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Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 91 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. www.nap.edu
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Con- gress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corÂ porate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. Any opinions expressed in this memoir are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences. international standard book number 978-0-309-14560-2 international standard serial number 0-309-14560-0 library of congress catalog card number 5-26629 Available from the national academies press 500 fifth street , n . w . washington , d . c . 20001 copyright 2009 by the national academy of sciences all rights reserved printed in the united states of america
C ontents PREFACE vii WILLIAM FOXWELL ALBRIGHT 3 BY THOMAS E. LEVY AND DAVID NOEL FREEDMAN HANS ALBRECHT BETHE 31 BY GERALD E. BROWN AND SABINE LEE CHANDLER McCUSKEY BROOKS 59 BY KIYOMI KOIZUMI AND MARIO VASSALLE HERBERT CHARLES BROWN 79 By EI-ICHI NEGISHI GLENN WILLARD BURTON 93 BY ARNEL R. HALLAUER peter elias 109 BY ROBERT G. GALLAGER STANLEY MARION GARN 125 BY C. LORING BRACE NORMAN HENRY GILES 137 BY MARY E. CASE AND FREDERICK J. de SERRES v
CONTENTS CLYDE ALLEN HUTCHISON JR. 153 BY DONALD S. MCCLURE AND JACOB BIGELEISEN KONRAD BATES KRAUSKOPF 177 BY W. G. ERNST HERMANN JOSEPH MULLER 189 BY ELOF AXEL CARLSON DAVID DEXTER PERKINS 221 BY ROWLAND H. DAVIS CLIFFORD LADD PROSSER 243 BY GEORGE N. SOMERO THEODORE THOMAS PUCK 259 BY DAVID PATTERSON paul karl stumpf 285 BY Eric e. conn Chauncey GUY SUITS 307 BY ROBERT J. SCULLY AND MARLAN O. SCULLY Roger John Williams 319 BY DONALD R. DAVIS, MARVIN L. HACKERT, AND LESTER J. REED SHANG FA YANG 333 BY KENT J. BRADFORD VERNON Robert YOUNG 351 BY NEVIN S. SCRIMSHAW, ARNOLD L. DEMAIN, AND NAOMI K. FUKAGAWA BRUNO HASBROUCK ZIMM 367 BY CAROL BETH POST AND RUSSELL F. DOOLITTLE vi
PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sci- ences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academyâs goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliog- raphies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subjectâs work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in Americaâan important part of our nationâs contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. JOHN I. BRAUMAN Home Secretary vii