of task. The new tasks focus on recovery of measurement capabilities, especially those related to climate research, which were lost as a result of changes in plans for the next generation of polar and geostationary environmental monitoring satellites, NPOESS and GOES-R. It was mutually agreed that the new tasks would be addressed in a separate, follow-on report that would draw on the results of a major workshop. The new tasks are as follows: â¢ Analyze the impact of the changes to the NPOESS program that were announced in June 2006 and changes to the GOES-R series as described in the NOAA testimony to Congress on September 29, 2006. These changes included reduction in the number of planned NPOESS satellites, the deletion or descoping of particular instru- ments, and a delay in the planned launch of the first NPOESS satellite. In addition, recent changes to the GOES-R series resulted in deletion or descoping of instrumentation and a delay in the first spacecraft launch. The committee should give particular attention to impacts in areas associated with climate research, other NOAA strategic goals, and related GEOSS/IEOS societal benefit areas. The analysis should include discussions related to continuity of existing measurements and development of new research and operational capabilities. â¢ Develop a strategy to mitigate the impact of the changes described in the item above. The committee will prioritize capabilities that were lost or placed at risk following the changes to NPOESS and the GOES-R series and present strategies to recover these capabilities. Included in this assessment will be an analysis of the capa- bilities of the portfolio of missions recommended in the decadal strategy to recover these capabilities, especially those related to research on Earthâs climate. The changes to the NPOESS and GOES-R programs may also offer new opportunities. The committee should provide a preliminary assessment of the risks, benefits, and costs of p Â lacingâon NPOESS, GOES-R, or on other platformsâalternative sensors to those planned for NPOESS. Finally, the committee will consider the advantages and disadvantages of relying on capabilities that may be developed by our European and Japanese partners. NOTE: Subsequent discussions with agency sponsors resulted in agreement to perform these tasks in two parts. Part I would consist of a workshop that would inform a subsequent study that would include panel findings and recommendations regarding mitigation strategies. The second part of the study will be completed in early 2008.
142 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT Appendix B Workshop Agenda JUNE 19, 2007 Morning Plenary Session Context Setting Present Status of NPOESS and GOES-R In-depth Discussion of Phase 2 Government Study 7:50 a.m. Welcome 8:00 Teleconference with Mary Kicza and Mike Freilich (CEOS Meeting in Frascati) 8:30 Background and Overview for the Workshopâ Organizing Panel Chair Antonio Busalacchi, University of Maryland 9:15 Review of the NASA-NOAA OSTP Re-manifest Phase 2 Study Sensor and Measurement Recovery OptionsâB. Cramer, NASA Headquarters CDR Science SupportâJ. Privette, NOAA NCDC Discussion 12:00 p.m. Working Lunch: Overview of Relevant Decadal Survey Recommendationsâ Berrien Moore, University of New Hampshire
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 143 1:30 Breakouts (focus on ECVs) Charge to the day 1 breakout groups: Each of the afternoon working groups will provide a short report that will be presented the following day in plenary session. 1. What are the priority space-based ECVs/climate data records under consideration by this breakout? 2. What subset of the above will be accommodated by the coordinated NASA-NOAA strategy as presented in the phase II NASA-NOAA remanifest study? 3. Are there alternative approaches that are not explored in the NASA-NOAA study (e.g., free flyers, alternative platforms, leveraging international partners)? 4. Assess the risks and benefits of these various options. 5. Document your results in the template that will be distributed at the meeting. Some of the issues to be considered in the above: 1. History/limitations of extant database and measurement capabilities, including calibration limita- tions and needs 2. How well alternative, indirect measurements or models can compensate for the lack of direct observations 3. Issues for interpreting the climate recordâsimultaneity of observations in time and space of related geophysical variables; spatial, altitudinal, and temporal resolution for each of the sensors, e.g., free flyers 4. Long-term strategy for ensuring climate records and broader climate services visionâoverlap, calibration, redundant measurements/validation, data processing/reprocessing, algorithm devel- opment/evolution, archiving, science teams, grants/funding programs to support science teams Breakout Session 1âConsideration of NPOESS and GOES-R Priority Measurements for ECVs/Climate Data Records Related to Observations of the Atmosphere Tom Vonder Haar, Colorado State University; John Bates, NCDC Rapporteur: Mark Schoeberl, GSFC Breakout Session 2âConsideration of NPOESS and GOES-R Priority Measurements for ECVs/Climate Data Records Related to Observations of the Oceans Bob Weller, invited; Jeff Privette, NCDC Rapporteur: Ralph Milliff, NWRA Breakout Session 3âConsideration of NPOESS and GOES-R Priority Measurements for ECVs/Climate Data Records Related to Observations of the Land Berrien Moore, University of New Hampshire; Marc Imhoff, GSFC Rapporteur: Compton Tucker, CCSP 4:30 Workshop Adjourns for Day
