Abrahamse, W., L. Steg, C. Vlek, and T. Rothengatter. 2005. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation. Journal of Environmental Psychology 25(3):273-291.
Alderfer, R. B., and T. J. Starrs. 2000. Making Connections: Case Studies of Interconnection Barriers and Their Impact on Distributed Power Projects. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Report NREL/SR-200-28053. Golden, CO: NREL.
Alic, J. A., D. S. Mowery, and E. S. Rubin. 2003. U.S. Technology and Innovation Policies: Lessons for Climate Change. Arlington, VA: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
Altshuler, A. A., and D. Luberoff. 2003. Mega-projects: The Changing Politics of Urban Public Investment. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
American Physical Society. 2008. Energy Future: Think Efficiency. College Park, MD: American Physical Society.
Antle, J. M., S. M. Capalbo, S. Mooney, E. T. Elliott, and K. H. Paustian. 2001. Economic analysis of agricultural soil carbon sequestration: An integrated assessment approach. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 26(2):344-367.
Appelbaum, E., and P. Alpin. 1990. Differential characteristics of employment growth in service industries. In Labor Market Adjustments to Structural Change and Technological Progress, E. Appelbaum and R. Schettkat, eds. New York: Praeger.
Arvai, J., G. Bridge, N. Dolsak, R. Franzese, T. Koontz, A. Luginbuhl, P. Robbins, K. Richards, K. S. Korfmacher, B. Sohngen, J. Tansey, and A. Thompson. 2006. Adaptive management of the global climate problem: Bridging the gap between climate research and climate policy. Climatic Change 78(1):217-225.
AWEA (American Wind Energy Association). 2009. Annual Wind Industry Report. Washington, DC: AWEA.
Baker, J. S., B. A. Mccarl, B. C. Murray, S. K. Rose, R. J. Alig, D. M. Adams, G. Latta, R. H. Beach, and A. Daigneault. 2009. Effects of Low-Carbon Policies on Net Farm Income. Working Paper NI WP 09-04. Durham, NC: Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions.
Barker, T., and I. Bashmakov. 2007. Mitigation from a cross-sectoral perspective. In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation, Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, B. Metz, O. R. Davidson, P. R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L. A. Meyer, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 851 pp.
Bartels, L. M. 2008. Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bartik, T. J. 1991. Who Benefits from State and Local Economic Development Policies? Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
Barton, J. H., J. L. Goldstein, T. E. Josling, and R. H. Steinberg. 2007. The Evolution of the Trade Regime. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Basu, R., and B. D. Ostro. 2008. A multicounty analysis identifying the populations vulnerable to mortality associated with high ambient temperature in California. American Journal of Epidemiology 168(6):632-637.
Bazerman, M. H., and A. J. Hoffman. 1999. Sources of environmentally destructive behavior: Individual, organizational, and institutional perspective. Research in Organizational Behavior 21:39-79.
Beierle, T. C. 1998. Public Participation in Environmental Decisions: An Evaluation Framework Using Social Goals. Discussion Paper 99-06, 31 pp.
Bielicki, J. M., and J. C. Stephens. 2008. Public Perception of Carbon Capture and Storage Technology. Cambridge, MA: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government. Available at http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/files/CCS_Public_Perception_Workshop_Report.pdf.
Bin, S., and H. Dowlatabadi. 2005. Consumer lifestyle approach to US energy use and the related CO2 emissions. Energy Policy 33(2):197-208.
Blanford, G. J., R. G. Richels, and T. F. Rutherford. 2009. Feasible climate targets: The roles of economic growth, coalition development and expectations. Energy Economics 31(2):S82-S93.
Boucher, D. 2008. Out of the Woods: A Realistic Role for Tropical Forests in Curbing Global Warming. Union of Concerned Scientists: Washington, DC.
Bosetti, V., C. Carraro, A. Sgobbi, and M. Tavoni. 2008. Delayed Action and Uncertain Targets: How Much Will Climate Policy Cost? Euro-Mediterranean Centre for Climate Change (CMCC) Research Paper 46. Italy.
Boyce, J. K., and M. Riddle. 2007. Cap and Dividend: How to Curb Global Warming While Protecting the Incomes of American Families. Amherst: Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Boyd, P. W., T. Jickells, C. S. Law, S. Blain, E. A. Boyle, K. O. Buesseler, K. H. Coale, J. J. Cullen, H. J. W. De Baar, M. Follows, M. Harvey, C. Lancelot, M. Levasseur, N. P. J. Owens, R. Pollard, R. B. Rivkin, J. Sarmiento, V. Schoemann, V. Smetacek, S. Takeda, A. Tsuda, S. Turner, and A. J. Watson. 2007. Mesoscale iron enrichment experiments 1993-2005: Synthesis and future directions. Science 315(5812):612-617.
Bressand, F., D. Farrell, P. Haas, F. Morin, S. Nyquist, J. Remes, S. Roemer, M. Rogers, J. Rosenfeld, and J. Woetzel. 2007. Curbing Global Energy Demand Growth: The Energy Productivity Opportunity. Washington, DC: McKinsey Global Institute.
Brown, M. A., and S. Chandler. 2008. Governing confusion: How statutes, fiscal policy, and regulations impede clean energy technologies. Stanford Law and Policy Review 19(3):472-509.
Brown, M. A., and F. Southworth. 2008. Mitigating climate change through green buildings and smart growth. Environment and Planning A 40(3):653-675.
Brown, M. A., T. K. Stovall, and P. Hughes. 2007. Tackling climate change in the United States: The potential for greenhouse gas reductions in the buildings sector. In Tackling Climate Change in the U.S.: Potential Carbon Emissions Reductions from Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by 2030, C. F. Kutscher, ed. Washington, DC: American Solar Energy Society.
Brown, M.A., J. Chandler, M. Lapsa, and M. Ally. 2009a. Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report ORNL/TM-2009/104, Oak Ridge, TN.
Brown, M. A., F. Southworth, and A. Sarzynski. 2009b. The geography of metropolitan carbon footprints. Policy and Society 27(4):285-304.
Brown, R., S. Borgeson, J. Koomey, and P. Biemayer. 2008. U.S. Building-Sector Energy Efficiency Potential. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Brulle, R. J., and D. N. Pellow. 2006. Environmental justice: Human health and environmental inequalities. Annual Review of Public Health. Vol. 27.
