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Committee on a Leadership Summit to Effect Change in Teaching and Learning Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Board on Life Sciences Division on Earth and Life Studies The NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS â 500 Fifth Street, N.W. â Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the W.K. ÂKellogg Foundation, the National Science Foundation, the Farm Foundation, and the A Â merican Farm Bureau Foundation for Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclu- sions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, N Â ational Science Foundation, or any of the other organizations that provided sup- port for the project. This material is based upon work supported by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under Award No. 200638837-03642; the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DUE- 0540637; and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation under Award No. P0116528. International Standard Book Number-13â 978-0-309-13221-3 (Book) International Standard Book Number-10â 0-309-13221-5 (Book) International Standard Book Number-13â 978-0-309-13222-0 (PDF) International Standard Book Number-10â 0-309-13222-3 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engiÂ neers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sci- ences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to Âassociate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
COMMITTEE ON A LEADERSHIP SUMMIT TO EFFECT CHANGE IN TEACHING AND LEARNING JAMES L. OBLINGER (Chair), Chancellor, North Carolina State University, Raleigh JOHN M. BONNER, Executive Vice President, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa PETER J. BRUNS, Vice President for Grants and Special Programs, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland VERNON B. CARDWELL, Morse-Alumni Distinguished Teaching Professor, University of Minnesota, St. Paul KAREN GAYTON COMEAU, Past President, Haskell Indian Nations University, Lawrence, Kansas (Retired) KYLE JANE COULTER, Past Deputy Administrator, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (Retired) SUSAN J. CROCKETT, Vice President and Senior Technology Officer, Health and Nutrition, General Mills, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota THEODORE M. CROSBIE, Vice President of Global Plant Breeding, Monsanto Company, Ankeny, Iowa LEVON T. ESTERS, Assistant Professor of Agricultural Education and Studies, Iowa State University, Ames A. CHARLES FISCHER, Past President and Chief Executive Officer, Dow AgroSciences LLC, Indianapolis, Indiana (Retired) JANET A. GUYDEN, Associate Vice President of Research and Dean of Graduate Studies, Grambling State University, Grambling, Louisiana MICHAEL W. HAMM, C.S. Mott Professor of Sustainable Agriculture, Michigan State University, East Lansing MICHAEL V. MARTIN, Chancellor, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge SUSAN SINGER, Laurence McKinley Gould Professor of the Natural Sciences, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota LARRY VANDERHOEF, Chancellor, University of California, Davis PATRICIA VERDUIN, Vice President, Global Research and Development, Colgate-Palmolive Company, Piscataway, New Jersey
STAFF ADAM P. FAGEN, Study Director ROBIN A. SCHOEN, Director, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources KAREN L. IMHOF, Administrative Assistant PEGGY TSAI, Program Officer NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor vi
BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES W. R. GOMES (Chair), University of California, Oakland (Emeritus) PEGGY F. BARLETT, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia ROGER N. BEACHY, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, Missouri HAROLD L. BERGMAN, University of Wyoming, Laramie H.H. CHENG, University of Minnesota, St. Paul (Emeritus) RICHARD A. DIXON, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, Oklahoma DANIEL M. DOOLEY, University of California, Oakland JOAN H. EISEMANN, North Carolina State University, Raleigh GARY F. HARTNELL, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri GENE HUGOSON, Minnesota Department of Agriculture, St. Paul KIRK C. KLASING, University of California, Davis VICTOR L. LECHTENBERG, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana PHILIP E. NELSON, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana ROBERT PAARLBERG, Wellesley College, Watertown, Massachusetts KEITH PITTS, Marrone Organic Innovations, Davis, California HAL SALWASSER, Oregon State University, Corvallis PEDRO A. SANCHEZ, The Earth Institute, Columbia University, Palisades, New York NORMAN R. SCOTT, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York ROGER A. SEDJO, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. KATHLEEN SEGERSON, University of Connecticut, Storrs MERCEDES VAZQUEZ-AÃON, Novus International, Inc., St Charles, Missouri STAFF ROBIN A. SCHOEN, Director KAREN L. IMHOF, Administrative Assistant AUSTIN J. LEWIS, Senior Program Officer EVONNE P. Y. TANG, Senior Program Officer PEGGY TSAI, Program Officer CAMILLA YANDOC ABLES, Associate Program Officer KARA N. LANEY, Associate Program Officer vii
RUTH S. ARIETI, Research Associate JANET M. MULLIGAN, Research Associate KAMWETI MUTU, Research Associate ERIN P. MULCAHY, Senior Program Assistant viii
BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES KEITH YAMAMOTO (Chair), University of California, San Francisco ANN M. ARVIN, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California RUTH BERKELMAN, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia VICKI L. CHANDLER, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Palo Alto, California MARK D. FITZSIMMONS, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Chicago, Illinois LOUIS J. GROSS, University of Tennessee, Knoxville JO HANDELSMAN, University of Wisconsin, Madison CATO T. LAURENCIN, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington JONATHAN D. MORENO, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia RANDALL S. MURCH, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Alexandria CAMILLE PARMESAN, University of Texas, Austin MURIEL E. POSTON, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York ALISON G. POWER, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York JAMES REICHMAN, University of California, Santa Barbara (Retired) BRUCE W. STILLMAN, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York MARC T. TESSIER-LAVIGNE, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California JAMES TIEDJE, Michigan State University, East Lansing CYNTHIA WOLBERGER, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland STAFF FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director JO L. HUSBANDS, Scholar/Senior Project Director ADAM P. FAGEN, Senior Program Officer ANN H. REID, Senior Program Officer MARILEE K. SHELTON-DAVENPORT, Senior Program Officer INDIA HOOK-BARNARD, Program Officer ANNA FARRAR, Financial Associate ix
AMANDA P. CLINE, Senior Program Assistant REBECCA L. WALTER, Senior Program Assistant
Preface In April 1991, leaders in the higher education community, business, industry, and public agencies met at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC, for a national conference on the changes needed to meet the challenges of undergraduate professional education in agriculture. The meeting, âInvesting in the Future: Professional Education for the Under- graduate,â was organized by the National Research Councilâs Board on Agri- culture with support from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its office of Higher Education Programs in the Cooperative State Research Service, and emanated from a series of discussions of USDA Project Interact: An Integrated Curriculum Development Action Plan. The proceedings of the meeting were published by the National Academies as Agriculture and the Undergraduate in 1992. Although the report did not offer recommendations, it did contain a large number of ideas that were presented at the conference and has served as a source of inspiration. Since 1991, however, a lot has changed. Universities are different, careers are different and constantly evolving, and even the meaning of the term agriculture has changed. Moreover, what students expect, what is expected of them, and the need for a scientifically educated population have expanded. Over the last several years, the Academic Programs Section of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC)ânow known as the Association of ÂPublic and Land-grant Uni- The Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, which has overseen the present study, is the successor to the Board on Agriculture. xi
xii Preface versities (APLU)âhas discussed what is needed to update the agriculture curriculum and prepare agriculture students for a 21st-Âcentury workplace. NASULGC approached the National Academies with the idea for a semi- nal event (a âleadership summitâ) and a National Research Council report that would draw wide attention to undergraduate education in agriculture. Conversations with various stakeholders revealed that many had similar concerns, and several in the federal government (USDA and the National Science Foundation) and the private sector (the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, the Farm Foundation, and the American Farm Bureau Foundation for Agri- culture) signed on to support the project. A committee was appointed by the National Academies in early 2006 to consider what an undergraduate education in agriculture should comprise to prepare a flexible and well-prepared workforce. The committee includes academic leaders in the land-grant university system, senior managers in food and agriculture industries, experts in science education and faculty development, faculty with experience in these topics, and representatives of professional societies. The committee was charged with investigating how institutions of higher education can improve the learning experience for students at the interÂ section of agriculture, environmental and life sciences, and related disci- plines. It looked at innovations in teaching, learning, and the curriculum that could be used to prepare a workforce that would meet the needs of employers and the entire community. Central to the committeeâs work was organizing the Leadership ÂSummit to Effect Change in Teaching and Learning. That meeting, held October 3â5, 2006, at the National Academy of Sciences, brought together over 300 rep- resentatives of academe, business and industry, government, professional societies, and other stakeholders. Participants ranged from university presi- dents to undergraduate students and from agribusiness CEOs to entry-level employees, including many in between. Sessions focused on agriculture and on education. Most academic participants in the summit came as part of small insti- tutional teams. The committee recommended that academic institutions applying to participate develop a team of four individuals which included a senior administrator whose responsibility extended beyond the college of agriculture (such as a provost or a dean of undergraduate education) and a NASULGC changed its name to APLU, effective April 1, 2009. Throughout the report, the organization will be referred to as NASULGC when referring to events and actions prior to that date.
