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APPENDIX A 95 California Department of Public Health. 2008. Standards and guidelines for healthcare surge during emergencies. http://bepreparedcalifornia. ca.gov/EPO/CDPHPrograms/PublicHealthPrograms/EmergencyPrep arednessOffice/EPOProgramsServices/Surge/StandGuide/SSG1.htm (accessed September 8, 2009). California Emergency Medical Services Authority. 2009. Disaster Medi- cal Services DivisionâHospital Incident Command System (HICS). http://www.emsa.ca.gov/hics/ (accessed September 4, 2009). CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2006. Flusurge 2.0. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/tools/flusurge/ (accessed September 9, 2009). CDC. 2009a. 2008â2009 influenza season week 34 ending August 29, 2009. http://cdc.gov/flu/weekly/index.htm (accessed September 8, 2009). CDC. 2009b. Federal public health emergency law: Implications for state and local preparedness and response: Teleconference. http://www2a.cdc.gov/phlp/webinar_04_29_2009.asp (accessed Sep- tember 8, 2009). CDC. 2009c. Novel H1N1 vaccination recommendations. http://www. cdc.gov/h1n1flu/vaccination/acip.htm (accessed September 8, 2009). CDC. 2009d. Updated interim recommendations for the use of antiviral medications in the treatment and prevention of influenza for the 2009â2010 season. http://cdc.gov/h1n1flu/recommendations.htm (accessed September 9, 2009). CDC. 2009e. Crisis & Emergency Risk Communication (CERC). http://emergency.cdc.gov/cerc/ (accessed September 8, 2009). Centers for Law and the Public's Health. 2001. The model state emer- gency health powers act (MSEHPA). http://www.publichealthlaw. net/ModelLaws/MSEHPA.php (accessed September 8, 2009). Centers for Law and the Publicâs Health. 2004. Public health emergency legal preparedness checklist. Civil legal liability and public health emergencies. Baltimore: Centers for Law and the Publicâs Health. Challen, K., J. Bright, A. Bentley, and D. Walter. 2007. Physiological- social score (PMEWS) vs. CURB-65 to triage pandemic influenza: A comparative validation study using community-acquired pneumonia as a proxy. BMC Health Serv Res 7:33. Chang, E., H. Backer, T. Bey, and K. Koenig. 2008. Maximizing medical and health outcomes after a catastrophic disaster: Defining a new âcrisis standard of care.â Western Journal of Emergency Medicine 9(3).
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98 CRISIS STANDARDS OF CARE GUIDANCE Panel_on_Emergency_Preparedness_and_Cultural_Diversity/69/ (accessed September 8, 2009). Eastridge, B. J., J. Owsley, J. Sebesta, A. Beekley, C. Wade, R. Wild- zunas, P. Rhee, and J. Holcomb. 2006. Admission physiology criteria after injury on the battlefield predict medical resource utilization and patient mortality. J Trauma 61(4):820â823. FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). 2009a. National In- cident Management System (NIMS). http://www.fema.gov /emergency/nims/AboutNIMS.shtm (accessed September 4, 2009). FEMA. 2009b. The National Response Framework. http://www.fema. gov/emergency/nrf/ (accessed September 4, 2009). Flacker, J. M., and D. K. Kiely. 1998. A practical approach to identifying mortality-related factors in established long-term care residents. J Am Geriatr Soc 46(8):1012â1015. Fliedner, T., I. Friesecke, and K. Beyrer. 2001. Medical management of radiation accidentsâmanual on the acute radiation syndrome. Ed- ited by T. Fliedner, I. Friesecke, and K. Beyrer. Oxford: British Insti- tute of Radiology. Franco, C., E. Toner, R. Waldhorn, T. V. Inglesby, and T. O'Toole. 2007. The national disaster medical system: Past, present, and suggestions for the future. Biosecur Bioterror 5(4):319-325. Galea, S., A. Nandi, and D. Vlahov. 2005. The epidemiology of post- traumatic stress disorder after disasters. Epidemiol Rev 27:78â91. GAO (U.S. Government Accountability Office). 2008. States are plan- ning for medical surge, but could benefit from shared guidance for allocating scarce medical resources: GAO-08-668 report. Washing- ton, DC: GAO. Gavagan, T. F., K. Smart, H. Palacio, C. Dyer, S. Greenberg, P. Sirbaugh, A. Fishkind, D. Hamilton, U. Shah, G. Masi, R. T. Ivey, J. Jones, F. Y. Chiou-Tan, D. Bloodworth, D. Hyman, C. Whigham, V. Pavlik, R. D. Feigin, and K. Mattox. 2006. Hurricane Katrina: Medical response at the Houston Astrodome/Reliant Center Com- plex. South Med J 99(9):933â939. Gebbie, K. M., C. A. Peterson, I. Subbarao, and K. M. White. 2009. Adapting standards of care under extreme conditions. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 3(2):111-116. Germann, T. C., K. Kadau, I. M. Longini, Jr., and C. A. Macken. 2006. Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza in the United States. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(15):5935-5940.