Buesseler, K. O., S. C. Doney, D. M. Karl, P. W. Boyd, K. Caldeira, F. Chai, K. H. Coale, H. J. W. De Baar, P. G. Falkowski, K. S. Johnson, R. S. Lampitt, A. F. Michaels, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Smetacek, S. Takeda, and A. J. Watson. 2008. Environment: Ocean iron fertilization: Moving forward in a sea of uncertainty. Science 319(5860):162.
Bullard, R. D. 2000. Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality, 3rd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Burtraw, D., A. Krupnick, K. Palmer, A. Pul, M. Toman, and C. Bloyd. 1999. Ancillary Benefits of Reduced Air Pollution in the U.S. from Moderate Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Policies in the Electricity Sector. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
Burtraw, D., R. Sweeney, and M. Walls. 2008. The Incidences of U.S. Climate Policy: Where You Stand Depends on Where You Sit. Discussion Paper RFF-DP-08-28. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
Burtraw, D., K. Palmer, and D. Kahn. 2009. A Symmetric Safety Valve. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
Busch, J., B. Strassburg, A. Cattaneo, R. Lubowski, A. Bruner, R. Rice, A. Creed, R. Ashton, and F. Boltz. 2009. Comparing climate and cost impacts of reference levels for reducing emissions from deforestation. Environmental Research Letters 4(4):044006.
California Energy Commission. 2005. Options for Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings. Commission Report. CEC-400-2005-039-CMF. Available at http://www.energy.ca.gov/2005publications/CEC-400-2005-039/CEC-400-2005-039-CMF.PDF. Accessed on July 27, 2010.
Capek, S. M. 1993. The environmental justice frame: A conceptual discussion and an application. Social Problems 40(1):5-24.
CARB (California Air Resources Board). 2008. Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan: A Framework for Change, October 2008, Pursuant to AB 32, the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006. Available at http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/scopingplan/document/scopingplandocument.htm.
Carlson, A. E. 2008. Iterative Federalism and Climate Change. UCLA School of Law Research Paper 08-09. University of California, Los Angeles.
CBO. 2009. The Economic Effects of Legislation to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Washington, DC: CBO.
CEA (Council of Economic Advisors). 2009. Economic Report of the President. Prepared by the Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC.
Chamberlain, A. 2009. Who Pays for Climate Policy? New Estimates of the Household Burden and Economic Impact of a U.S. Cap-and-Trade System. Washington, DC: Tax Foundation.
City of Austin. 2009. Energy Conservation Audit and Disclosure Ordinance (ECAD). Ordinance No. 20081106-047. Available at http://www.austinenergy.com/about%20us/environmental%20initiatives/ordinance/index.htm. Accessed on July 27, 2010.
City of Berkeley. 2008. Residential Energy Conservation Ordinance (RECO). Berkeley Municipal Code Chapter 19.16, Resolution No. 62,181–N.S. A Compliance Guide for Buyers and Sellers. Office of Energy and Sustainable Development. Available at http://www.ci.berkeley.ca.us/uploadedFiles/Planning_and_Development/Level_3_-_Energy_and_Sustainable_Development/Residential%20Energy%20Conservation%20Ordinance%20Compliance%20Guide%202008.pdf. Accessed on July 27, 2010.
Clarke, L., J. Edmonds, V. Krey, R. Richels, S. Rose, and M. Tavoni. 2009. International climate policy architectures: Overview of the EMF 22 International Scenarios. Energy Economics 31(Suppl 2):S64-S81.
Clarke, L. E. 2007. Scenarios of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Atmospheric Concentrations. Washington, DC: U.S. Climate Change Science Program.
Cohen, L. R., and R. G. Noll. 1991. The Technology Pork Barrel. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Committee on Climate Change. 2009. Building a Low-Carbon Economy: The UK’s Contribution to Tackling Climate Change. London: The Stationery Office.
Conant, R. T., and K. Paustian. 2002. Spatial variability of soil organic carbon in grasslands: Implications for detecting change at different scales. Environmental Pollution 116(Suppl 1):S127-S135.
Cory, K. S., and B. G. Swezey. 2007. Renewable Portfolio Standards in the States Balancing Goals and Implementation Strategies. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Coyle, K. 2005. Environmental Literacy in America: What Ten Years of NEETF/Roper Research and Related Studies Say About Environmental Literacy in the U.S. Washington, DC: National Environmental Education and Training Foundation.
Craford, M. G. 2008. High power LEDs for solid state lighting: Status, trends, and challenges. Journal of Light and Visual Environment 32(2):58-62.
CSPO and CATF (Consortium for Science, Policy & Outcomes and Clean Air Task Force). 2009. Innovation Policy for Climate Change: A Report to the Nation. Joint project of the Consortium for Science, Policy & Outcomes and Clean Air Task Force, Boston, MA.
Curry, T., S. Ansolabehere, and H. Herzog. 2007. A Survey of Public Attitudes Towards Climate Change and Climate Change Mitigation Technologies in the United States: Analyses of 2006 Results. Cambridge, MA: Laboratory for Energy and the Environment, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
de la Chesnaye, F., and J. Weyant (eds). 2006. Multi-greenhouse gas mitigation and climate policy. The Energy Journal, Special Issue.
de la Chesnaye, F. C., C. Delhotal, B. Deangelo, D. Ottinger-Schaefer, and D. Godwin. 2007. Past, present, and future of non-CO2 gas mitigation analysis. In Human-Induced Climate Change: An Interdisciplinary Assessment, M. E. Schlesinger, ed. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dewar, M. E. 1998. Why state and local economic development programs cause so little economic development. Economic Development Quarterly 12(1):68-87.
Dietz, T., G. T. Gardner, J. Gilligan, P. C. Stern, and M. P. Vandenbergh. 2009. Household actions can provide a behavioral wedge to rapidly reduce U.S. carbon emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106:18452-18456.
Dinan, T., and D. L. Rogers. 2002. Distributional effects of carbon allowance trading: How government decisions determine winners and losers. National Tax Journal 55(2):199-221.
Dinan, T. M. 2009. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions with a tax or a cap: Implications for efficiency and cost effectiveness. National Tax Journal 62:535-553.
DIUS (Department for Innovation Universities and Skills). 2009. 2008 R&D Scoreboard. London: Department for Innovation, Universities & Skills.