144 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT JUNE 20, 2007 8:30 a.m. Report out of Day 1 Breakouts 40 minute sessions (20 presentation/20 discussion) on status and/or potential tradespace for NPOESS and GOES-R sensors related to: 9:30 Radiation Sensors and ClimateâStan Schneider, NPOESS IPO 10:10 Visible/IR Sensors Related to ClimateâSteve Mango, NPOESS IPO 11:00 Microwave Sensors and ClimateâKaren St. Germain, NOAA NESDIS 11:40 GOES-R/HESâMark Mulholland, NOAA NESDIS 12:30 p.m. Working LunchâJim Gleason, GSFC; Marc Imhoff, GSFC Discussion on the role of instruments on NPP and EOS (extended phase operations) in gap filling strategies 1:30 Breakouts (focus on sensors) Session 1: Radiation Sensors Judith Lean, NRL; Bruce Wielicki, LaRC Rapporteur: Jim Coakley, Oregon State University Total Solar Irradiance SensorâTom Woods, LASP Earth Radiation Budget SensorâBruce Wielicki, LaRC Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite Limb SubsystemâMark Schoeberl, GSFC Discussion Session 2: Visible and Infrared Imagers-Sounders Graeme Stephens, Colorado State University; Paul Menzel, University of Wisconsin Rapporteur: Stacey Boland, JPL MODIS and VIIRSâCarl Schueler, Raytheon SBRC (retired) APS and APS-MODIS/VIIRS SynergyâBrian Cairns, GISS AIRS/IASI/CrIS-ATMS Climate ConsiderationsâTom Pagano, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Discussion Atmospheric Climate Variables and CDRsâPaul Menzel, University of Wisconsin Land Climate Variables and CDRsâCompton Tucker, CCSP Ocean Climate Variables and CDRsâChuck McLain, GSFC; Craig Donlon, U.K. Met Office
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 145 Session 3: Microwave Sensors Frank Wentz, RSS; Dudley Chelton, Oregon State University Rapporteur: Judith Curry, Georgia Tech CMIS/MISï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ âï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Chelle Gentemann, RSS ALTï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ âï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Lee-Lueng Fu, Jet Propulsion Laboratory QuikScat Follow-on and XOVWM/Other OptionsâZorana Jelenak, NOAA/NESDIS Discussion Session 4: GOES-R and HES Chris Velden, University of Wisconsin; Bill Smith, Hampton University Rapporteur: Phil Ardanuy, Raytheon GOES-R and Its Role in Climate ResearchâBill Smith, Hampton University Options to Restore HES CapabilitiesâHank Revercomb, University of Wisconsin; David Crain, ITT Critique of the NOAA Analysis of Alternatives DocumentâBob Atlas, NOAA GIFTS and Its Potential Role in a Mitigation StrategyâBob Atlas, NOAA Science Validation Using Observation System Simulated ExperimentâBob Atlas, NOAA Discussion 4:30 Workshop Adjourns for Day JUNE 21, 2007 Plenary Session 8:00 a.m. Report out of Day 2 Panels 9:00Â International Dimensions of a Mitigation StrategyâVideoconference, Geneva (WMO Workshop, âRedesign and Optimization of the Space-Based Global Observing Systemâ), Frascati, Italy (CEOS meeting), and ECMWF (Tony Hollingsworth)Â Â Introduction of the PanelâJim Purdom Context of the NRC Panel on OptionsâAntonio Busalacchi GOES-R Hyperspectral Measurements for ClimateâPaul Menzel/Jim Purdom CEOS Strategy on Climate Observations from SpaceâBarbara Ryan WMO Workshop on OptimizationâDon Hinsman GMES and Climate ModelingâTony Hollingsworth Closing RemarksâJim Purdom Panel Questions and Discussion Closing RemarksâJim Purdom and Antonio Busalacchi
146 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 12:15 p.m. Working Lunch 1:30 Breakouts Panel to Explore Particular Mitigation Options in Need of Further Analysis Panel on Issues Related to CDR Generation Review Requirements for CDRs (contrast with data retrievals for weather) and Assess Adequacy of Current, Post-Nunn-McCurdy Plans for: â¢ Pre-launch Instrument Characterization and On-orbit Calibration/Validation â¢ Overlap and Replenishment Requirements â¢ Data Storage, Archiving, Distribution, and Reprocessing Panel-of-Panels Synthesis (Whatâs been lost; what can be recovered; and, per NASA request, interplay with decadal survey recommendations) 4:00 Reconvene in Plenary Session 5:30 Workshop Adjourns
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 147 Appendix C Mitigation Approaches Presented by NASA and NOAA at the Workshop Mitigation Approaches to Address Impacts of NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification on Joint NASA-NOAA Climate Goals Joint NASA-NOAA Draft Study for OSTP (Phase II) June 19, 2007 Executive Summary [p. 2] â¢ OSTP requested NOAA and NASA to provide: â An analysis of possible mitigation options of the climate impacts of the NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certi- fication through 2026 â An assessment of the potential costs of these options â¢ Primary goal: Ensure continuity of long-term climate records â¢ NOAA and NASA analyzed the following options: â Remanifesting the climate sensors on NPOESS spacecraft â Placing sensors on currently planned non-NPOESS spacecraft â Developing new gap-filling climate satellite missions â Partnering opportunities â¢ Key results: â Work in progress: still assessing options â Multiple options exist to mitigate the loss of sensors from NPOESS â Options consistent with Decadal Survey recommendations â Partnering for altimetry could provide significant cost savings NOTE: B. Cramer, NASA Headquarters, âMitigation Approaches to Address Impacts of NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification on Joint NASA-NOAA Climate Goals. Joint NASA-NOAA Draft Study for OSTP (Phase II),â presentation to the Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft Workshop, June 19, 2007, available at http://www7.nationalacademies.org/ssb/SSB_ NPOESS2007_Presentations.html. The presentation as delivered at the workshop has been reformatted somewhat for publication. Page numbers in brackets refer to the original presentation. All information presented is pre-decisional, and assessments involve preliminary rough-order- of-magnitude cost estimates only.