APPENDIX A 99 Gostin, L. O. 2008. Public health law: Power, duty, restraint. Berkeley: University of California Press. Gostin, L. O., and M. Powers. 2006. What does social justice require for the public's health? Public health ethics and policy imperatives. Health Aff (Millwood) 25(4):1053â1060. Graciano, A. L., J. A. Balko, D. S. Rahn, N. Ahmad, and B. P. Giroir. 2005. The Pediatric Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (P-MODS): Development and validation of an objective scale to measure the severity of multiple organ dysfunction in critically ill children. Crit Care Med 33(7):1484â1491. Hachey, W. 2009. IOM Committee on Guidance for Establishing Stan- dards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations. Paper presented at IOM Committee on Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations, September 2, Washington, DC. Hamilton, D. R., T.F. Gavagan, K.T. Smart, N. Weller, L. A. Upton, D. A. Havron, A. Fishkind, D. Persse, P. Shank, U. A. Shah, and K. Mattox. 2009a. Houstonâs medical disaster response to Hurricane Katrina: Part 2: Transitioning from emergency evacuee care to com- munity health care. Ann Emerg Med 53(4):515â527. Hamilton, D. R., T. F. Gavagan, K. T. Smart, L. A. Upton, D. A. Havron, N. F. Weller, U. A. Shah, A. Fishkind, D. Persse, P. Shank, and K. Mattox. 2009b. Houstonâs medical disaster response to Hurricane Katrina: Part 1: The initial medical response from trauma service area Q. Ann Emerg Med 53(4):505â514. Hanfling, D. 2006. Equipment, supplies, and pharmaceuticals: How much might it cost to achieve basic surge capacity? Acad Emerg Med 13(11):1232â1237. HHS (Department of Health and Human Services). 2003. Emergency Public Information and Communications (EPIC) advisory report. HHS. 2008. The national biodefense science board approves disaster mental health subcommittee recommendations. http://www.hhs.gov/ aspr/omsph/nbsb/subcomittee/mentalhealth/recommendations.html (accessed September 9, 2009). HHS. 2009. Federal public health and medical assistance. http://www.hhs.gov/disasters/discussion/planners/medicalassistance. html (accessed September 8, 2009). Hick, J., D. Hanfling, J. Burstein, C. DeAtely, D. Barbisch, G. Bogdan, and S. Cantrill. 2004. Healthcare facility and community strategies for patient care surge capacity. Annals of Emergency Medicine 44:253â261.
100 CRISIS STANDARDS OF CARE GUIDANCE Hick, J. L., and D. T. OâLaughlin. 2006. Concept of operations for triage of mechanical ventilation in an epidemic. Acad Emerg Med 13(2):223â229. Hick, J.L., L. Rubinson, D.T. OâLaughlin, and J. C. Farmer. 2007. Clini- cal review: Allocating ventilators during large-scale disastersâ problems, planning, and process. Crit Care 11(3):217. Hick, J. L., K. L. Koenig, D. Barbisch, and T. A. Bey. 2008. Surge ca- pacity concepts for health care facilities: The CO-S-TR model for initial incident assessment. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2 Suppl 1:S51-57. Hick, J. L., J. A. Barbera, and G. D. Kelen. 2009. Refining surge capac- ity: Conventional, contingency, and crisis capacity. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 3(2 Suppl):S59âS67. Hodge, J. G., Jr. 2006. Emergency System for Advance Registration of Volunteer Health Professionals (ESAR-VHP): Legal and regulatory issues. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services. Hodge, J. G., Jr. 2009. The legal landscape for school closures in re- sponse to pandemic flu or other public health threats. Biosecur Bioterror 7(1):45â50. Hodge, J., and E. Anderson. 2008. Principles and practice of legal triage during public health emergencies. NYU Annual Survey of American Law 64:249â292. Hodge, J. G., Jr., E. F. Brown, and J. P. OâConnell. 2004. The HIPAA Privacy Rule and bioterrorism planning, prevention, and response. Biosecur Bioterror 2(2):73â80. Hodge, J. G., Jr., E. Anderson, S. P. Teret, J. S. Vernick, T. Kirsch, and G. D. Kelen. 2009a. Model Memorandum of Understanding between hospitals during declared emergencies. Baltimore: PACER. Hodge, J. G., Jr., A. M. Garcia, E. D. Anderson, and T. Kaufman. 2009b. Emergency legal preparedness for hospitals and health care person- nel. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 3(2 Suppl):S37âS44. Hoffman, S., R. A. Goodman, and D. D. Stier. 2009. Law, liability, and public health emergencies. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 3(2):117â125. Holt, G. R. 2008. Making difficult ethical decisions in patient care during natural disasters and other mass casualty events. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 139(2):181â186.
