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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12641.
×

SCIENTIFIC AND HUMANE ISSUES IN THE USE OF RANDOM SOURCE DOGS AND CATS IN RESEARCH

Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12641.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health through Contract Number N-01-OD-4-2139 Task Order #207. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the National Institutes of Health, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the US government.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12641.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine


The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.


The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.


The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.


The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.


www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12641.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12641.
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COMMITTEE ON SCIENTIFIC AND HUMANE ISSUES IN THE USE OF RANDOM SOURCE DOGS AND CATS IN RESEARCH

Members

Stephen W. Barthold (Chair),

University of California, Center for Comparative Medicine

Donald C. Bolser,

University of Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine

Kelly D. Garcia,

University of Illinois at Chicago

Joseph R. Haywood,

Michigan State University

Stuart E. Leland,

Wyeth Research

Lila Miller,

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

Randall J. Nelson,

University of Tennessee

James Serpell,

University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine

Michael R. Talcott,

Washington University School of Medicine

Robert A. Whitney,

U.S. Public Health Service (retired)

Staff

Christine Henderson, Project Director

Joanne Zurlo, Director

Lida Anestidou, Study Director

Kathleen Beil, Administrative Coordinator

Cameron Fletcher, Senior Editor

Rhonda Haycraft, Senior Project Assistant

Erin Sorrell, Mirzayan Fellow

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12641.
×

INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

Members

Stephen W. Barthold (Chair),

University of California, Center for Comparative Medicine, Davis, California

Kathryn A. Bayne,

Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International, Frederick, Maryland

Myrtle A. Davis,

National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland

Jeffrey I. Everitt,

GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, Comparative Medicine and Investigator Support, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

James G. Fox,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Division of Comparative Medicine, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Nelson L. Garnett,

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (retired)

Estelle B. Gauda,

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland

Joseph W. Kemnitz,

University of Wisconsin, Primate Research Center, Madison, Wisconsin

Judy A. MacArthur Clark,

Home Office, London, England

Martha K. McClintock,

University of Chicago, Departments of Psychology and Comparative Human Development, Chicago, Illinois

Leticia V. Medina,

Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois

Timo Olavi Nevalainen,

University of Kuopio, National Laboratory Animal Center, Kuopio, Finland

Bernard E. Rollin,

Colorado State University, Department of Animal Sciences, Fort Collins, Colorado

Abigail L. Smith,

University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Stephen A. Smith,

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Blacksburg, Virginia

James E. Womack,

Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas

Staff

Joanne Zurlo, Director

Lida Anestidou, Program Officer

Kathleen Beil, Administrative Coordinator

Rhonda Haycraft, Senior Project Assistant

Cameron Fletcher, Managing Editor,

ILAR Journal

Erin Sorrell, Mirzayan Fellow

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12641.
×

INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS

Recognition and Alleviation of Pain in Laboratory Animals (2009)

Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals (2008)

Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy (2007)

Overcoming Challenges to Develop Countermeasures Against Aerosolized Bioterrorism Agents: Appropriate Use of Animal Models (2006)

Guidelines for the Humane Transportation of Research Animals (2006)

Science, Medicine, and Animals: Teacher’s Guide (2005)

Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report (2005)

Science, Medicine, and Animals (2004)

The Development of Science-based Guidelines for Laboratory Animal Care: Proceedings of the November 2003 International Workshop (2004)

Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Interim Report (2004)

National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research (2004)

Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research (2003)

International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources, Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002 (2003)

Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Primates (2003)

Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000 (2000)

Strategies That Influence Cost Containment in Animal Research Facilities (2000)

Microbial Status and Genetic Evaluation of Mice and Rats: Proceedings of the 1999 US/Japan Conference (2000)

Microbial and Phenotypic Definition of Rats and Mice: Proceedings of the 1998 US/Japan Conference (1999)

Monoclonal Antibody Production (1999)

The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates (1998)

Biomedical Models and Resources: Current Needs and Future Opportunities (1998)

Approaches to Cost Recovery for Animal Research: Implications for Science, Animals, Research Competitiveness and Regulatory Compliance (1998)

Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use (1997)

Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals (1997)

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1996)

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12641.
×

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals—Korean Edition (1996)

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals—Chinese Version (1996)

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals—Spanish Version (1996)

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals—Russian Version (1996)