Preface xiii person with responsibility for undergraduate education in agriculture (such as an associate dean for academic programs); additional team members included faculty, students, and other administrators. Industry teams were encouraged to include senior managers in both research and development and human resources, department managers, recruiters, and others. Professional societies were represented by both staff and members, including executive directors and chairs of education-related committees. In designing the agenda for the summit and preparing this report, the committee has had input from many people. Several representatives of the committee met with the NASULGC Academic Programs Section in February 2006 to hear their thoughts on the most important issues of concern. The committee held a planning meeting in May 2006 at which it heard from representatives of several project sponsors (USDA, the Farm Foundation, and the American Farm Bureau Foundation for Agriculture), the U.S. Envi- ronmental Protection Agency, NASULGC, and people associated with the 1991 meeting and the associated 1992 proceedings. The committee met again before and immediately after the leadership summit to begin identifying the major themes for inclusion in its report. After the summit, several small committee working groups developed sections of the report. Those sections and the overall conclusions and recommendations were discussed at the committeeâs final meeting in April 2007 and in later teleconferences and other discussions.
Acknowledgments The committee is grateful to the many hundreds of persons who have shared their insight, experiences, and suggestions on the issues being addressed in this project. The committee thanks the several hundred stake- holders who participated in the Leadership Summit to Effect Change in Teaching and Learning on October 3â5, 2006, especially the speakers, breakout leaders, and panelists: Thomas M. Akins, C. Eugene Allen, Caitilyn Allen, John C. Allen, Jerry Bolton, Gale A. Buchanan, Ralph J. Cicerone, M. Suzanne Donovan, Jay Ellenberger, Frank Fear, W.R. (Reg) Gomes, The Honorable Mike Johanns, Nicholas R. Jordan, Wynetta Y. Lee, Jose P. Mestre, Jay Moskowitz, Jeanne Narum, Marion Nestle, Paul Roberts, Gary Rodkin, Sally L. Shaver, Vanessa Sitler, Paul D. Tate, Andrew L. Waterhouse, Robin Wright, and Robert T. Yuan. We also thank the students from the University of Maryland, College Park, who served as note-takers. The Academic Programs Section of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Collegesânow the Association of Public and Land-grant Universitites (APLU)âinitiated recent discussion of the issues in this report and deserves much credit for pushing these topics to the front of the national agenda. Ian Maw, vice president, Food, Agriculture, and Natural Resources at APLU, deserves particular recognition for helping to make this study come about. The committee has benefited from the insight of those who have been thinking about the issues for many years. C. Eugene Allen (University of Minnesota), Karl G. Brandt (Purdue University), and Paul Williams (Uni- versity of WisconsinâMadison) provided their perspectives on the 1991 meeting and the last 15 years; their insight helped to guide the committee in organizing a summitâand writing a reportâthat would build on the earlier discussions. Representatives of several of the project sponsors also helped in xv