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102 CRISIS STANDARDS OF CARE GUIDANCE Kelen, G. D., M. L. McCarthy, C. K. Kraus, R. Ding, E. B. Hsu, G. Li, J. B. Shahan, J. J. Scheulen, and G. B. Green. 2009. Creation of surge capacity by early discharge of hospitalized patients at low risk for untoward events. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 3(2 Suppl):S10-16. Levin, D., Cadigan, R.O., Biddinger, P.D., Condon, S., and H.K. Koh. 2009. Altered Standards of Care During an Influenza Pandemic: Identifying Ethical, Legal, and Practical Principles to Guide Decision Making. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness Epub [published ahead of print]. Lewandowski, W., and K. Adamle. 2009. Substantive areas of clinical nurse specialist practice: A comprehensive review of the literature. Clin Nurse Spec 23(2):73-90; quiz 91-72. Li-Vollmer, M. 2009 September 2, 2009. IOM Committee on Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations. Paper presented at IOM Committee on Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations, September 2, Washington, DC. Lieberman, D., Nachshon, L., Miloslavsky, O., Dvorkin, V., Shimoni, A., and D. Lieberman. 2009. How do older ventilated patients fare? A survival/functional analysis of 641 ventilations. Journal of Critical Care 24(3): 340-46. Lurie, N., J. Wasserman, and C. D. Nelson. 2006. Public health prepar- edness: Evolution or revolution? Health Aff (Millwood) 25(4):935â 945. Massachusetts Department of Public Health, and Center for Public Health Preparedness at Harvard School of Public Health. 2006 (un- published). Planning for altered standards of care during mass casualty events: Scenarios. Mastroianni, A. C. 2006. Liability, regulation and policy in surgical in- novation: The cutting edge of research and therapy. Health Matrix Clevel 16(2):351-442. Matzo, M. L. 2004. Palliative care: Prognostication and the chronically ill: Methods you need to know as chronic disease progresses in older adults. Am J Nurs 104(9):40â49; quiz 50. McCarthy, M. L., D. Aronsky, and G. D. Kelen. 2006. The measurement of daily surge and its relevance to disaster preparedness. Acad Emerg Med 13(11):1138-1141.
APPENDIX A 103 McHugh, M., A. B. Staiti, and L. E. Felland. 2004. How prepared are Americans for public health emergencies? Twelve communities weigh in. Health Aff (Millwood) 23(3):201â209. Minnesota Department of Health. 2008. Minnesota healthcare system preparedness program standards of care for scarce resources. http// www.health.state.mn.us/oep/healthcare/standards.pdf (accessed Sep- tember 8, 2009). Mitchell, S. L., D. K. Kiely, M. B. Hamel, P. S. Park, J. N. Morris, and B. E. Fries. 2004. Estimating prognosis for nursing home residents with advanced dementia. JAMA 291(22):2734â2740. Moreno, R., J. L. Vincent, R. Matos, A. Mendonca, F. Cantraine, L. Thijs, J. Takala, C. Sprung, M. Antonelli, H. Bruining, and S. Willatts. 1999. The use of maximum sofa score to quantify organ dysfunction/failure in intensive care. Results of a prospective, multi- centre study. Working group on sepsis related problems of the esicm. Intensive Care Med 25(7):686-696. National Wildfire Coordinating Group. 1994. Incident command system national training curriculum instructor guide. Module 16. New Jersey Hospital Association. 2008. Planning today for a pandemic tomorrow: Video vignettes. http://www.njha.com/paninf/index.aspx (accessed September 8, 2009). North Central Texas Trauma Regional Advisory Council. 2009. North Central Texas Trauma Regional Advisory Council hospital mutual aid agreement. http://ncttrac.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=9N Click.aspx?fileticket=9N6AIZSZ0I4%3D&tabid=66&mid=874 (ac- cessed September 8, 2009). NYS DOH (New York State Department of Health)/NYS Task Force on Life & the Law. 2007. Allocation of ventilators in an influenza pan- demic:Planning document: Draft for public comment. http:// www.health.state.ny.us/diseases/communicable/influenza/pandemic/ ventilators/ (accessed September 8, 2009). OâLaughlin, D. T., and J. L. Hick. 2008. Ethical issues in resource triage. Respir Care 53(2):190â197; discussion 197â200. Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care. 2008. Ontario health plan for an influenza pandemic. http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english /providers/program/emu/pan_flu/pan_flu_plan.html#section (ac- cessed September 8, 2009).