148 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT Climate Sensor Impact Assessment (summarized from January 2007 NASA/NOAA Joint Assessment) [pp. 3-4] â¢ Total Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) â Essential to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change â Would continue 25+ year long data record â¢ Earth Radiation Budget Sensor (ERBS) â Continuously monitors the Earthâs radiation budget to identify subtle long-term shifts related to climate change â Would continue 21+ year long data record â¢ Ocean Altimeter (ALT) â Monitors sea level â Would continue 15+ year long data record â¢ Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) â Limb Subsystem â Measures the vertical distribution of stratospheric ozone to monitor and understand the ozone recovery resulting from the Montreal Protocol â Would continue 23+ year long data record â¢ Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) â Measures the global distribution of aerosols and their impact on the Earthâs energy balance, clouds, and precipitation â¢ Conical Scanning Microwave Imager (CMIS) â Reduced Capability â Provides sea surface temperatures, sea ice and snow cover extents, soil moisture, ocean surface wind speed, water vapor, and precipitation rates even in the presence of heavy cloud cover â Continuous records date back to 1987 â¢ Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) â Reduced Coverage (Absent from 0930 Orbit) â Multi-spectral imagers sample the spectral signatures of features on or near the Earthâs surface important to climate science â For over three decades, scientists have depended on this imagery for a wide variety of weather and climate applications â¢ Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)/Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) â Reduced ÂCoverage (Absent from 0530 Orbit) â No mitigation recommended for climate science â¢ Space Environment Sensor Suite (SESS) â Not considered here Development of Mitigation Options [p. 5] â¢ Multiple options exist to mitigate the loss of sensors from NPOESS â¢ Developed options using following criteria: â Minimize risk to measurement continuity â¢ First priority for existing climate data records â Minimize risk to existing programs â Cost effectiveness â¢ Economies of scale â¢ Leverage planned missions and sensors including partnerships with other space agencies
APPENDIX C REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 149 149 Potential Mitigation Options [p. 6] â¢ Option 1: NPOESS + Gap Filler Climate Satellite â¢ Option 2: Sequential Climate Satellites â¢ Option 3: Sequential Climate Satellites w/TSIS Redundancy â¢ Option 4: Sequential Climate Satellites w/TSIS Redundancy & Operational Risk Reduction â¢ These options also include free-flyer altimetry missions and climate data record science support 2 2 2 2 2 Primary Mitigation Strategy 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 2 8 0 5 0 5 NPOESS C2 NPOESS C4 TSIS SORCE Glory Climate Sat 1 Climate Sat 2 LandSat DCM FOO. ERBS / CERES Terra, Aqua NPP Climate Sat 1 NPOESS C3 Climate Sat 2 Altimeter Jason-4 / Jason-x / Jason-1 OSTM Jason-3 Adv Alt 1 Adv Alt x OMPS (Nadir + Limb) NPOESS C3 Aura NPP Climate Sat 1 Climate Sat 2 APS NPOESS C3 Glory Climate Sat 2 Current and Planned Missions NASA-NOAA Mitigation Flight NPOESS Mitigation Flight FIGURE [C.1] Range of Options Examined for Climate Data Continuity. [p. 7] 1 AppC figure.eps
150 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT WHITE PAPER BASELINE: Missions LRD TSIS ERBS / CERES ALT OMPS APS OSTM (Jason 2): 2008 Poseidon 3 Glory: 2009 TIM APS NPP: 2010 CERES OMPS-Limb NPOESS C1 Mission: 2013 ERBS OMPS-Limb APS NPOESS C2 Mission: 2016 TSIS NPOESS C3 Mission: 2020 ERBS OMPS-Limb Follow-on APS NPOESS C4 Mission: 2022 TSIS LDCM Mission: 2011 Flight of Opportunity: 2017 Jason 3 Mission: 2013 ALT Jason 4 Mission: 2017 Jason 5 Mission: 2021 Advanced Altimeter Mission # 1: 2017 ADV ALT Advanced Altimeter Mission # 2: 2021 ADV ALT Climate Free-Flyer # 1: 2014 Climate Free-Flyer # 2: 2020 Notes: = Mission in Formulation or Development = Mission Concept to Restore NPOESS De-Manifested Climate Sensors = Mission Not Involved in this Option FIGURE [C.2] Initial Recommendation from January 2007 Joint Assessment. [p. 8] NOTES: â¢ VIIRS flies on NPP, C1, C2, C3, and C4 figure.eps 2 AppC â¢ AVHRR flies on METOP mid-morning orbit â¢ CMIS to be replaced by MIS starting with C2 OPTION # 1: Missions LRD TSIS ERBS / CERES ALT OMPS APS OSTM (Jason 2): 2008 Poseidon 3 Glory: 2009 TIM APS NPP: 2010 CERES OMPS-Limb NPOESS C1 Mission: 2013 NPOESS C2 Mission: 2016 TSIS NPOESS C3 Mission: 2020 ERBS OMPS-Limb Follow-on APS NPOESS C4 Mission: 2022 TSIS LDCM Mission: 2011 TSIS Flight of Opportunity: 2017 Jason 3 Mission: 2013 ALT Jason 4 Mission: 2017 Jason 5 Mission: 2021 Advanced Altimeter Mission # 1: 2017 ADV ALT Advanced Altimeter Mission # 2: 2021 ADV ALT APS Climate Free-Flyer # 1: 2014 TSIS ERBS OMPS Climate Free-Flyer # 2: 2020 Notes: = Mission in Formulation or Development = Mission Concept to Restore NPOESS De-Manifested Climate Sensors = Mission Not Involved in this Option = Potential addition to option FIGURE [C.3] Option 1. NPOESS + Climate Satellite. [p. 9] NOTES: 3 AppC figure.eps â¢ The manifest for C1 is frozen based on technical risk considerations â¢ VIIRS flies on NPP, C1, C2, C3, and C4 â¢ AVHRR flies on METOP mid-morning orbit â¢ CMIS to be replaced by MIS starting with C2
APPENDIX C REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 151 151 TSIS 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 ACRIMSat TIM + SIM SORCE Potential SIM Gap Glory TIM only LDCM TIM + SIM Climate Satellite #1 TIM + SIM NPOESS C2 Mission TIM + SIM NPOESS C4 Mission TIM + SIM CERES 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 Terra Aqua CERES NPP CERES FM-5 Climate Satellite #1 ERBS NPOESS C3 Mission ERBS OMPS 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 Aura (OMI and MLS) OMI and MLS MLS & HIRDLS NPP OMPS-Limb added Climate Satellite #1 Complete OMPS NPOESS C3 Mission OMPS-Limb added APS 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 Glory APS Potential APS Gap Climate Satellite #1 APS NPOESS C3 Mission Follow-on APS Altimetry 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 JASON 1 OSTM (JASON 2) JASON 3 Adv. Altimeter #1 Adv. Altimeter #2 Specified lifetime Extended operations Potential data gap FIGURE [C.4] Option 1. Continuity Timeline. NPOESS + Climate Satellite. [p. 10] 4 AppC figure.eps