DOE (Department of Energy). 2006a. Energy Savings Potential of Solid State Lighting in General Illumination Applications. Report prepared by Navigant Consulting for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
DOE. 2006b, October. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes. Prepared by Energetics Incorporated. Washington, DC: DOE. Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/petroleum_refining/bandwidth.html.
DOE. 2009. Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices. Washington, DC: DOE.
Downs, G. W., K. W. Danish, and P. N. Barsoom. 2000. The transformational model of international regime design: Triumph of hope or experience? Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 38(3):465-514.
Dudek, D. J., and J. Palmisano. 1988. Emissions trading: Why is this thoroughbred hobbled? Columbia Journal of Environmental Law 13(2):217-256.
Duhigg, D. 2009. EPA vows better effort on water. New York Times. October 15. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/16/business/energy-environment/16water.html?_r=1. Accessed February 22, 2010.
Edenhofer, O., B. Knopf, T. Barker, L. Baumstark, E. Bellevrat, B. Château, P. Criqui, M. Isaac, A. Kitous, S. Kypreos, M. Leimbach, K. Lessmann, B. Magné, S. Scrieciu, H. Turton, and D. P. van Vuuren. 2010. The economics of low stabilization: Model comparison of mitigation strategies and costs.The Energy Journal 31(1).
EIA (Energy Information Administration). 2009. Annual Energy Review 2008, U.S. Energy Information Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
EIA. 2010. Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Early Release Overview. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/. Accessed February 22, 2010.
Elbakidze, L., and B. A. McCarl. 2007. Sequestration offsets versus direct emission reductions: Consideration of environmental co-effects. Ecological Economics 60 (3):564-571.
Ellerman, A. D. 2000. Markets for Clean Air: The U.S. Acid Rain Program. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Elliott, J. R., and J. Pais. 2006. Race, class, and Hurricane Katrina: Social differences in human responses to disaster. Social Science Research 35(2):295-321.
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2006. Global Mitigation of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases. 430-R-06-005. Washington, DC: EPA.
EPA. 2009. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2007. Washington, DC: EPA.
Fargione, J., J. Hill, D. Tilman, S. Polasky, and P. Hawthorne. 2008. Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt. Science 319(5867):1235-1238.
Fawcett, A. A., K. V. Calvin, F. C. de la Chesnaye, J. M. Reilly, and J. P. Weyant. 2009. Overview of EMF 22 U.S. transition scenarios. Energy Economics 31(Suppl 2):S198-S211.
Fischer, C., and A. K. Fox. 2009. Combining Rebates with Carbon Taxes: Optimal Strategies for Coping with Emissions Leakage and Tax Interactions. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
Fischer, C., and R. G. Newell. 2008. Environmental and technology policies for climate mitigation. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 55(2):142-162.
Fisher, B. S., N. Nakicenovic, K. Alfsen, J. C. Morlot, F. de la Chesnaye, J.-C. Hourcade, K. Jiang, M. Kainuma, E. L. Rovere, A. Matysek, A. Rana, K. Riahi, R. Richels, S. Rose, D. V. Vuuren, and R. Warren. 2007. Issues related to mitigation in the long term context. In Climate Change 2007, Mitigation of Climate Change: Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, B. Metz, O. R. Davidson, P. R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L. A. Meyer, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fisher, C. 2009. The Role of Technology Policies in Climate Mitigation. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
Forster, P. and V. Ramaswamy. 2007. Changes in atmospheric constituents and radiative forcing. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 996 pp.
Fowlie, M., S. P. Holland, and E. T. Mansur. 2009. What Do Emissions Markets Deliver and to Whom? Evidence from Southern California’s NOxTrading Program. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series 15082.
Frankel, J. 2009. A proposal for specific formulas and emissions targets for all countries in all decades. In The Competitiveness Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Policies, J. E. Aldy and W. A. Pizer, eds. Arlington, VA: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
Galitsky, C., S. Chang, E. Worrell, and E. Masanet. 2005. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Petroleum Refineries, An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers. LBNL-57260-Revision. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Gallagher, K. S., and L. D. Anadon. 2009. DOE Budget Authority for Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Database. Energy Technology Innovation Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.
GAO (Government Accountability Office). 1996. Federal research: Changes in electricity-related R&D funding. In Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Science, House of Representatives. Washington, DC: GAO.
GAO. 2007. Long-standing Problems with DOE’s Program for Setting Efficiency Standards Continue to Result in Foregone Energy Savings. Washington, DC: GAO.
Gardner, G. T., and P. C. Stern. 2002. Environmental Problems and Human Behavior, 2nd ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing.
Gardner, G. T., and P. C. Stern. 2008. The most effective actions U.S. households can take to curb climate change. Environment 50(5):12-24.
German Advisory Council on Global Change. 2009. Solving the Climate Dilemma: The Budget Approach. Available at http://www.wbgu.de/wbgu_sn2009_en.html. Accessed February 15, 2010.
Gillingham, K., R. G. Newell, and K. Palmer. 2009. Energy Efficiency Economics and Policy. Washington, DC. Resources for the Future.
Goettle, R. J., and A. A. Fawcett. 2009. The structural effects of cap and trade climate policy. Energy Economics 31(2): S63-S306.
Gold, R., L. Furrey, S. Nadel, J. S. Laitner, and R. N. Elliott. 2009. Energy Efficiency in the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009: Impacts of Current Provisions and Opportunities to Enhance the Legislation. Washington, DC: The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.
Golombek, R., and M. Hoel. 2009. International Cooperation on Climate-Friendly Technologies. CESifo Working Paper Series 2677. Social Science Research Network. Available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1427132.
Goulder, L. H. 1997. Environmental taxation in a second-best world. Pp. 28-54 in The International Yearbook of Environmental and Resource Economics 1997/1998, T. Tietenberg and H. Folmer, eds. Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar.
Goulder, L. H., and I. W. H. Parry. 2008. Instrument choice in environmental policy. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 2(2):152-174.
Goulder, L. H., M. A. Hafstead, and M. Dworsky. 2009. Impacts of Alternative Emissions Allowance Allocation Methods Under a Federal Cap-and-Trade Program. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Grainger, C. A., and C. D. Kolstad. 2009. Who Pays a Price on Carbon? Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Granade, H. C. 2009. Unlocking Energy Efficiency in the U.S. Economy. Washington, DC: McKinsey.