104 CRISIS STANDARDS OF CARE GUIDANCE Pastor, M., R. Bullard, J. Boyce, A. Fothergill, R. Morello-Frosch, and B. Wright. 2006. Report: In the wake of the storm: Environment, disaster, and race after Katrina. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foun- dation Pegalis, S. 2009. Physician and surgeon liability: Standard of care, gen- erally. American Law of Medical Malpractice 3(3). Peres Bota, D., C. Melot, F. Lopes Ferreira, V. Nguyen Ba, and J. L. Vincent. 2002. The multiple organ dysfunction score (MODS) versus the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score in outcome prediction. Intensive Care Med 28(11):1619-1624. Pesik, N., M. E. Keim, and K. V. Iserson. 2001. Terrorism and the ethics of emergency medical care. Ann Emerg Med 37(6):642â646. Pettila, V., M. Pettila, S. Sarna, P. Voutilainen, and O. Takkunen. 2002. Comparison of multiple organ dysfunction scores in the prediction of hospital mortality in the critically ill. Crit Care Med 30(8):1705- 1711. Phillips, S., and A. Knebel, eds. 2007. Mass medical care with scarce resources: A community planning guide. AHRQ Publication No. 07- 0001. Rockville: AHRQ. Pollack, M. M., U. E. Ruttimann, and P. R. Getson. 1988. Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score. Crit Care Med 16(11):1110â1116. Posner, Z., H. Admi, and N. Menashe. 2003. Ten-fold expansion of a burn unit in mass casualty: How to recruit the nursing staff. Disaster Manag Response 1(4):100â104. Powell, T., K. C. Christ, and G. S. Birkhead. 2008. Allocation of ventila- tors in a public health disaster. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2(1):20â26. Propper, B. W., T. E. Rasmussen, S. B. Davidson, S. L. Vandenberg, W. D. Clouse, G. E. Burkhardt, S. M. Gifford, and J. A. Johannigman. 2009. Surgical response to multiple casualty incidents following sin- gle explosive events. Ann Surg 250(2):311â315. REMM. 2009. REMM triage guidelines. http://www.remm.nlm. gov/radtriage.htm (accessed September 9, 2009). Romig, L. 2009. The jumpstart pediatric mci triage tool. http://www. jumpstarttriage.com/ (accessed August 31, 2009). Rosenbaum, S., M. B. Harty, and J. Sheer. 2008. State laws extending comprehensive legal liability protections for professional health-care volunteers during public health emergencies. Public Health Rep 123(2):238â241.