xvi Acknowledgments shaping the content of the meeting and in suggesting topics for inclusion in the report. Additional thanks go to others who provided information to the committee to assist in drafting the report, including many of the Âspeakers at the Summit as well as Patti Clayton, Diane Ebert-May, Christine Pfund, and Janelle Tauer. Finally, in addition to the original authors of the background papers (Appendix C and D), Joe Hunnings (University of Vermont) provided assistance in updating the data in Appendix C for final publication and has been added to the author list. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: George Acquaah, Bowie State University C. Eugene Allen, University of Minnesota Carol Balvanz, Iowa Soybean Association Ellen Bergfeld, American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America Alan R. Berkowitz, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies Donald L. Cawthon, Tarleton State University W.R. (Reg) Gomes, University of California (retired) Larry Gundrum, Kraft Foods (retired) Robert Haselkorn, University of Chicago Molly Jahn, University of WisconsinâMadison Donald L. Johnson, Grain Processing Corporation (retired) Neil Knobloch, Purdue University Karen S. Kubena, Texas A&M University Gordon E. Uno, University of Oklahoma Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Melvin D. George, Uni- versity of Missouri (retired), and Frederick A. Murphy, University of Texas
Acknowledgments xvii Medical Branch at Galveston. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
Contents SUMMARY 1 1 MOTIVATING CHANGE 13 What Is Agriculture?, 14 The Need for Change, 14 Impact of Changes on Agricultural Education, 18 The Roles of Land-Grant Universities and Other Institutions, 19 Continuing Promise of the Agricultural Education and the Land-Grant System, 19 The Consequences of Failure, 21 Goals of the Report, 21 Organization of the Report, 23 2 THE CONTEXT FOR CHANGE 25 Change in Students, 25 Change in Institutions, 27 Change in Higher Education, 30 Change in Agriculture, 31 Change in Careers, 32 Implementing Change, 33 3 IMPROVING THE LEARNING EXPERIENCE 35 Skills Development, 40 Case Studies and Problem-Based Learning, 42 Service Learning and Community Engagement, 44 Cooperative and Active Learning, 45 Learning Communities, 46 xix
xx Contents Extracurricular Activities, 47 Undergraduate Research, 48 International Experiences and Perspectives, 48 Instructional Technology, 51 Implementing Change, 53 Adoption of Effective Teaching Methods, 54 Role of Graduate Education, 55 Centers for Teaching and Learning, 56 Faculty Development, 57 Faculty Rewards, 60 4 BREAKING DOWN SILOS IN THE UNIVERSITY 65 Desired Qualities of Graduates, 66 Providing a Problem-Solving Outlook to the Broader Community Through Extension, 67 Providing Coursework Elements Beyond the College, 68 Connecting with the Rest of the University, 68 Faculty Recruiting, 70 University-wide Offerings, 71 New Areas of Instruction, 71 The Role of Colleges of Agriculture in Nurturing Liberal Education, 72 5 EXTENDING BEYOND THE UNIVERSITY: EXTERNAL PARTNERSHIPS TO EFFECT CHANGE 77 Partnerships with Kâ12 and Precollege Programs, 78 Partnerships Between Academic Institutions, 84 Involving Undergraduates in Outreach and Extension, 89 Partnerships with Nongovernmental Organizations, 91 Connection Between Academic Institutions and Employers, 94 International Partnerships, 98 6 A CALL FOR CHANGE 99 Need for Institutional Strategic Planning, 100 Agriculture Across the Curriculum, 102 Changes in How Students Learn, 104 Changes in How Faculty Teach, 105 Supporting the Value of Teaching and Learning, 108 Increasing Connections Between Institutions, 109 Increasing Connections with Precollege Settings, 110