Grimmett, J. J., and L. Parker. 2008. Whether Import Requirements Contained in Title VI of S. 2191, the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2008, as Ordered Reported, Are Consistent with U.S. WTO Obligations. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.
Grübler, A. 2004. Transitions in Energy Use. Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
Hahn, R. W., and G. L. Hester. 1989. Where did all the markets go? An analysis of EPA’s Emission Trading Program. Yale Journal of Regulation 6(1):109-153.
Hall, D. S., M. Levi, W. A. Pizer, and T. Ueno. 2008. Policies for Developing Country Engagement. Discussion Paper 08-15, Harvard Project on International Climate Agreements. Cambridge, MA.
Hamin, E. M., and N. Gurran. 2009. Urban form and climate change: Balancing adaptation and mitigation in the U.S. and Australia. Habitat International 33(3):238-245.
Hanemann, M. 2009. The role of emission trading in domestic climate policy. The Energy Journal 30(Special Issue 2).
Hansen, J., M. Sato, P. Kharecha, D. Beerling, R. Berner, V. Masson-Delmotte, M. Pagani, M. Raymo, D. L. Royer, and J. C. Zachos. 2008. Target atmospheric CO2: Where should humanity aim? Open Atmospheric Science Journal 2:217-231.
Hawkins, D. G., D. A. Lake, D. L. Nielson, and M. J. Tierney. 2006. Delegation and Agency in International Organizations. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hirst, E. 1988. The Hood River Conservation Project—An evaluator’s dream. Evaluation Review 12(3):310-325.
Hirst, E., and F. M. O’Hara. 1986. Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Progress and Promise, Series on Energy Conservation and Energy Policy. Washington, DC: American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.
Hoel, M., and L. Karp. 2001. Taxes and quotas for a stock pollutant with multiplicative uncertainty. Journal of Public Economics 82(1):91-114.
Hoel, M., and L. Karp. 2002. Taxes versus quotas for a stock pollutant. Resource and Energy Economics 24:367-384.
Hoerner, J. A., and N. Robinson. 2008. A Climate of Change. African Americans, Global Warming, and a Just Climate Policy for the U.S. Oakland, CA: Environmental Justice and Climate Change.
Hoffman, A. J., and R. Henn. 2008. Overcoming the social and psychological barriers to green building. Organization and Environment 21(4):390-419.
Howitt, A. M., and A. Altshuler. 1999. The politics of controlling auto air pollution. In Essays in Transportation Economics and Policy. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Huntington, H. G. 2008. The oil security problem. In International Handbook on the Economics of Energy, L. C. Hunt and J. Evans, eds. Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar.
IEA (International Energy Agency). 2004. Oil Crises and Climate Challenges: 30 Years of Energy Use in IEA Countries. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
IEA. 2008. World Energy Outlook 2008. Paris: International Energy Agency.
IEA. 2009a. IEA Technology Roadmaps. Available at http://www.iea.org/subjectqueries/keyresult.asp?KEYWORD_ID=4156. Accessed January 27, 2010.
IEA. 2009b. Ensuring Green Growth in a Time of Economic Crisis: The Role of Energy Technology. Paris: IEA, p. 7.
Ikenberry, G. J. 2000. After Victory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 1995. Report of Working Group I—the Science of Climate Change, with a Summary for Policymakers (SPM). J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callender, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 572 pp.
IPCC, 2001. Climate Change 2001. Mitigation: Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. B. Metz, O. Davidson, R. Swart and J. Pan, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 700 pp.
IPCC/TEAP. 2005 - Metz, B., K. Lambert, S. Solomon, S. O. Andersen, O. Davidson, J. Pons, D. de Jager, T. Kestin, M. Manning, and L. Meyer (Eds). Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System: Issues Related to Hydrofluorocarbons and Perfluorocarbons. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, UK. pp 478..
IPCC. 2007a. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation, Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. B. Metz, O. R. Davidson, P. R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L. A. Meyer, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 851 pp.
IPCC. 2007b. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 996 pp.
Jacoby, H. D., and A. D. Ellerman. 2004. The safety valve and climate policy. Energy Policy 32(4):481-491.
Jaffe, J., and R. N. Stavins. 2009. Linkage of tradable permit systems in international climate policy architecture. In The Competitiveness Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Policies, J. E. Aldy and W. A. Pizer, eds. Arlington, VA: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
Jaffe, J. L., and R. N. Stavins. 2008. Linkage of Tradable Permit Systems in International Climate Policy Architecture (October 16, 2008). FEEM Working Paper 90.2008, HKS Working Paper RWP08-053. Social Science Research Network. Available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1285606.
Kahneman, D., and A. Tversky. 1979. Prospect theory: Analysis of decision under risk Econometrica 47(2):263-291.
Keith, D. W., M. Ha-Duong, and J. K. Stolaroff. 2006. Climate strategy with CO2 capture from the air. Climatic Change 74(1-3):17-45.
Keohane, N. O. 2009. Cap and trade, rehabilitated: Using tradable permits to control U.S. greenhouse gases. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 3(1):42-62.
Keohane, R. O. 1984. After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Ewing, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Keohane, R. O., and K. Raustiala. 2009. Toward a post-Kyoto climate change architecture: A political analysis. In The Competitiveness Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Policies, J. E. Aldy and W. A. Pizer, eds. Arlington, VA: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
Kim, M. 2004. Economic Investigation of Discount Factors for Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emission Offsets. Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
Kindermann, G., M. Obersteiner, B. Sohngen, J. Sathaye, K. Andrasko, E. Rametsteiner, B. Schlamadinger, S. Wunder, and R. Beach. 2008. Global cost estimates of reducing carbon emissions through avoided deforestation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105(30):10302-10307.
Kingsbury, B., R. B. Stewart, and B. Rudyk. 2009. Climate Financing: Regulatory and Funding Strategies for Climate Change and Global Development. New York: NYU Press.
Knittel, C.R. 2009. The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide Under the Cash for Clunkers Program, CSEM Working Paper 189, University of California Energy Institute, Center for the Study of Energy Markets, August.
Kovats, R. S., and S. Hajat. 2008. Heat stress and public health: A critical review. Annual Review of Public Health 29:41-55.