APPENDIX A 105 Rubinson, L., J. B. Nuzzo, D. S. Talmor, T. O'Toole, B. R. Kramer, and T. V. Inglesby. 2005. Augmentation of hospital critical care capacity after bioterrorist attacks or epidemics: Recommendations of the working group on emergency mass critical care. Crit Care Med 33(10):2393-2403. Rubinson, L., J. L. Hick, J. R. Curtis, R. D. Branson, S. Burns, M. D. Christian, A. V. Devereaux, J. R. Dichter, D. Talmor, B. Erstad, J. Medina, and J. A. Geiling. 2008a. Definitive care for the critically ill during a disaster: Medical resources for surge capacity: From a task force for mass critical care summit meeting, January 26-27, 2007, Chicago, IL. Chest 133(5 Suppl):32S-50S. Rubinson, L., J. L. Hick, D. G. Hanfling, A. V. Devereaux, J. R. Dichter, M. D. Christian, D. Talmor, J. Medina, J. R. Curtis, and J. A. Geil- ing. 2008b. Definitive care for the critically ill during a disaster: A framework for optimizing critical care surge capacity: From a task force for mass critical care summit meeting, January 26â27, 2007, Chicago, IL. Chest 133(5 Suppl):18Sâ31S. Saffle, J. R., N. Gibran, and M. Jordan. 2005. Defining the ratio of out- comes to resources for triage of burn patients in mass casualties. J Burn Care Rehabil 26(6):478â482. Sandrock, C. E. 2009 (unpublished). ESCAPE partnership crisis care guidelines. http://www.ucdmc. ucdavis.edu/escape/crisis-care- guidelines.html (accessed September 8, 2009). Schmidt, P. J. 2002. Blood and disaster-supply and demand. N Engl J Med 346(8):617â620. Schoch-Spana, M., C. Franco, J. B. Nuzzo, and C. Usenza. 2007. Com- munity engagement: Leadership tool for catastrophic health events. Biosecur Bioterror 5(1):8â25. Schreiber, M. 2005. Learning from 9/11: Toward a national model for children and families in mass casualty. In on the ground after 9/11: Mental health responses and practical knowledge gained. Edited by Y. Daneili. New York, NY: Haworth. Schultz, C. H., and K. L. Koenig. 2006. State of research in high- consequence hospital surge capacity. Acad Emerg Med 13(11):1153- 1156. Sharpe, V. A. 2009. IOM Committee on Guidance for Establishing Stan- dards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations. Paper presented at IOM Committee on Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations, September 2, Washington, DC.
106 CRISIS STANDARDS OF CARE GUIDANCE Sheppard, B., G. J. Rubin, J. K. Wardman, and S. Wessely. 2006. Terror- ism and dispelling the myth of a panic prone public. J Public Health Policy 27(3):219-245; discussion 246-219. Skidmore, S., W. Wall, and J. Church. 2003. Modular emergency medi- cal system concept of operation for the acute care center: Mass casualty strategy for a biological terror incident. Department of De- fense. State of Connecticut. 2006. State of connecticut emergency management hospital mutual aid agreement. http://www.ynhhs.org/emergency/ commu/OEP_Emergency_Management_MOU.pdf (accessed Sep- tember 8, 2009). Stein-Spencer, L. 2009. IOM Committee on Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations. Paper presented at IOM Committee on Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations, September 2, Washington, DC. Stier, D. 2009. Public health law program: Mutual aid. http://www2a.cdc.gov/phlp/mutualaid/ (accessed August 31, 2009). Swendiman, K. S., and N. L. Jones. 2009. The 2009 influenza pandemic: Selected legal issues. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Services. Tabery, J., and C. W. Mackett, 3rd. 2008. Ethics of triage in the event of an influenza pandemic. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2(2):114â118. Talmor, D., A. E. Jones, L. Rubinson, M. D. Howell, and N. I. Shapiro. 2007. Simple triage scoring system predicting death and the need for critical care resources for use during epidemics. Crit Care Med 35(5):1251â1256. TFAH (Trust for Americaâs Health). 2008. TFAH liability protections: relevant statutes. http://healthyamericans.org/reports/bioterror08/ pdf/legal-preparedness-law-review-of-state-statutes-and-codes.pdf (accessed September 11, 2009). The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Public Health. May 2007 (unpublished). Guidelines for the development of altered stan- dards of care for influenza pandemic. The Sphere Project. 2004. Humanitarian charter and minimum standards in disaster response. Oxford: Oxfam Publishing. The Utah Hospitals and Health Systems Association. 2009. Utah pan- demic influenza hospital and ICU triage guidelines. Version 1. http://www.pandemicflu.utah.gov/plan/med_triage011009.pdf (ac- cessed September 8, 2009).
