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The Swine Flu Affair: Decision-Making on a Slippery Disease (1978)

Chapter: Appendix A: "Cast of Characters"

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: "Cast of Characters"." National Research Council. 1978. The Swine Flu Affair: Decision-Making on a Slippery Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Page 96
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: "Cast of Characters"." National Research Council. 1978. The Swine Flu Affair: Decision-Making on a Slippery Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Page 97
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: "Cast of Characters"." National Research Council. 1978. The Swine Flu Affair: Decision-Making on a Slippery Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Page 98
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: "Cast of Characters"." National Research Council. 1978. The Swine Flu Affair: Decision-Making on a Slippery Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Page 99
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: "Cast of Characters"." National Research Council. 1978. The Swine Flu Affair: Decision-Making on a Slippery Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
×
Page 100
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: "Cast of Characters"." National Research Council. 1978. The Swine Flu Affair: Decision-Making on a Slippery Disease. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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Page 101

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APPENDICES 96

Selected Organizational relationships in HEW, 1976 (includes individuals named in text) “HEW” Mathews Morrill “OGC” Taft Barrett Feiner Etc. Young Etc. Etc. “PHS” Etc. Cooper Meriwether Dickson Etc. “NIH” “CDC” “FDA” Etc. Fredrickson Sencer Etc. “NIAID” “BOB” Etc. Seal Meyer Dull Foege Etc. Millar Etc. Etc. Hattwick Etc. 97

A Cast of Characters Persons named in chapters and in the chronology are identified by positions held when they first appear; if changes of position matter to the narration, these too are noted. Mindful of readers we tried in those chapters to minimize personal references, lest we present the reading problems of a Russian novel. Acknowledging that we have not wholly succeeded, we offer this list. It does not include Gerald R. Ford or Jimmy Carter. Other- wise we have endeavored to be complete. The list is alphabetical. E. RUSSELL ALEXANDER M.D., Member Council, Executive Office of the of Advisory Committee on Immuni- President, Ford Administration, to zation Practices; Professor of Public January 1977. Health, University of Washington. DONALD CARMODY, Director, Division ST. JOHN BARRETT, Deputy General of Health Protection, Office of Pol- Counsel of HEW, Ford Administra- icy Development and Planning, Pub- tion, to January 1977. lic Health Service. JOSEPH BARTLEY, M.D., Colonel and JAMES CAVANAUGH. Deputy Chief of Chief of Preventive Medicine, Fort Staff in the White House and Deputy Dix. Director of the Domestic Council, Ford Administration, to January RICHARD I. BEATTIE, Deputy General 1977. Counsel of HEW, Carter Administra- tion, from January 1977. HALE CHAMPION, Undersecretary of HEW, Carter Administration, from PHILIP BRACHMAN, M.D., Director, Bu- January 1977. reau of Epidemiology, Center for Disease Control. LESLIE CHEEK, Chief of Washington branch office, American Insurance WENDELL BRADFORD, Associate Direc- Association. tor. Bureau of State Services, Center for Disease Control. JOHN COCHRAN, White House Corres- JOSEPH A. CALIFANO, JR., Secretary of pondent, National Broadcasting Company, to Winter 1977. HEW, Carter Administration, since January, 1977. CHARLES COCKBURN, M.D., World Health Organization, Geneva, Swit- HOWARD "BO" CALLOWAY, Campaign zerland. manager for President Ford to March 1976. LYLE CONRAD, Assistant Director, Im- JAMES CANNON, Director of Domestic munization Division, Center for Dis- 98