Krey, V., and K. Riahi. 2009. Implications of delayed participation and technology failure for the feasibility, costs, and likelihood of staying below temperature targets: Greenhouse gas mitigation scenarios for the 21st century. Energy Economics 31(Suppl 2):S94-S106.
Kyle, P., L. Clarke, G. Pugh, M. Wise, K. Calvin, J. Edmonds, and S. Kim. 2009. The value of advanced technology in meeting 2050 greenhouse gas emissions targets in the United States. Energy Economics 31(2):S254-S267.
Lackner, K., H.-J. Ziock, and P. Grimes. 1999. Carbon dioxide extraction from air: Is it an option? Paper presented at the 24th International Conference on Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems, Clearwater, FL.
Lazarus, R. J. 2004. The Making of Environmental Law. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Lee, J., F. M. Veloso, D. A. Hounshell, and E. S. Rubin. 2010. Forcing technological change: A case of automobile emissions control technology development in the US. Technovation 30:249-264.
Lehmann, J., J. Gaunt, and M. Rondon. 2006. Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems: A review. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11(2):403-427.
Leiby, P. N. 2007. Estimating the Energy Security Benefits of Reduced U.S. Oil Imports. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Leiserowitz, A., E. Maibach, and C. Roser-Renouf. 2008. Global Warming’s Six Americas: An Audience Segmentation. New Haven, CT: Yale University. Available at http://research.yale.edu/environment/climate. Accessed January 27, 2010.
London Convention. 1972. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter. Available at http://www.imo.org/home.asp?topic_id=1488. Accessed February 16, 2010.
Lutsey, N., and D. Sperling. 2008. America’s bottom-up climate change mitigation policy. Energy Policy 36(2):673-685.
Lutzenhiser, L., L. Cesafsky, H. Chappells, M. Gossard, M. Moezzi, D. Moran, J. Peters, M. Spahic, P. Stern, E. Simmons, and H. Wilhite. 2009. Behavioral Assumptions Underlying California Residential Sector Energy Efficiency Programs. Portland State University, Center for Urban Studies, Portland, OR. Report to the California Institute for Energy and Environment and the California Public Utilities Commission, Oakland, CA.
Marland, G., B. A. McCarl, and U. Schneider. 2001. Soil carbon: Policy and economics. Climatic Change 51(1):101-117.
Martin, L. L. 1992. Interests, power, and multilateralism. International Organization 46(4):765-792.
McCarl, B. A., and J. M. Reilly. 2007. Agriculture in the Climate Change and Energy Price Squeeze: Part 2: Mitigation Opportunities. Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University.
McCarl, B. A., and U. A. Schneider. 2000. U.S. agriculure’s role in a greenhouse gas emission mitigation world: An economic perspective. Review of Agricultural Economics 22(1):134-159.
McCarl, B. A., and U. A. Schneider. 2001. Climate change: Greenhouse gas mitigation in U.S. agriculture and forestry. Science 294(5551):2481-2482.
McCarl, B. A., C. Peacocke, R. Chrisman, C.-C. Kung, and R. D. Sands. 2009. Economics of biochar production, utilisation and GHG offsets. In Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology, J. Lehmann and S. Joseph, eds. London: Earthscan Productions.
McGuinness, M., and A. D. Ellerman. 2008. The Effects of Interactions Between Federal and State Climate Policies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research.
McHenry, M. P. 2009. Agricultural bio-char production, renewable energy generation and farm carbon sequestration in Western Australia: Certainty, uncertainty and risk. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 129(1-3):1-7.
Meehl, G. A., and T. F. Stocker. 2007. Global climate projections. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 996 pp.
Melillo, J. M., J. M. Reilly, D. W. Kicklighter, A. C. Gurgel, T. W. Cronin, S. Paltsev, B. S. Felzer, X. Wang, A. P. Sokolov, and C. A. Schlosser. 2009. Indirect emissions from biofuels: How important? Science 326(5958):1397-1399.
Metcalf, G. E. 2009. Designing a carbon tax to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 3 (1):63-83.
METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry). 2008. Top Runner Program: Developing the World’s Best Energy-Efficient Appliances. Tokyo: METI.
Metz, B., L. Kuijpers, S. Solomon, S. O. Andersen, O. Davidson, J. Pons, D. de Jager, T. Kestin, M. Manning, and L. Meyer, eds. 2005. Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System: Issues Related to Hydrofluorocarbons and Perfluorocarbons. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 478 pp.
Michaelowa, A., and F. Jotzo. 2005. Transaction costs, institutional rigidities and the size of the clean development mechanism. Energy Policy 33(4):511-523.
Mooney, S., J. Antle, S. Capalbo, and K. Paustian. 2004. Design and costs of a measurement protocol for trades in soil carbon credits. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics 52(3):257-287.
Morello-Frosch, R., M. Pastor, J. Sadd, and S. B. Shonkoff. 2009. The Climate Gap. Los Angeles, CA: Pere Publications.
Morris, J. 2009. Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Mueller, S. 2006. Missing the spark: An investigation into the low adoption paradox of combined heat and power technologies. Energy Policy 34:3153-3164.
Murray, B. C., B. A. McCarl, and H. C. Lee. 2004. Estimating leakage from forest carbon sequestration programs. Land Economics 80(1):109-124.
Murray, B. C., A. J. Sommer, B. Depro, B. L. Sohngen, B. A. Mccarl, D. Gillig, B. De Angelo, and K. Andrasko. 2005. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential in US Forestry and Agriculture. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency.
Murray, B. C., R. G. Newell, and W. A. Pizer. 2009a. Balancing cost and emissions certainty: An allowance reserve for cap-and-trade. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 3(1):84-103.
Murray, B. C., R. N. Lubowski, and B. L. Sohngen. 2009b. Including International Forest Carbon Incentives in Climate Policy: Understanding the Economics. Nicholas Institute Report. Durham, NC: Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University.
Myers, D., and E. Gearin. 2001. Current preferences and future demand for denser residential environments. Housing Policy Debate 12(4):633-659.
Nakano, S., A. Okamura, N. Sakurai, M. Suzuki, Y. Tojo, and N. Yamano. 2009. The Measurement of CO2Embodiments in International Trade: Evidence from the Harmonised Input-Output and Bilateral Trade Database. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2009/3, OECD, Directorate for Science, Technology, and Industry.
Nakicenovic, N., et al. 2000. Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 599 pp. Available at http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc/emission/index.htm.