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals—French Version (1996)

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals—Taiwanese Edition (1996)

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals—Portuguese Edition (1996)

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals—Japanese Edition (1996)

Rodents (1996)

Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals, Fourth Revised Edition (1995)

Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs (1994)

Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals (1992)

Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs (1991)

Companion Guide to Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats (1991)

Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats (1991)

Immunodeficient Rodents: A Guide to Their Immunobiology, Husbandry, and Use (1989)

Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1988)

Animals for Research: A Directory of Sources, Tenth Edition and Supplement (1979)

Amphibians: Guidelines for the Breeding, Care and Management of Laboratory Animals (1974)


Copies of these reports can be ordered from the National Academies Press

(800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12641.
×

Preface

The ancient Indian fable of the Blind Men and the Elephant describes a group of blind men who each touch a different part of an elephant and, when they compare their individual impressions of the animal before them, discover that they are in complete disagreement. While assorted versions of this fable vary about the contentiousness of the debate and how it is resolved, the primary lesson is that opinions can differ among individuals. The secondary message is that differences must be resolved in order to reach consensus. Such were the challenges of this committee.

The National Academies endeavor to appoint committees that represent a broad range of perspectives and expertise in order to accomplish a fair and balanced study, and this committee was no exception. But what seemed to be a relatively straightforward task in determining the desirability and necessity of random source dogs and cats from Class B dealers for National Institutes of Health (NIH) research turned out to be far more complex than the committee initially realized. The complexity goes back to the very origins of medical research and the animal protectionist movement, and is steeped in the American public’s emotional ties to dogs and cats (which Frank Loew1 termed “America’s Sacred Cows”) and changing trends in public attitudes toward research using these familiar animals. The American public has insisted that their pets be protected, resulting in pas-

1

Personal communication from the late Franklin Loew, DVM, PhD, Diplomate of the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, member of the Institute of Medicine, former Dean of Tufts School of Veterinary Medicine and Cornell School of Veterinary Medicine, past President of Becker College, research scientist, and advocate for research animal welfare.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12641.
×

sage of the original Animal Welfare Act in 1966, with several subsequent revisions. The enforcement arm of the Act, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), has also repeatedly amended its Animal Welfare Regulations to better enforce the Act. Despite these efforts, infractions continue, including recent egregious ones that sparked renewed concern by the public and Congress, which was the impetus for convening this committee.

In contrast to the emotion and conviction that pervade public sentiment toward dogs and cats, the scientific community views the “elephant” rationally. The U.S. dog and cat population, with its many breeds and numbers, represents a rich resource for advancing medical knowledge through discovery and use of models with homology to many human diseases.

The panel of experts on this committee represented a broad spectrum of perspectives, and endeavored to approach its task without bias, despite strong and admittedly emotional personal opinions. As Chairman of this committee, I was impressed that its members set aside their individual differences in order to reach consensus, and as a result were able to factually describe the entire elephant, with all of its complexity.

The committee acknowledges with appreciation a number of individuals who provided input and testimony from their varied perspectives for the committee’s deliberations. At the first meeting, in Washington, DC, on October 7, 2008, the following individuals presented information to the committee:

Kimberley Cohen, Covance

W. Ron DeHaven, American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA)

Jerry DePoyster, USDA/APHIS

David A. Kass, Johns Hopkins University

Cathy Liss, Animal Welfare Institute

Stacey Pritt, Covance

Margaret Snyder, NIH sponsor and contact person

Bill Yates, University of Pittsburgh

The following additional individuals presented information to the committee during its January 12, 2009, meeting in Washington, DC:

Stephen O’Brien, National Cancer Institute, NIH

Robert Willems, USDA/APHIS

Others who provided invaluable assistance to the committee include:

Chester Gipson, USDA/APHIS

Jodie Kulpa-Eddy, USDA/APHIS

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12641.
×

The committee also received written material submitted for consideration by the American Physiological Society, the Humane Society of the United States, and individuals with business or personal interests in the subject of the committee’s deliberations. In addition, the committee received information from several Class B dealers in response to specific questions posed by the committee.