ease Control. appointed, February 1977. JAMES COOPER, M.D., Special Assistant, JOHN W. GARDNER, Secretary of HEW, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Johnson Administration, 1965-67. Health, Public Health Service. JAMES GAITHER, Chairman of HEW Eth- THEODORE COOPER, M.D., Assistant ics Advisory Board since Spring Secretary for Health, HEW, Ford 1977. Administration, to January 1977. E. BURKE GIBLIN, Chairman of the JAMES F. DICKSON, III, M.D., Deputy Board, Parke-Davis Company, De- Assistant Secretary for Health under troit drug manufacturer. Cooper, Acting Assistant Secretary MARTIN GOLDFIELD, M.D., Assistant to June 1977. Commissioner and chief Epidemi- LINDA DONALDSON, Staff attorney, Of- ologist, Department of Public Health, fice of General Counsel, HEW, from New Jersey, relieved of these duties Summer 1977. in 1977. WALTER R. DOWDLE, M.D., Director, DAVID HAMBURG, M.D. President, Insti- Virology Division at Center for Dis- tute of Medicine, National Academy ease Control. of Sciences. H. BRUCE DULL, M.D., Assistant Direc- MICHAEL HATTWICK, M.D., Chief of tor for Programs, Center for Disease Respiratory and Special Pathogens Control. Branch, Viral Disease Division, Bu- reau of Epidemiology, Center for CHARLES EDWARDS, M.D., Assistant Disease Control. Secretary for Health, HEW, Nixon Administration, to 1971. BEN W. HEINEMAN, JR., ExecutiveAssis- tant to HEW Secretary Califano, BERNARD FEINER, Chief of Business and from January 1977. Administrative Law Division, Office of General Counsel, HEW. MAURICE R. HILLEMAN, Director, Virus JONATHAN E. FIELDING, M.D., Commis- and Cell Biological Research and sioner of Public Health, Common- Vice President, Merck, Sharp & wealth of Massachusetts. Dohme Research Laboratories. ROBERT H. FINCH, Secretary of HEW, JOHN J. HORAN, President, Merck & Company, Rahway, New Jersey Nixon Administration, 1969-70. (parent company of drug manufac- DANIEL J. FLOOD, U.S. Representative turer). from Pennsylvania, Chairman, Ap- LAWRENCE HOROWITZ, M.D., Consul- propriations Subcommittee on La- tant to (Kennedy) Subcommittee on bor-HEW, House of Representatives. Health, U.S. Senate. WILLIAM H. FOEGE, M.D., Assistant Di- LEE HYDE, M.D., Professional staff rector for Operations, Center for Disease Control to April 1977; the- member, (Rogers) Subcommittee on reafter Director. Health and Environment, House of Representatives. DONALD S. FREDRICKSON, M.D., Direc- SPENCER JOHNSON, Associate Director, tor, National Institutes of Health; re- 99

Domestic Council, Executive Office JAMES MCMANUS, Correspondent, Co- of the President, Ford Administra- lumbia Broadcasting System. tion, to January 1977. W. DELANO MERIWETHER, M.D., Spe- T. LAWRENCE JONES, Director, Ameri- cial Assistant to Assistant Secretary can Insurance Association, New for Health; Director, National Influ- York. enza Immunization Program, HEW. ALAN KENDAL, M.D., Virology Divi- HARRY M. MEYER, JR., M.D., Director, sion. Center for Disease Control. Bureau of Biologies, Food and Drug Administration. EDWARD M. KENNEDY, U.S. Senator from Massachusetts; Chairman, Sen- ROBERT H. MICHEL, U.S. Representative ate Subcommittee on Health. from Illinois, Ranking Minority JOHN KNOWLES, M.D., President, Rock- Member, Appropriations Subcom- mittee on Labor-HEW, House of efeller Foundation, New York. Representatives. EDWIN D. KILBOURNE, M.D., Chairman, J. DONALD MILLAR, M.D., Director,- Department of Microbiology, Mt. Bureau of State Services, Center for Sinai School of Medicine, New York. Disease Control. WILLIAM MORRILL, Assistant Secretary JOYCE C. LASHOF, M.D., Deputy Assis- for Planning and Evaluation, HEW, tant Secretary for Health under to January 1977. Richmond to May 1978. J. ANTHONY MORRIS, Bacteriologist, Bu- LOUISE L. LIANG, M.D., Special Assis- reau of Biologics, Food and Drug tant to the Secretary, HEW, from Administration; discharged under September 1977. protest, July 1976. JAMES T. LYNN, Director, Office of DAVID NEWBERRY, Bureau of State Ser- Management and Budget, Executive vices, Center for Disease Control, on Office of the President, Ford Ad- ministration, to January 1977. detail to National Influenza Immuni- zation Program, Washingon (Meri- WARREN G. MAGNUSON, U.S. Senator wether). from Washington state, Chairman, GARY NOBLE, M.D., Virology Division, Senate Appropriations Subcommittee Center for Disease Control. on Labor-HEW. PAUL O'NEILL, Deputy Director, Office ANDREW MAGUIRE, U.S. Representative of Management and Budget, Execu- from New Jersey; member, House tive Office of the President, Ford Health Subcommittee. Administration, to January, 1977. DAVID MATHEWS, Secretary of HEW, Ford Administration, to January THOMAS P. O'NEILL, U.S. Representative from Massachusetts, Majority Leader 1977. of the House of Representatives. MICHAEL MCGINNIS, M.D., Special As- DENTON R. PETERSON, Immunization sistant to HEW Secretary Califano; Program Representative, Minnesota thereafter Deputy Assistant Secretary State Health Department. for Health. 100