Newell, R. G. 2009. International climate technology strategies. In The Competitiveness Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Policies, J. E. Aldy and W. A. Pizer, eds. Arlington, VA: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
Newell, R. G., and W. A. Pizer. 2003. Discounting the distant future: How much do uncertain rates increase valuations? Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 46(1):52-71.
Nordhaus, W. D. 2008. A Question of Balance: Weighing the Options on Global Warming Policies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Nordqvist, J. 2006. Evaluation of Japan’s Top Runner Programme. Energy Intelligence for Europe Program.
Noyelle, T. J. 1987. Beyond Industrial Dualism: Market and Job Segmentation in the New Economy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1999. Sharing the Fish: Toward a National Policy on Individual Fishing Quotas. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NRC. 2001. Energy Research at DOE: Was It Worth It? Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2002a. New Tools for Environmental Protection: Education, Information, and Voluntary Measures. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2002b. Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2005. Decision Making for the Environment: Social and Behavioral Science Research Priorities. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2008. Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2009a. America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2009b. America’s Energy Future: Real Prospects for Energy Efficiency in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2009c. Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2009d. TRB Special Report 298: Driving and the Built Environment: Effects of Compact Development on Motorized Travel, Energy Use, and CO2Emissions. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2010a. ACC: Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC. National Academies Press.
NRC. 2010b. ACC: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2010c. ACC: Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NSB (National Science Board). 2009. Building a Sustainable Energy Future: U.S. Actions for an Effective Energy Economy Transformation. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation.
NSF (National Science Foundation). 2008. Science and Engineering Indicators. Arlington, VA: National Science Board.
Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ostrom, E. 2002. Reformulating the Commons. Ambiente & Sociedade 5(10).
Ostrom, E. 2010. A multi-scale approach to coping with climate change and other collective action problems. Solutions Journal 2(2010).
Ottmar, E., B. Knopf, T. Barker, L. Baumstark, E. Bellevrat, B. Château, P. Criqui, M. Isaac, A. Kitous, S. Kypreos, M. Leimbach, K. Lessmann, B. Magné, S. Scrieciu, H. Turton and D. P. van Vuuren. 2010. The Economics of Low Stabilization: Model Comparison of Mitigation Strategies and Costs. The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics 0(Special I): 11-48.
Oye, K. N., and J. H. Maxwell. 1995. Local commons and global interdependence. In Local Commons and Global Interdependence: Heterogeneity and Cooperation in Two Domains, R. O. Keohane and E. Ostrom, eds. London: Sage.
Palmer, M. A., E. S. Bernhardt, W. H. Schlesinger, K. N. Eshleman, E. Foufoula-Georgiou, M. S. Hendryx, A. D. Lemly, G. E. Likens, O. L. Loucks, M. E. Power, P. S. White, and P. R. Wilcock. 2010. Mountaintop mining consequences. Science 327(5962):148-149.
Paltsev, S., J. M. Reilly, H. D. Jacoby, A. C. Gurgel, G. E. Metcalf, A. P. Sokolov, and J. F. Holak. 2007. Assessment of U.S. Cap-and-Trade Proposals. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Paltsev, S., J. Reilly, H. Jacoby, and J. Morris. 2009. The cost of climate policy in the United States. Energy Economics 3(2): S235-S243.
Parry, I. W. H., H. Sigman, M. Walls, and R. C. Williams. 2006. The incidence of pollution control policies. The International Yearbook of Environmental and Resource Economics 2006/2007:1-42.
Parry, I., W. Walls, and W. Harrington. 2007. Automobile Externalities and Policies. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
Parson, E. 2003. Protecting the Ozone Layer: Science and Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pastor, M., Jr. 2007. Quién es más urbanista? Latinos and smart growth. Pp. 73-102 in Growing Smarter: Achieving Livable Communities, Environmental Justice, and Regional Equity, R. D. Bullard, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Patashnik, E. M. 2008. Reforms at Risk: What Happens After Major Policy Changes are Enacted. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Paustian, K., J. Brenner, M. Easter, K. Killian, S. Ogle, C. Olson, J. Schuler, R. Vining, and S. Williams. 2009. Counting carbon on the farm: Reaping the benefits of carbon offset programs. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 64(1):36A-40A.
PCAST (President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology). 2008. The Energy Imperative: Report Update. Washington, DC: PCAST.
Pearce, D. 2003. Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the Distributive Impacts of Environmental Policies. Prepared for the OECD Environment Directorate Workshop on the Distribution of Benefits and Costs of Environmental Policies, Paris. Available at http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~uctpa36/oecd%20distribution.pdf.
Peters, A. H., and P. S. Fisher. 2002. State Enterprise Zone Programs: Have They Worked? Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
Pew Center. 2007, May. International Sectoral Agreements in a Post-2012 Climate Framework. Prepared for the Pew Center on Global Climate Change. Daniel Bodansky. Available at http://www.pewclimate.org/working-papers/sectoral. Accessed February 16, 2010.
Pew Center. 2009a. Fewer Americans See Solid Evidence of Global Warming. Modest Support for “Cap and Trade” Policy. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. Available at http://people-press.org/reports/pdf/556.pdf. Accessed February 16, 2010.
Pew Center. 2009b. The Competitiveness Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Policies. Available at http://www.pewclimate.org/international/CompetitivenessImpacts. Accessed February 16, 2010.
Pew Center. 2009c. The Clean Energy Economy: Repowering Jobs, Business, and Investments Across America. Available at http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFiles/Clean_Economy_Report_Web.pdf. Accessed February 16, 2010.
Pizer, W. A. 2002. Combining price and quantity controls to mitigate global climate change. Journal of Public Economics 85(3):409-434.
Pollak, M. F., and E. J. Wilson. 2009. Regulating geologic sequestration in the US: Early rules take divergent approaches. Environmental Science and Technology 43(9):3035-3041.
Pollin, R., H.Garrett-Peltier, J. Heintz, and H. Scharber, 2008. Green Recovery: A Program to Create Good Jobs and Start Building a Low-Carbon Economy. Center for American Progress and Political Economy Research Institute: University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Popp, D. C., R. G. Newell, and A. B. Jaffe. 2009. Energy, the Environment, and Technological Change. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Post, W. M., J. E. Amonette, R. Birdsey, C. T. Garten Jr., R. C. Izaurralde, P. M. Jardine, J. Jastrow, R. Lal, G. Marland, B. A. McCarl, A. M. Thomson, T. O. West, S. D. Wullschleger, and F. B. Metting. 2009. Terrestrial biological carbon sequestration: Science for enhancement and implementation. In Science and Technology of Carbon Sequestration, B. Mcpherson and E. Sundquist, eds. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union.