APPENDIX A 107 Thienkrua, W., B. L. Cardozo, M. L. Chakkraband, T. E. Guadamuz, W. Pengjuntr, P. Tantipiwatanaskul, S. Sakornsatian, S. Ekassawin, B. Panyayong, A. Varangrat, J. W. Tappero, M. Schreiber, and F. van Griensven. 2006. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and de- pression among children in tsunami-affected areas in southern Thai- land. JAMA 296(5):549â559. Toner, E., R. Waldhorn, C. Franco, B. Courtney, K. Rambhia, A. Norwood, T. Inglesby, and T. OâToole. 2009. Hospitals rising to the challenge: The first five years of the U.S. hospital preparedness program and priorities going forward. Baltimore: Center for Biose- curity of UPMC. Townsend, F. 2006. The federal response to Hurricane Katrina: Lessons learned. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/reports/katrina -lessons-learned/ (accessed September 8, 2009). University of Toronto. 2005. Stand on guard for thee: Ethical considera- tions in preparedness planning for pandemic influenza. University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics Pandemic Influenza Working Group. Toronto: University of Toronto. VHA (Veterans Health Administration). 2008 (unpublished). Tertiary triage protocol for allocation of scarce life-saving resources in VHA during an influenza pandemic. http://www.ethics.va.gov/docs/ pandemicflu/Draft_VHA_Pan_Flu_Tertiary_Triage_Protocol_20090 427.doc (accessed September 8, 2009). VHA. 2009 (unpublished). Draft guidance: Meeting the challenge of pandemic influenza: Ethical guidance for VHA leaders and clini- cians. http://www.ethics.va.gov/activities/pandemic_influenza_pre paredness.asp (accessed September 8, 2009). Vincent, J. L., A. de Mendonca, F. Cantraine, R. Moreno, J. Takala, P. M. Suter, C. L. Sprung, F. Colardyn, and S. Blecher. 1998. Use of the sofa score to assess the incidence of organ dysfunction/failure in intensive care units: Results of a multicenter, prospective study. Working group on "Sepsis-related problems" Of the european society of intensive care medicine. Crit Care Med 26(11):1793-1800. Vincent, J. L., R. Moreno, J. Takala, S. Willatts, A. De Mendonca, H. Bruining, C. K. Reinhart, P. M. Suter, and L. G. Thijs. 1996. The sofa (sepsis-related organ failure assessment) score to describe organ dysfunction/failure. On behalf of the working group on sepsis-related problems of the European society of intensive care medicine. Inten- sive Care Med 22(7):707-710.
108 CRISIS STANDARDS OF CARE GUIDANCE Virginia Department of Health. 2008. Virginia Hospital and Healthcare Association Altered Standards of Care Workgroup: Critical resource shortages: A planning guide. http://www.troutmansanders.com/files/ upload/Critical%20Resource%20Shortages-A%20Planning%20Guid e.pdf (accessed September 8, 2009). Walter, L. C., R. J. Brand, S. R. Counsell, R. M. Palmer, C. S. Landefeld, R. H. Fortinsky, and K. E. Covinsky. 2001. Development and valida- tion of a prognostic index for 1-year mortality in older adults after hospitalization. JAMA 285(23):2987â2994. Washington State Department of Health's Altered Standards of Care Workgroup. October 2008 (unpublished). Report and recommenda- tions to the department of health secretary on establishing altered standards of care during an influenza pandemic. Waselenko, J. K., T. J. MacVittie, W. F. Blakely, N. Pesik, A. L. Wiley, W. E. Dickerson, H. Tsu, D. L. Confer, C. N. Coleman, T. Seed, P. Lowry, J. O. Armitage, and N. Dainiak. 2004. Medical manage- ment of the acute radiation syndrome: Recommendations of the Stra- tegic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann Intern Med 140(12):1037â1051. White, D. B., M. H. Katz, J. M. Luce, and B. Lo. 2009. Who should re- ceive life support during a public health emergency? Using ethical principles to improve allocation decisions. Ann Intern Med 150(2):132â138. WHO (World Health Organization). 2006. Project on addressing ethical issues in pandemic influenza planning: Equitable access to therapeu- tic and prophylactic measures. http://www.who.int/eth/ethics/PIE thicsdraftpaperWG120oct06.pdf (accessed September 8, 2009). WHO. 2008. Closing the gap in a generation: Health equity through ac- tion on the social determinants of health. Final report of the Com- mission on Social Determinants of Health. Geneva: WHO. WHO. 2009. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009â update 62 (revised 21 August 2009). http://www.who.int/csr/don/2009_08_21/en/index.html (accessed September 8, 2009). Wilkinson, A., and M. Matzo. 2006. Palliative care and mass casualty events in rendering mass medical care with scarce resources: A planning guide. Rockville: AHRQ. Wise, E. H. 2008. Competence and scope of practice: Ethics and profes- sional development. J Clin Psychol 64(5):626-637. Wynia, M. 2005. Oversimplifications I: Physicians don't do public health. Am J Bioeth 5(4):4-5.
APPENDIX A 109 Wynia, M. 2009. IOM Committee on Guidance for Establishing Stan- dards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations. Paper presented at IOM Committee on Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations, September 2, Washington, DC.