152 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT OPTION # 2: Missions LRD TSIS ERBS / CERES ALT OMPS APS OSTM (Jason 2): 2008 Poseidon 3 Glory: 2009 TIM APS NPP: 2010 CERES OMPS-Limb NPOESS C1 Mission: 2013 NPOESS C2 Mission: 2016 NPOESS C3 Mission: 2020 OMPS-Limb* NPOESS C4 Mission: 2022 LDCM Mission: 2011 TSIS Flight of Opportunity: 2017 Jason 3 Mission: 2013 ALT Jason 4 Mission: 2017 Jason 5 Mission: 2021 Advanced Altimeter Mission # 1: 2017 ADV ALT Advanced Altimeter Mission # 2: 2021 ADV ALT Climate Free-Flyer # 1: 2014 TSIS ERBS OMPS APS Climate Free-Flyer # 2: 2020 TSIS ERBS OMPS* Follow-on APS Notes: = Mission in Formulation or Development = Mission Concept to Restore NPOESS De-Manifested Climate Sensors = Mission Not Involved in this Option = Potential addition to option * OMPS flies on either C3 or Climate Sat # 2 FIGURE [C.5] Option 2. Sequential Climate Satellites. [p. 11] NOTES: â¢ The manifest for C1 is frozen based5on technical risk considerations AppC figure.eps â¢ VIIRS flies on NPP, C1, C2, C3, and C4 â¢ AVHRR flies on METOP mid-morning orbit â¢ CMIS to be replaced by MIS starting with C2
APPENDIX C REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 153 153 TSIS 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 ACRIMSat SORCE TIM + SIM Potential SIM Gap Glory TIM only LDCM TIM + SIM Climate Satellite #1 TIM + SIM Climate Satellite #2 TIM + SIM CERES 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 Terra Aqua CERES NPP CERES FM-5 Climate Satellite #1 ERBS NPOESS C3 Mission ERBS OMPS 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 Aura (OMI and MLS) OMI and MLS MLS & HIRDLS NPP OMPS-Limb added Climate Satellite #1 Complete OMPS NPOESS C3 or Climate Satellite #2 OMPS -Limb added Complete OMPS APS 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 Glory APS Potential APS Gap Climate Satellite #1 APS Climate Satellite #1 Follow-on APS Altimetry 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 JASON 1 OSTM (JASON 2) JASON 3 Adv. Altimeter #1 Adv. Altimeter #2 Specified lifetime Extended operations Potential data gap FIGURE [C.6] Option 2. Continuity Timeline. Sequential Climate Satellites. [p. 12] 6 AppC figure.eps
154 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT OPTION # 3: Missions LRD TSIS ERBS / CERES ALT OMPS APS OSTM (Jason 2): 2008 Poseidon 3 Glory: 2009 TIM APS NPP: 2010 CERES OMPS-Limb NPOESS C1 Mission: 2013 NPOESS C2 Mission: 2016 NPOESS C3 Mission: 2020 OMPS-Limb* NPOESS C4 Mission: 2022 LDCM Mission: 2011 TSIS Flight of Opportunity: 2017 TSIS Jason 3 Mission: 2013 ALT Jason 4 Mission: 2017 Jason 5 Mission: 2021 Advanced Altimeter Mission # 1: 2017 ADV ALT Advanced Altimeter Mission # 2: 2021 ADV ALT Climate Free-Flyer # 1: 2014 TSIS ERBS OMPS APS Climate Free-Flyer # 2: 2020 TSIS ERBS OMPS* Follow-on APS Notes: = Mission in Formulation or Development = Mission Concept to Restore NPOESS De-Manifested Climate Sensors = Mission Not Involved in this Option = Potential addition to option * OMPS flies on either C3 or Climate Sat # 2 OPTION # 4: Option # 3 with the Climate Free-Flyers having a specified on-orbit life from 5 to 7 years FIGURE [C.7] Option 3 and 4. Sequential Climate Satellites + TSIS Redundancy. [p. 13] NOTES: â¢ The manifest for C1 is frozen based AppC figure.eps 7 on technical risk considerations â¢ VIIRS flies on NPP, C1, C2, C3, and C4 â¢ AVHRR flies on METOP mid-morning orbit â¢ CMIS to be replaced by MIS starting with C2
APPENDIX C REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 155 155 TSIS 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 ACRIMSat TIM + SIM Potential SIM Gap SORCE Glory TIM only LDCM TIM + SIM Climate Satellite #1 TIM + SIM Flight of Opportunity TIM + SIM Climate Satellite #2 TIM + SIM CERES 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 Terra Aqua CERES NPP CERES FM-5 Climate Satellite #1 ERBS Climate Satellite #2 ERBS OMPS 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 Aura MLS & HIRDLS and MLS OMI NPP OMPS-Limb added Climate Satellite #1 Complete OMPS NPOESS C3 or Climate Satellite #2 Complete OMPS OMPS-Limb added APS 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 Glory APS Potential APS Gap Climate Satellite #1 APS Climate Satellite #2 Follow-on APS Altimetry 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 JASON 1 OSTM (JASON 2) JASON 3 Adv. Altimeter #1 Adv. Altimeter #2 Specified lifetime Extended operations Potential data gap FIGURE [C.8] Option 3 and 4. Continuity Timeline. Sequential Climate Satellites + TSIS Redundancy. [p. 14] 8 AppC figure.eps Current Studies [p. 15] â¢ Work in progress: still exploring options â¢ NPOESS remanifest â Assessed 2 options for earliest return to NPOESS flights (C2-C4) â¢ NASA procures and delivers sensors to NPOESS as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) â¢ The Integrated Program Office (IPO) procures sensors via current prime contractor overseeing subcon- tracted instrument vendors â¢ Altimetry â Altimetry capability explored as free-flying Jason follow-on and as advanced altimeter missions â¢ Climate satellite missions â Examined 2 research-grade missions â¢ Additionally explored TSIS (total and spectral) on Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) and International Space Station (ISS) â¢ Currently assessing CERES on NPP