Prindle, B. 2007. Quantifying the Effects of Market Failures in the End-Use of Energy. Washington, DC: American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.
Putnam, R. D. 1988. Diplomacy and domestic politics: The logic of two-level games. International Organization 42(3):427-460.
Qiu, L. D., and Z. Tao. 1998. Policy on international R&D cooperation: Subsidy or tax? European Economic Review 42(9):1727-1750.
Rai, V., and D. G. Victor. 2009. Climate change and the energy challenge: A pragmatic approach for India. Economic and Political Weekly 44(31):78-85.
Ramaswamy, V., O. Boucher, J. Haigh, D. Hauglustine, J. Haywood, G. Myhre, T. Nakajima, G. Y. Shi, and S. Solomon. 2001. Radiative forcing of climate. Pp. 349-416 in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
Reilly, J., R. Prinn, J. Harnisch, J. Fitzmaurice, H. Jacoby, D. Kicklighter, J. Melillo, P. Stone, A. Sokolov, and C. Wang. 1999. Multigas assessment of the Kyoto protocol. Nature 401(6753):549-555.
Revesz, R. L. 2001. Federalism and environmental regulation: A public choice analysis. Harvard Law Review 115(2):553-641.
Rosa, E. A., and R. L. Clark, Jr. 1999. Historical routes to technological gridlock: Nuclear technology as prototypical vehicle. Research in Social Problems and Public Policy 7:21-57.
Rosa, E. A., and R. E. Dunlap. 1994. Nuclear power: Three decades of public opinion. Public Opinion Quarterly 58:295-325.
Rose, A., and G. Oladosu. 2002. Greenhouse gas reduction policy in the United States: Identifying winners and losers in an expanded permit trading system. The Energy Journal 23(1):1-18.
Rosenfeld, A. H., and H. Akbari. 2008. White Roofs Cool the World, Directly Offset CO2and Delay Global Warming: Research Highlights. Sacramento, CA: California Energy Commission.
Rubin, E. S. 2005. The Government Role in Technology Innovation: Lessons for the Climate Change Policy Agenda. Presented at the 10th Biennial Conference on Transportation Energy and Environmental Policy. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis.
Ruderman, H., M. D. Levine, and J. E. Mcmahon. 1987. The behavior of the market for energy efficiency in residential appliances including heating and cooling. The Energy Journal 8:101-124.
Samaras, C., J. Apt, I. L. Azevedo, L. Lave, G. Morgan, and E. S. Rubin. 2009. Cap and Trade is Not Enough: Improving U. S. Climate Policy: A Briefing Note from the Department of Engineering and Public Policy. Washington, DC: Carnegie Mellon University.
Schafer, A., J. B. Heywood, H. D. Jacoby, and I. A. Waitz. 2009. Transportation in a Climate-Constrained World. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Schelling, T. C. 1960. The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Schweitzer, L., and M. Stephenson. 2007. Right answers, wrong questions: Environmental justice as urban research. Urban Studies 44(2):319-337.
Searchinger, T., R. Heimlich, R. A. Houghton, F. Dong, A. Elobeid, J. Fabiosa, S. Tokgoz, D. Hayes, and T. H. Yu. 2008. Use of U.S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land-use change. Science 319(5867):1238-1240.
Shadbegian, R. J., W. Gray, and C. L. Morgan. 2005. Benefits and Costs from Sulfur Dioxide Trading: A Distributional Analysis. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency.
Shammin, M. R., and C. W. Bullard. 2009. Impact of cap-and-trade policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions on U.S. households. Ecological Economics 68(8-9):2432-2438.
Sieg, H., V. K. Smith, H. S. Banzhaf, and R. Walsh. 2004. Estimating the general equilibrium benefits of large changes in spatially delineated public goods. International Economic Review 45(4):1047-1077.
Sijm, J., K. Neuhoff, and Y. Chen. 2006. CO2 cost pass-through and windfall profits in the power sector. Climate Policy 6(1):49-72.
Small, K. A., and K. Van Dender. 2007. Fuel efficiency and motor vehicle travel: The declining rebound effect. Energy Journal 28(1):25-51.
Smith, G. A., B. A. McCarl, C. S. Li, J. H. Reynolds, R. Hammerschlag, R. L. Sass, W. J. Parton, S. M. Ogle, K. Paustian, J. A. Holtkamp, and W. Barbour. 2007. Harnessing Farms and Forests in the Low-Carbon Economy: How to Create, Measure, and Verify Greenhouse Gas Offsets. Z. Willey and W. L. Chameides, eds. Raleigh, NC: Duke University Press.
Smith, P. 2004. How long before a change in soil organic carbon can be detected? Global Change Biology 10(11):1878-1883.
Socolow, R. H., and A. Glaser. 2009. Balancing risks: Nuclear energy and climate change. Daedalus 138(4):31-44.
Sohngen, B., R. H. Beach, and K. Andrasko. 2008. Avoided deforestation as a greenhouse gas mitigation tool: Economic issues. Journal on Environmental Quality 37(4):1368-1375.
Sokolov, A. P., P. H. Stone, C. E. Forest, R. Prinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. Webster, S. Paltsev, C. A. Schlosser, D. Kicklighter, S. Dutkiewicz, J. Reilly, C. Wang, B. Felzer, J. M. Melillo, and H. D. Jacoby. 2009. Probabilistic forecast for twenty-first-century climate based on uncertainties in emissions (without policy) and climate parameters. Journal of Climate 22(19):5175-5204.
Solomon, S., G.-K. Plattner, R. Knutti, and P. Friedlingstein. 2009. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(6):1704-1709.
Sovacool, B., and R. Hirsh. 2007. Energy myth The barriers to new and innovative energy technologies are primarily technical: The case of distributed generation. Pp. 145-169 in Energy and American Society—Thirteen Myths, B. K. Sovacool and M. A. Brown, eds. New York: Springer.
Sovacool, B. K., and M. A. Brown. 2009. Scaling the policy response to climate change. Policy and Society 27(4):317-328.