NEIL PETERSON, Chief, Torts Section, Institutes of Health, Public Health Civil Division, Department of Jus- Service. tice. DAVID J. SENCER, M.D., Director, Center ROBERT C. PIERPOINT, White House for Disease Control, to April 1977. Correspondent, Columbia Broadcast- EILEEN SHANAHAN, Assistant Secretary ing System. for Public Affairs, HEW, Carter ELLIOT RICHARDSON, Secretary of Administration, from January, 1977. HEW, Nixon Administration, to De- CAROLE SIMPSON, Correspondent, Na- cember 1972. tional Broadcasting Company. JULIUS B. RICHMOND, M.D., Assistant REUEL A. STALLONES, M.D., Member, Secretary for Health, HEW, from Ju- Advisory Committee on Immuniza- ly 1977. tion Practices; Dean, School of Pub- NELSON A. ROCKEFELLER, Vice Presi- lic Health, University of Texas. dent of the United States, Ford Ad- C. JOSEPH STETLER, President, Pharma- ministration, to January 1977. ceutical Manufacturers Association, PAUL G. ROGERS, U.S. Representative Washington. from Florida; Chairman, House Sub- WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT, IV, General committee on Health and the Envi- Counsel of HEW, Ford Administra- ronment. tion, to January 1977. WILLIAM P. ROGERS, Esq., Partner, Rog- STANLEY TEMKO, Esq., Partner, Coving- ers and Wells, Cincinnati, counsel to ton and Burling, Washington, Coun- Richardson-Merrell (parent company sel to Merck & Company (parent of of drug manufacturer). Merck, Sharp & Dohme, drug manu- DAVID K. ROWE, Director, Procurement facturer). and Grants Office, Center for Dis- FRANKLIN H. TOP, M.D., Colonel, Wal- ease Control. ter Reed Army Institute of Research. PHILIP RUSSELL, M.D., Colonel, Walter HENRY A. WAXMAN, U.S. Represen- Reed Army Institute of Research. tative from California; member, ALBERT B. SABIN, M.D., Distinguished House Health Subcommittee. Research Professor of Biomedicine, CYRIL WECHT, M.D., County Coroner Medical University, Charleston, for Allegheny County (Pittsburgh) S.C. Health Department, Pennsylvania. JONAS E. SALK, M.D., Founding Direc- SIDNEY WOLFE, M.D., Director Public tor, Salk Institute, San Diego, CA. Citizens Health Research Group (a HAROLD SCHMECK, Medical reporter for Ralph Nader organization in Wash- the New York Times. ington). HARRY SCHWARTZ, Member, Editorial JOHN D. YOUNG, Assistant Secretary and Board, New York Times. Comptroller, HEW, Ford and Carter Administrations, through 1977. JOHN R. SEAL, M.D., Scientific Director, National Institute for Allergy and In- VICTOR ZAFRA, Division chief, Office of fectious Diseases (NIAID), National Management and Budget. 101

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In 1976, a small group of soldiers at Fort Dix were infected with a swine flu virus that was deemed similar to the virus responsible for the great 1918-19 world-wide flu pandemic. The U.S. government initiated an unprecedented effort to immunize every American against the disease. While a qualified success in terms of numbers reached-more than 40 million Americans received the vaccine-the disease never reappeared. The program was marked by controversy, delay, administrative troubles, legal complications, unforeseen side effects and a progressive loss of credibility for public health authorities. In the waning days of the flu season, the incoming Secretary of what was then the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Joseph Califano, asked Richard Neustadt and Harvey Fineberg to examine what happened and to extract lessons to help cope with similar situations in the future. The result was their report, The Swine Flu Affair: Decision-Making on a Slippery Disease

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