156 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT â Examined 2 operational-grade missions â¢ Used sensor analysis from NASA plus spacecraft development analysis from NOAA Polar Extended Mission study (2006) Climate Data Record (CDR) Science Support [p. 16] â¢ Includes development, production, reprocessing, stewardship, and distribution â¢ Assumes data from all NPOESS certified sensors and mitigation sensors/sources â¢ Covers about 30 Climate Change Science Program essential climate variables â¢ Will be covered in more detail in following presentation Free Flyer Climate Satellite [p. 17] â¢ Would fly in formation with NPOESS PM to provide imager data â¢ Two options were examined: â Research spacecraft â¢ Planned 5-year mission â¢ Single string development with selective redundancy â¢ Inexpensive, non-standard launch vehicle â¢ Ground segment leverages existing systems â Operational spacecraft â¢ Planned 7-year mission with additional redundancy â¢ Standard launch vehicle â¢ Additional investment in ground segment â¢ Current cost estimate range for a 3-sensor satellite is approximately $700M-$1100M â CDR Science Support is an additional $300M-$450M Altimetry Options [p. 18] â¢ NPOESS sun-synchronous orbits are NOT ideal for precision altimetry â¢ Flight of an altimeter on NPOESS is NOT recommended â¢ For this analysis, âfree flyerâ satellites in the NOAA/EUMETSAT JASON series are assumed â Three satellites beyond JASON 2 required to provide coverage to 2026 â Costs estimated for JASON 3, 4, and 5 â Advanced altimeter costs also estimated â¢ May replace JASON class missions starting with JASON 4 â¢ Independent of this study, U.S. Navy is working with the IPO to develop costs and options to procure an operational oceanography radar altimeter â¢ Current total cost estimate for a series of 3 missions ranges from approximately $1.5B-$2.1B â CDR Science Support is an additional ~$200M â Current cost estimate for a single JASON follow-on is approximately $470M with the potential for 50/50 cost sharing with partners
APPENDIX C REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 157 157 TABLEâ Climate Goal Partnering Opportunities (Preliminary) [p. 19] Partner Sensor or Capability Timeframe Role EUMETSAT Jason-3 2013-2018 Mitigate NASA/Navy Adv. Altimeter TBD Mitigate Increasing Potential â ESA/JAXA (Earthcare) APS/ERBS-like 2010-20xx Mitigate ESA GMES Sentinel 3 Altimeter Complement Navy (NPOESS) Altimeter (Op) 2016-2026 Complement Navy (DoD Space Test Program) Altimeter (Op) Complement CNES Megha-Tropiques ERBS-like Complement Chinese SOA (HY series) Altimeter Mitigate Brazilian Space Agency (Amazonia) Flight Opportunity 2010/2015 Accommodation EUMETSAT (MSG) ERBS-like on-orbit Complement Chinese Met. Agency (FY series) ERBS-like Mitigate ESA PARASOL APS-like on-orbit Complement Related Concerns [p. 20] â¢ VIIRS â Reduced imaging capability for mid-morning orbit â¢ Discussions on-going with EUMETSAT about an advanced imager on METOP-D â Optical Crosstalk â¢ MIS â Reduced capability microwave imager â First MIS scheduled to fly on NPOESS C2 (2016) â Discussion on-going with JAXA about AMSR-2 â Pursuing several options for continuity of ocean vector wind measurements TABLEâ Near-Term Planning [p. 21] Â Decision/Funding Commitment Launch Readiness Date CERES on NPP September 2007 / FY07* September 2009 TSIS on LDCM January 2008 / FY09 Late 2011 JASON-3 Decision CY08 / FY10 2013 First Climate Free-Flyer Mid 2009 / Pre-Phase A FY08 2014 * Would require re-allocation of existing funds Next Steps [p. 22] â¢ Listen closely to the input from this Workshop â¢ Continue to work with OSTP â¢ Continue dialogue regarding potential international and/or domestic partnerships
158 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT Backups [pp. 23-24] Reductions of Climate-Relevant Sensors EARLY-AM MID-AM PM New C2 New C4 New C1 New C3 NPOESS Instruments NPP (2016) (2022) (2013) (2020) Old (C3) Old (C6) (2013) MetOp Old (C2) Old (C5) (2016) Old (C1) Old (C4) (2011) (2015) (2009) (2014) Reduced Capability Sensors CMIS* Reduced Coverage Sensors CrlS/ATMS IASI/AMSU VIIRS AVHRR De-manifested Sensors TSIS CERES/ERBS CERES ALT OMPS** APS Remains Intact No Change/Not Relevant *CMIS to be redefined as a less capable, less expensive sensor Reduced Capability Related Missions **OMPS Limb Subsystem is cancelled and only the Nadir Deleted Implies Sensor Present capability is maintained FIGURE [C.9] NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification. Reductions of Climate-Relevant Sensors. [p. 24] 9 AppC figure.eps
REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 159 Appendix D Abbreviations and Acronyms (A)ATSR Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (also AATSR) ABI Advanced Baseline Imager ACE aerosol-cloud-ecosystem (mission) ACRIMSAT Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite ADCS Altitude Determination and Control System ADM Air Data Management AIRS Atmospheric Infrared Sounder ALOS Advanced Land Observation Satellite ALT altimeter AMSR-E Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System AMSU Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit AoA Analysis of Alternatives APS Aerosol Polarimeter Sensor ASAR Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar ASCAT advanced scatterometer ASCENDS Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons ASTER Advanced Spacebone Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ATLID Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging Instrument ATMS Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer BIOMASS Biomass monitoring mission for carbon assessment (ESA) CALIPSO Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations CDR climate data record CEOS Committee on Earth Observations Satellites CERES Clouds and Earthâs Radiant Energy System CERES SâCOOL Clouds and Earthâs Radiant Energy System Studentsâ Clouds Observations On-Line CGMS Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites
160 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT CHAMP Coral Health and Monitoring Project or Challenging Minisatellite Payload CLARREO Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory CMIS Conical Microwave Imager and Sounder CNES Centre National dâEtude Spatiales COSMIC Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate CrIS Cross-track Infrared Sounder CryoSat Cryosphere Satellite (mission) DESDynI Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice Mission DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program DOD Department of Defense DSCOVR Deep Space Climate Observatory EarthCARE ESAâs cloud and aerosol (mission) ECMWF European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ECV essential climate variable EDR environmental data record ENVISAT Environmental Satellite EOS Earth Observing System ERB Earthâs radiation budget ERBS Earth Radiation Budget Sensor ESA European Space Agency ET-EGOS Expert Team on Evolution of the Global Observing System EUMETSAT European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites Feng Yun Feng Yun Wind and Cloud (meteorological satellite) FPAR fraction of photosynthetically active radiation GACM Global Atmospheric Composition Mission GCOM Global Change Observation Mission GCOS Global Climate Observing System GEMS Global and regional Earth-system (Atmosphere) Monitoring GEO geosynchronous Earth orbit GEOSS Global Earth Observation System of Systems GERB geostationary Earth radiation budget GFO Geosat (Geodetic Satellite) Follow-on GHRSST-PP Global High Resolution SST Pilot Project GIFTS Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System GLI Global Imager GLM Geostationary Lightning Mapper GMES Global Monitoring for Environmental Security GMI Giant Magneto-Impedance GMS Geostationary Meteorological Satellite GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOS Global Observing System GOSAT Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite GPM Global Precipitation Measurement GPS/RO Global Positioning System/Radio Occultation
APPENDIX D REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 161 161 GRACE Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment GRAS Global Navigation Satellite System Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding HES Hyperspectral Environmental Suite HIRDLS High-Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder HIRS High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder IASI Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer ICESat Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite IEOS Integrated Earth Observation System IOCCG International Ocean Colour Coordination Group IORD Integrated Operational Requirements Document (NPOESS) IOS Integrated Observing System IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IR infrared IRS Indian Remote Sensing Satellite ISRO Indian Space Agency ITAR International Traffic in Arms Regulations ITSC Information Technology Support Center JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency LAI leaf area index LDCM Landsat Data Continuity Mission LEO low Earth orbit MAM mirror attenuated mosaic MERIS Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (ESA) Meteosat Meteorological satellite for European counterpart to GOES MetOp Meteorological Operational Satellite (European) METSAT Meteorological Satellite MIPAS Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding MIS Microwave Imager and Sounder MISR Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer MLS microwave limb sounder MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-Radiometer MSG Meteosat Second Generation MSU microwave sounding unit NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NESDIS National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service NESDIS/STAR National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service/Center for Satellite Applications and Research NIR near infrared NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NODC National Oceanic Data Center (NOAA) NPOESS National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System NPP NPOESS Preparatory Project NRC National Research Council
162 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT NSTC National Science and Technology Council OCO Orbiting Carbon Observatory OLS Operational Line Scanner OMI Ozone Monitoring Instrument OMPS Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite OPAG Open Programme Area Group OSIP Operational Satellite Improvement Program OSSE Observing System Simulation Experiment OSTM Ocean Surface Topography Mission OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy OSTST Ocean Surface Topography Science Team P3I preplanned product improvement PALSAR Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar PARASOL Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar PATH Precipitation and All-Weather Temperature and Humidity POES Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite POLDER Polarization and Directionality of Earthâs Reflectances QuikSCAT Quick Scatterometer RADARSAT Radar Satellite (Canada) SAGE Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment SAR synthetic aperture radar SARAL Satellite with Argos and AltiKa SARSAT Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking SBUV Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument SBUV/2 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectral Radiometer, MOD 2 ScaRAB Scanner for the Radiation Budget SCIAMACHY Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography SCLP Snow and Cold Land Processes SeaWiFS Sea-Viewing Wide-Field Sensor SESS Space Environment Sensor Suite SEVIRI Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager SGLI Second Generation Global Imager SIM Spectral Irradiance Monitor SMAP Software Assurance Management Program SMMR Scanning Multichannel (or Multifrequency) Microwave Radiometer SMOS Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity SOHO Solar and Heliospheric Observatory SORCE Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment SPOT ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Satellite Probatoire de lâObservation de la Terre SSI spectral solar irradiance SSM/I Special Sensor Microwave Imager SSMIS Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder SST sea surface temperature STAR Center for Satellite Applications and Research