Sperling, D., and D. Gordon. 2009. Two Billion Cars: Driving Toward Sustainability. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stephens, J. C., and D. W. Keith. 2008. Assessing geochemical carbon management. Climatic Change 90(3):217-242.
Stern, N. H. 2009. The Global Deal: Climate Change and the Creation of a New Era of Progress and Prosperity, 1st ed. New York: Public Affairs.
Stern, P. 2002. Changing behavior in households and communities: What have we learned? In New Tools for Environmental Protection: Education, Information, and Voluntary Measures, National Research Council, T. Dietz and P. C. Stern, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Stern, P. C. 1986. Blind spots in policy analysis: What economics doesn’t say about energy use. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 5:200-227.
Stern, P. C. 2008. Environmentally significant behavior in the home. In The Cambridge Handbook of Psychology and Economic Behavior. A. Lewis, ed. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
Stern, P. C., E. Aronson, J. M. Darley, D. H. Hill, E. Hirst, W. Kempton, and T. J. Wilbanks. 1986. The effectiveness of incentives for residential energy conservation. Evaluation Review 10(2):147-176.
Taylor, M. R., E. S. Rubin, and D. A. Hounshell. 2005. Control of SO2 emissions from power plants: A case of induced technological innovation in the U.S. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 72(6):697-718.
Tietenberg, T. 2009. Reflections—Energy efficiency policy: Pipe dream or pipeline to the future? Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 3(2):304-320.
Tietenberg, T. H. 2006. Emissions Trading: Principles and Practice. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
Tran, C. I. 2006. Equilibrium Welfare Impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments in the Los Angeles Area. Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Maryland.
UNEP and WTO (United Nations Environment Programme and World Trade Organization). 2009. Trade and Climate Change. Geneva: WTO Publications.
UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). 2008. Analysis of Possible Means to Reach Emission Reduction Targets and of Relevant Methodological Issues; FCCC/TP/2008/2. Geneva.
U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. Population Estimates Program, Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau. Revised June 28, 2000. Available at http://www.census.gov/popest/archives/1990s/popclockest.txt. Accessed March 3, 2010.
U.S. Census Bureau. 2007. American Factfinder. Available at http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTSelectedDatasetPageServlet?_lang=en&_ts=285702889855. Accessed March 3, 2010.
Velders, G. J. M., S. O. Andersen, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Fahey, and M. Mcfarland. 2007. The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(12):4814-4819.
Velders, G. J. M., D. W. Fahey, J. S. Daniel, M. McFarland, and S. O. Andersen. 2009. The large contribution of projected HFC emissions to future climate forcing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(27):10949-10954.
Waltz, K. N. 1979. Theory of International Politics. Addison-Wesley Series in Political Science. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Wang, M.Q., and Z. Haq. 2008. Response to the article by Searchinger et al. in the February 7, 2008, Sciencexpress, “Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases through Emissions from Land Use Change” Letter to Science. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/eletters/1151861v1
Wara, M. 2007. Is the global carbon market working? Nature 445(7128):595-596.
Wassmer, R. W. 1994. Can local incentives alter a metropolitan city’s economic development? Urban Studies 31(8):1251-1278.
WBCSD (World Business Council for Sustainable Development). 2009. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in the Cement Industry. Available at http://www.wbcsd.org/DocRoot/XKkAR9Xv28jqGCS6oebc/WBCSDSectoralApproach.pdf. Accessed February 16, 2010.
Wear, D. N., and B. C. Murray. 2004. Federal timber restrictions, interregional spillovers, and the impact on U.S. softwood markets. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 47(2):307-330.
Weitzman, M. L. 1974. Prices vs. quantities. The Review of Economic Studies 41(4):477-491.
West, J. J., A. M. Fiore, L. W. Horowitz, and D. L. Mauzerall. 2006. Global health benefits of mitigating ozone pollution with methane emission controls. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(11):3988-3993.
Weyant, J. P., F. C. de la Chesnaye, and G. Blanford. 2006. Overview of EMF-21: Multigas mitigation and climate policy. Energy Journal (Special Issue):1-32.
Whitfield, S. C., E. A. Rosa, A. Dan, and T. Dietz. 2009. The future of nuclear power: Value orientations and risk perception. Risk Analysis 29(3):425-437.
WHO (World Health Organization). 2005. Indoor Air Pollution and Health. Available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs292/en/. Accessed April 13, 2010.
Wigley, T., L. Clarke, J. Edmonds, H. Jacoby, S. Paltsev, H. Pitcher, J. Reilly, R. Richels, M. Sarofim, and S. Smith. 2009. Uncertainties in climate stabilization. Climatic Change 97(1-2):85-121.
Wilson, E. J., S. J. Friedmann, and M. F. Pollak. 2007. Research for deployment: Incorporating risk, regulation and liability for carbon capture and sequestration. Environmental Science and Technology 41(17).
Wiser, R., M. Bolinger, and G. Barbose. 2007. Using the federal production tax credit to build a durable market for wind power in the United States. Electricity Journal 20(9):77-88.
Wolman, H., and D. Spitzley. 1996. The politics of local economic development. Economic Development Quarterly 10(2):115-150.
Worrell, E., and G. Biermans. 2005. Move over! Stock turnover, retrofit and industrial energy efficiency. Energy Policy 33(7):949-962.
Worrell, E., and C. Galitsky. 2004. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for Cement Making: An Energy Star Guide for Energy and Plant Managers. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California.
Wren, C. 1987. The relative effects of local authority financial assistance policies. Urban Studies 24(4):268-278.
WRI (World Resources Institute). 2007. Slicing the Pie: Sector-based Approaches to International Climate Agreements: Issues and Options. R. Bradley, K. A. Baumert, B. Childs, T. Herzog, and J. Pershing, eds. Washington, DC: WRI.
WRI. 2009. Climate Analysis Indicators Tool, Ver 6. Available from http://cait.wri.org/.
WRI. 2010. Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) Version 7.0. Washington, DC: WRI.
Wu, J. 2000. Slippage effects of the conservation reserve program. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 82(4):979-992.
Wu, J., and W. G. Boggess. 1999. The optimal allocation of conservation funds. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 38(3):302-321.
Zimmerman, R. 1993. Social equity and environmental risk. Risk Analysis 13(6):649-666.