The draft of this report was reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council (NRC). The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the committee in making its published report as sound as possible, and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberation process. The committee thanks the following individuals for their review of the draft report:

B. Taylor Bennett, Management Consultant

Larry Carbone, University of California—San Francisco

Jerry Collins, Yale University

Linda Cork, Stanford University

W. Ron DeHaven, American Veterinary Medical Association

Betty Goldentyer, U.S. Department of Agriculture

David A. Kass, Johns Hopkins University

Hilton Klein, Taconic

Kathy E. Laber-Laird, University of South Carolina

Scott Marshall, Marshall BioResources

Howard G. Rush, The University of Michigan

Marty Stephens, The Humane Society of the United States

Victoria Voith, Western University

Craig L. Wardrip, The University of Chicago

Bill Yates, University of Pittsburgh

The review of the report was overseen by:

Peter Ward, University of Michigan

Peter Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden

Appointed by the NRC, these individuals were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring Committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12641.
×

I extend my sincere appreciation to the members of this Committee, who invested considerable time, effort, and interest in this report. Although we had our distinct perspectives on “the elephant,” the individual members always remained respectful of one other and worked as a team with a unified concern for animal welfare. In addition, I acknowledge the assistance of Christine Henderson. This was her first effort at assisting with an Academy report, and I trust not her last.


Stephen W. Barthold, Chair

Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12641.
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2

 

The Use of Dogs and Cats in Research: Public Perception and Evolution of Laws and Guidelines

 

31

   

 Public Perceptions of Dogs and Cats and of Their Use in Research,

 

32

   

 The Animal Protection Movement,

 

34

   

 Evolution of Animal Care Oversight within the Scientific Community,

 

35

   

 Effects of Animal Protection Activities on Class B Dealers and on Scientific Access to Random Source Dogs and Cats,

 

37

   

 History of U.S. Laws and Guidelines Regarding the Use of Dogs and Cats in Research,

 

37

   

 References,

 

43

3

 

Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research

 

45

   

 The “3Rs” Principle,

 

47

   

 Desirability of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research,

 

48

   

 Random Source Dogs: Anatomic and Physiologic Attributes,

 

49

   

 Random Source Cats: Anatomic and Physiologic Attributes,

 

55

   

 IACUC and Principal Investigator Considerations Regarding the Use of Random Source Animals for Research,

 

57

   

 Deleterious Infectious Disease Issues,

 

59

   

 Zoonotic Disease Hazards among Random Source Animals,

 

60

   

 Adverse Effects of Infectious Disease on Research,

 

61

   

 Animal Welfare Issues,

 

62

   

 References,

 

64

4

 

Class B Dealers and Animals

 

71

   

 Trends in the Number of Class B Dogs and Cats Used in Research,

 

72

   

 The Role of Class B Dealers in Providing Random Source Animals,

 

77

   

 Trends in the Number of Class B Dealers,

 

78

   

 Sources of Dogs and Cats for Class B Dealers,

 

78

   

 Cost of Animals from Class B Dealers,

 

81

   

 AWA Enforcement,

 

82

   

 Inconsistencies in Quality among Class B Dealers,

 

86

   

 Alternatives to Class B Animals,

 

86

   

 Unresolved Class B Compliance Issues,

 

90

   

 References,

 

91

5

 

Conclusions and Recommendations

 

93

 

 

APPENDIX: Committee Biographies

 

99

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats in Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12641.
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Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random-Source Dogs and Cats in Research examines the value of random-source animals in biomedical research and the role of Class B dealers who acquire and resell live dogs and cats to research institutions. Findings include that, while some random-source dogs and cats may be necessary and desirable for National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded research, there is no clear need to obtain those animals from Class B dealers. Several options for random-source animal acquisition already exist and additional options are recommended, which would further ensure the welfare of these animals and foster a positive public image for NIH.

While the scientific community has recognized and responded to concerns for humane treatment of animals in research, government oversight has thus far been unable to fully enforce the Animal Welfare Act in regard to Class B dealers of live animals. Although the animals acquired by Class B dealers are destined for research--and NIH research in particular--the standard of care while in the possession of some Class B dealers requires an inordinate amount of government enforcement and is not commensurate with the policies of most NIH-funded research laboratories. This dichotomy of standards reflects poorly on public perceptions of NIH and jeopardizes animal welfare.

This book will be crucial for NIH and other groups using random-source animals in research, including veterinary schools and research facilities. Animal welfare advocates, policy makers, and concerned pet owners will also find this a vital and informative work for reconciling the needs of research with the welfare of animals.

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