APPENDIX D REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 163 163 SuS Survivability Sensor SWOT Surface Water-Ocean Topography TES Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer TIM Total Irradiance Monitor TMI TRMM [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission] Microwave Imager TOMS Total Ozone Mapping (Spectrolab/System/Spectrometer) TOPEX Ocean Topography Experiment TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission TSI total solar irradiance TSIS Total Solar Irradiance Suite UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UV ultraviolet VAS VISSR Atmospheric Sounder VIIRS Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite VIRI visible and infrared imager VISSR Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer WindSat a joint Integrated Program Office/DOD/NASA satellite-based polarimetric microwave radiometer WMO World Meteorological Organization XOVWM Extended Ocean Vector Winds Mission
164 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT Appendix E Biographical Sketches of Panel Members ANTONIO J. BUSALACCHI, JR., Chair, is director of the Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center and a professor in the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science at the University of Maryland. His research interests include tropical ocean circulation and its role in the coupled climate system, and climate variability and predictability. Dr. Busalacchi has been involved in the activities of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) for many years as co-chair of the scientific steering group for its subprogram on climate variability and predict- ability, and he currently is a member of the Joint Scientific Committee of the WCRP. Dr. Busalacchi has extensive NRC experience as a member of the Climate Research Committee, the Committee on Earth Studies, the Panel on the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Program, and the Panel on Ocean Atmosphere Observations Supporting Short-Term Climate Predictions. PHILIP E. ARDANUY is chief scientist and director of Remote Sensing Applications at Raytheon Information Solu- tions. Dr. Ardanuy specializes in developing integrated mission concepts through government-industry-Âacademic partnerships. His research has included network-centric and system-of-systems concepts, Âtelepresence-telescience- telerobotics, tropical meteorology, Earthâs radiation budget and climate, satellite instrument calibration and char- acterization, remote sensing applications and systems engineering, scientific applications research-to-operational transition, and validation of environmental observations. He is the associate editor of the InterÂnational Society for Optical Engineeringâs (SPIE) Journal of Applied Remote Sensing and chair of the American ÂMeteorological Societyâs (AMS) Committee on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography. Dr. Ardanuy has received multiple honors, including his 2007 elevation to the position of Raytheon Engineering Fellow and his receipt of the Raytheon Excellence in Business Development Award and the Raytheon Peer Award for âdedication in the excellence in his work and unimagined expertise in algorithms, ground processing, mission understanding, and mission experience.â Dr. Ardanuy served on the NRC Panel on Earth Science Applications and Societal Benefits of the Committee for Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future, and on the Committee on Utilization of Environmental Satellite Data: A Vision for 2010 and Beyond. JUDITH A. CURRY is chair of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of TechÂ nology. Her research interests include remote sensing, climate of the polar regions, atmospheric modeling, and air/sea interactions. She participates in the World Meteorological Organizationâs World Climate Research Program, was a member of the Science Steering Group of the Arctic Climate System Program, and chairs the Global Energy
APPENDIX E REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 165 165 and Water Cycle Experiment Cloud System Studies Working Group on Polar Clouds. She co-chaired the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean programâs Science Working Group. Dr. Curry previously served on the NRC Committee to Review NASAâs Polar Geophysical Data Sets, the Panel on Coastal Meteorology, and the Climate Research Committee. She currently serves on the Space Studies Board. JUDITH L. LEAN has worked in the Naval Research Laboratoryâs Space Science Division since 1986, where her research focuses on the mechanisms, measurements, and modeling of variations in the Sunâs radiative output and the effects of this variability on Earthâs global climate and space weather. She is a guest investigator on NASAâs Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and the Living with a Star and Sun-Earth Connection programs. She is a co- investigator on the Solar Radiation and Climate, Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics, and Solar Dynamics Explorer space missions. Dr. Lean has testified before the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources and the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space on the science of climate change. She is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and a member of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, the American Astronomical Society-Solar Physics Division, and the American Meteorological Society. Dr. Lean served on the NRC Commit- tee on Radiative Forcing Effects on Climate, the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, and the Panel on Climate Variability and Change of the Committee for Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future. BERRIEN MOORE III is a professor of systems research at University of New Hampshire (UNH) and is executive director of Climate Central, Inc. He was director of UNHâs Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space from 1987 to early 2008. He stepped down as director of the Institute to direct Climate Central. Dr. Mooreâs research focuses on the carbon cycle, global biogeochemical cycles, and global change as well as policy issues in the area of the global environment. At UNH, he received the universityâs 1993 Excellence in Research Award and was named University