Contents xxi Increased Permeability Between Academic Institutions and Employers, 111 Accountability and Compliance, 113 Implementing Change, 114 Continuing the Conversation, 120 REFERENCES 121 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 129 B Leadership Summit Information 131 C Background Paper: Shifts in the Production and Employment of Baccalaureate Degree Graduates from United States Colleges of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 1990â2005 155 by Jeffrey L. Gilmore, Allan D. Goecker, Ella Smith, and P. Gregory Smith D Background Paper: Rethinking Undergraduate Science Education: Concepts and PracticalitiesâA Traditional Curriculum in a Changed World 169 by Robert T. Yuan E Questions to Guide the Review of Undergraduate Food and Agriculture Programs 179 F Committee and Staff Biographies 183
Tables, Figures, and Boxes TABLES C-1 Selected Demographic Characteristics of Graduates in Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Veterinary Medicine Fields of Study, United States, 2001â2002, 161 C-2 Main Concerns Affecting U.S. High School Students in Selecting Agricultural Sciences as a Career Major, 166 C-3 Skill Sets and Abilities that Agribusiness Employers Seek in New College Graduates, 167 FIGURES 2-1 Annual Change in Bachelorâs Degree Recipients for Agriculture and Natural Resources and All Fields of Study, 1987â2004, 26 C-1 Number of Baccalaureate Degrees Awarded in Selected Agricultural and Natural Resources Fields of Study, United States, 1987â2007, 158 C-2 Index of Relative Growth in Bachelor Degrees Awarded in Selected Agricultural Specialties Compared to All Bachelor Degrees Awarded at U.S. Institutions 1987â2007, 159 C-3 Gender of Baccalaureate Degree Recipients in Selected Agricultural and Natural Resources Degree Fields of Study, United States, 1987â 2007, 160 C-4 Number of Baccalaureate Degrees Awarded in Agricultural and Natural Resources Fields of Study by Selected Ethnic Groupings, United States, 1995â2007, 161 xxiii
xxiv Tables, Figures, and Boxes C-5 Projected Average Annual Employment Opportunities and Available Graduates in Agricultural and Natural Resources Fields of Study, United States 1990â2010, 162 C-6 Racial/Ethnic Distribution of Public Schools, Grades Kâ12, United States, 1972â2002, 165 BOXES 3-1 Selected Resources for Undergraduate Education in Agriculture, 37 3-2 How People Learn, 38 3-3 Learning by Doing at California Polytechnic State University, 43 3-4 Center for Excellence in Curricular Engagement at North Carolina State University, 45 3-5 Michigan State University International Programs, 50 3-6 Globalization of the Science Classroom at the University of Maryland, 51 3-7 Enhancing Graduate Training in Teaching and Learning: Delta Program at the University of Wisconsin, 56 3-8 National Academies Summer Institute on Undergraduate Education in Biology, 58 3-9 Project Kaleidoscope Faculty for the 21st Century, 59 3-10 Valuing Teaching for Tenure and Promotion at the University of WisconsinâMadison, 62 4-1 The âWorld Food Problemsâ Course at the University of Minnesota, 69 4-2 Michigan Technological Universityâs Strategic Faculty Hiring Initiative, 70 4-3 Evolution of Agricultural Economics at Cornell University, 73 5-1 Agriculture in the Classroom, 80 5-2 Virginia Governorâs School for Agricultural Sciences, 81 5-3 Articulation for Business-Education Teachers in Ohio, 86 5-4 Articulation for Teaching Education in Texas, 86 5-5 Midwest Poultry Consortium, 89 5-6 Summer Internships in Extension at the University of Florida, 91 5-7 Opportunities in Community-Supported Agriculture, 92 5-8 Connecting Farmers: Practical Farmers of Iowa, 93 5-9 The Green Lands, Blue Waters Project, 93 5-10 Professional Practice at the Georgia Institute of Technology, 95
Tables, Figures, and Boxes xxv 5-11 Internships at General Mills, 96 5-12 The Industrial Liaison Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 97