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Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Global Environmental Health: Research Gaps and Barriers for Providing Sustainable Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Services: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12597.
Page 109
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Global Environmental Health: Research Gaps and Barriers for Providing Sustainable Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Services: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12597.
Page 110
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Global Environmental Health: Research Gaps and Barriers for Providing Sustainable Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Services: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12597.
Page 111
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Global Environmental Health: Research Gaps and Barriers for Providing Sustainable Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Services: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12597.
Page 112

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110 GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2003. Introduction to the public water system supervision program. Available at: ———. 2006. References for Great Lakes Statistics. Available at: html. Esrey, S.A., J.B. Potash, L. Roberts, C. Schiff. 1990. Health benefits from improvements in water supply and sanitation: Survey and analysis of literature on selected diseases. WASH Technical Report No. 66, Water and Sanitation for Health Project. Washington, DC. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2003. Unlocking the Water Potential of Agriculture. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization. Fewtrell, L., and J. Bartram. 2001. Water Quality: Guidelines, Standards & Health Assessment of Risk and Risk Management for Water-Related Infectious Disease. World Health Organization. IWA Publishing. Fewtrell, L., R.B. Kaufmann, D. Kay, W. Enanoria, L. Haller, and J.M. Colford, Jr. 2005. Water, sani- tation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infectious Diseases 5:42-52. Franco, A. 2007. Conferencia Latinoamericana de Saneamiento Informe de país Bolivia. Goodenough, W.H. 1981. Culture, language, and society. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co. ———. 1999. Outline of a framework for a theory of cultural evolution. Cross-Cultural Research 33(1):84. Havelaar, A.H., A.E. De Hollander, et al. 2000. Balancing the risks and benefits of drinking water disinfection: Disability adjusted life-years on the scale. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(4):315-321. Hinrichsen, D., B. Robey, et al. ���������������������������������������������������������������� 1997. Solutions for a Water-Short World. Population Reports, Se- ries M, No. 14. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program. Hoekstra, A.Y., and P.Q. Hung. 2002. Virtual water trade. A quantification of virtual water flows between nations in relation to international crop trade. The Netherlands: IHE Delft. Hunter, P., R.M. Chalmers, et al. 2005. Self reported diarrhea in a control group: A strong association with reporting of low pressure events in tap water. Clinical Infectious Diseases 40:e32-e34. Hunter, P., D. Denis Zmirou-Navier, et al. ������������������������������������������������������� 2009. Estimating the impact on health of poor reliabil- ity of drinking water interventions in developing countries. Science of the Total Environment 407(8):2621-2624. Husain, A.M. 1998. Poverty Alleviation and Empowerment: The Second Impact Assessment Study of BRAC’s Rural Development Programme. Muzzam, Dhaka, Bangladesh: BRAC. Hussam, A. 2008. Clean drinking water: Solving arsenic crisis through a sustainable local filtration technology. Global Environmental Health: Research Gaps and Barriers for Providing Sustain- able Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Services, Washington, DC. Hussam, A., S. Ahamed, A.K. Munir. 2008. Arsenic filters for groundwater in Bangladesh: Toward a sustainable solution. The Bridge: Technologies for Clean Water 38(3):14-23. Hutton, G., and L. Hailer. 2004. Evaluation of the costs and benefits of water and sanitation improve- ments at the global level. Geneva: World Health Organization. IMF (International Monetary Fund), The World Bank. 2005. Ghana: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Annual Progress Report. Lenzen, M. 2002. The Influence of Lifestyles on Environmental Pressure. Year Book Australia 2002: Environment. Melosi, M. 2000. The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America from Colonial Times to the Present. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Ministry of Water Resources, Works, and Housing. 2007. National Water Policy. Ministry of Water Resources, Works, and Housing, Ghana. Morgan, P. 2005. Successful demonstration activities in the use of toilet compost and urine as a source of nutrients for growing crops. Available at:

references 111 Mukherjee, A., M.K.S. Ahamed, et al. �������������������������������� Journal of Health, Population 2006. Special issue on Arsenic. and Nutrition 24(2):142. Murray, C.J., and A.D. Lopez. 1996. Evidence-based health policy: Lessons from the global burden of disease study. Science 274(5288):740-743. NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ———. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ———. 2006. Drinking Water Distribution Systems: Assessing and Reducing Risks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ———. 2008. Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The Second Biennial Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Oatridge, J.W. 1998. Why Is Freshwater an Issue for Business. Available at: documents/ecosoc/cn17/1998/background/ecn171998-oatr.htm. O’Meara, M. 1999. Reinventing Cities for People and the Planet. Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute. Prüss, A., D. Kay, L. Fewtrell, and J. Bartram. 2002. Estimating the burden of disease from water, sanitation, and hygiene at a global level. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(5):537-542. PURC (Public Utilities Regulatory Commission). 2005. Social Policy and Strategy for Water Regula- tion, Ghana. Risebro, H., M. Doria, et al. 2007. Fault tree analysis of the causes of waterborne outbreaks. Journal ����������������������������������������������������������������� of Water and Health 5(Suppl 1):1-18. Rohner, R.P. 1984. Toward a conception of culture for cross-cultural psychology. Journal of Cross- Cultural Psychology 15(2):111-138. Sachs, J. 2001. Macroeconomics and health: Investing in health for economic development. Report of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health prepared for WHO, World Health Orga- nization. Santaniello-Newton, A., and P. Hunter. 2000. Management of an outbreak of meningococcal meningi- tis in a Sudanese refugee camp in Northern Uganda. Epidemiology and Infection 124:75-81. Semenza, J.C., L. Roberts, et al. ��������������������������������������������������������������� 1998. Water distribution system and diarrheal disease transmis- sion: A case study in Uzbekistan. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 59(6):941-946. Smedley, P., and D.G. Kinniburgh. 2002. A review of the source, behaviour and distribution of arsenic in natural water. Applied Geochemistry 17(5):517-568. Stockholm Environment Institute. 2005. Sustainable Pathways to Attain the Millennium Develop- ment goals: Assessing the key role of water, energy and sanitation. Available at: http://www.sei. se/mediamanager/documents/Publications/Water-sanitation/sustainable_pathways_mdg.pdf. The World Bank. 2002. World Development Indicators Database. Available at: http://www.worldbank. org/data/databytopic/class.xls. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). 2006. World Water Day. Available at: UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) and WHO (World Health Organization). 2004. Joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation; meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation target: A mid-term assessment of progress. ———. 2007. Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for water supply and sanitation. Available at: (accessed September 2007). USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development). 1999. BHR/OFDA Annual Report, FY 1999. Washington, DC: U.S. Agency for International Development. Available at: http://www.usaid. gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/disaster_assistance/publications/annual_reports/pdf/ AR1999.pdf.

112 GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH Van Lieverloo, J.H., E.J. Mirjam Blokker, et al. ���������������������������������������������������� 2007. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of dis- tributed drinking water using faecal indicator incidence and concentrations. Journal of Water and. Health 5(Suppl 1):131-149. WHO (World Health Organization). 1948. Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Orga- nization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19 June-22 July 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948. ———. 1999. (Annapolis Protocol). Health based monitoring of recreational waters: The feasibility of a new approach. Geneva: WHO/SDE/WSH99.1. ———. 2000. Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh: A public health emergency. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78(9). ———. 2003. Guidelines for safe recreational water environments. Volume 1: Coastal and fresh waters. ———. 2004. Guidelines for drinking-water quality, Third Edition Volume 1: Recommendations. ———. 2006a. Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Volume 2: Waste- water use in agriculture. ———. 2006b. Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Volume 3: Waste- water and excreta use in agriculture. ———. 2007. Economic and health effects of increasing coverage of low cost household drinking- water supply and sanitation interventions to countries off-track to meet MDG target 10. WHO (World Health Organization), UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund), and WSSCC (Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council). 2000. Global Water Supply and Sanitation As- sessment 2000 Report. WSSCC (Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council). 2004. The Campaign: WASH Facts and Figures. Available at: TOKEN=70205233.

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The issues surrounding water services are some of the most critical challenges facing not only the United States, but also the global community today. The Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine of the Institute of Medicine convened a workshop in October 2007, summarized in this volume, to address objectives related to Sustainable Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Services.

One of the objectives of the workshop was to think about the interdependence of environmental health and human health as connected through water. Organizations cannot discuss water without considering the interrelationship of sanitation and hygiene. It is the convergence of these strategies that promotes healthy outcomes for both individuals and the environment.

A second objective of the workshop was to consider how planning, management, and interdisciplinary approaches-including technology, social behavioral issues, gender, health, environment, economic, and political aspects-can be integrated to arrive at sustainable solutions. Many organizations and agencies are trying to forge a path toward sustainable practices in water, but the various sectors utilizing and governing water services are not interconnected. More integration and a greater understanding of holistic approaches are needed.

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