Distinguished Professor in 1997. In 2005, he was honored with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Administratorâs Special Recognition award for his service as chair of theÂ NOAA Research Review Team. Dr. Moore was the recipient of the 2007 Dryden Lectureship in Research by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Most recently, he shared in the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); Dr. Moore was the coordinating lead author for the final chapter, âAdvancing our Understanding,â of the IPCCâs Third Assessment Report (2001). He has served on several NASA advisory committees and in 1987 chaired the NASA Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee. Dr. Moore led the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Task Force on Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modeling prior to serving as chair of the overarching Scientific Committee of the IGBP. He chaired the 2001 Open Science Conference on Global Change in Amsterdam and is one of the four architects of the Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change. Dr. Moore has contributed actively to committees at the NRC, and he served as vice chair of the NRC Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future. He is chair of the Committee on Earth Studies and is a member of the Space Studies Board. JAY S. PEARLMAN is chief engineer of Network Centric Operations (NCO) Programs and Technologies at the Boeing Company. Dr. Pearlmanâs background includes basic research program management and program develop- ment in sensors, remote sensing, and information systems. He was Boeingâs chief architect for the NOAA GOES- R study contract and the chief scientist for the Landsat Data Continuity contract. He was also deputy principal investigator for the NASA Hyperion Program. Dr. Pearlman is currently leading the NCO research and technology coordination and is a Boeing technical fellow. He is a senior member of the IEEE and is chair of the IEEE Com- mittee on Earth Observation. He is active in promoting systems-of-systems architecture and information system development for large-scale national and global applications, including advancing ocean and coastal information systems. Dr. Pearlman has more than 70 publications and 25 U.S. and international patents. He served on the NRC Panel on Enabling Concepts and Technologies of the Committee for the Review of NASAâs Pioneering
166 REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT Revolutionary Technology Program and on the Steering Committee, Space Applications and Commercialization. He is currently a member of the Ocean Studies Board. JAMES F.W. PURDOM is a senior research scientist at the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) at Colorado State University. Before joining CIRA in 2001, he spent 4 years as director of the Office of Research and Applications in NOAA-NESDIS. Dr. Purdomâs research focuses on remote sensing of Earth and its environment from space, as well as the development and evolution of atmospheric convection, with emphasis on the study of mesoscale processes using satellite data. He received the U.S. Department of Commerce Silver Medal in 1994, the National Weather Association Special Award in 1996, the American Meteorological Society Special Award in 1997, and the Presidential Rank Award in 2001. He served on the NRC Task Group on the Availability and Usefulness of NASAâs Space Mission Data. CHRISTOPHER S. VELDEN is currently a research scientist at the University of Wisconsin. He heads a small group that develops satellite products mainly for tropical cyclone applications. He served as a member of the U.S. Weather Research Project Science Steering Committee (1996-1999), the GOES Science Team (1996-1998), and the Geostationary Microwave Sounder Working Group (1995-1996). He served as chair of the AMS Committee on Satellite Meteorology and has also been a member of the AMS Tropical Committee. In the last 5 years he has been honored by AMS with two awards, and he has published numerous papers. He served on the NRC Committee on NOAA-NESDIS Transition from Research to Operations, the Committee on the Future of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, and the Panel on Weather of the Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future. THOMAS H. VONDER HAAR is the director of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere and University Distinguished Professor of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University. His research includes work on Earthâs radiation budget and fundamental relationships with the climate system and incorporates some of the first results of direct solar irradiance measurements from satellites and the exchange of energy between Earth and space. Dr. Vonder Haar is also director of the Center for Geosciences, a Department of Defense-sponsored research center that focuses on the study of weather patterns and how they affect military operations, and includes investigations of fog, cloud layering, cloud drift winds, and dynamics of cloud persistence as detected from satel- lites. He currently serves on the NRC Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate and was the vice chair of the Panel on Weather of the Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2003. FRANK J. WENTZ serves as director of Remote Sensing Systems, a research company specializing in satellite microwave remote sensing of Earth. His research focuses on radiative transfer models that relate satellite obser- vations to geophysical parameters, with the objective of providing reliable geophysical data sets to the Earth science community. He is currently working on satellite-derived decadal time series of atmospheric moisture and temperature, the measurement of sea surface temperature through clouds, and advanced microwave sensor designs for climatological studies. He is a member of the American Geophysical Union. Mr. Wentz served on the NRC Panel on Reconciling Temperature Observations of the Climate Research Committee, and he was a member of the Committee on Earth Studies.