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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2010. Gulf War and Health: Volume 8: Update of Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12835.
×

INDEX

A

Abortions, spontaneous, 193, 194, 195, 201-202, 231

Acetylcholine, 263-264

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 265-266, 275, 276

inhibitors, 266, 277-278

Alcohol abuse, 8, 49, 75, 80, 90, 99, 100, 101, 102, 104, 106, 108, 109, 110, 112, 113, 121, 126, 132, 134, 177, 208, 232

Allergies

chronic respiratory, 148

skin, 165

Alzheimer’s disease, 8, 121, 129-130

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

combat exposure and, 121

conclusions, 4, 8, 129, 257

diagnosis, 126, 127

female veterans, 231

hospitalization study, 128

incidence, 127, 128, 134

latency, 8, 9, 258

mortality studies, 75, 125, 128

neurotoxin exposure and, 128-129

pathogenesis, 126, 128

primary studies, 127, 129, 133-134

research recommendations, 9, 10, 260-261

risk factors, 126, 127, 275

secondary studies, 128, 129

updated and supplemental literature, 128-129

Volume 4 summary, 4, 15, 19, 127-128

Anemia, 83

Animal studies, 3, 15, 25, 129, 275-276

Anthrax vaccine, 14, 57

Anxiety disorders, 17, 19, 42, 50, 63, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103-104, 105, 106, 107, 110, 111, 113, 114, 154, 160, 207, 214.

See also Generalized anxiety disorder;

Obsessive-compulsive disorder;

Panic disorder;

Posttraumatic stress disorder;

Social phobia

Arthralgia, 169, 171, 207

Arthritis, 169, 171

Asthma and bronchitis, 4, 5, 20, 33-34, 42, 50, 145, 146, 148, 150, 152, 153, 208

Atherosclerosis, 135

Atopic dermatitis, 19, 165, 167, 168

Australian Veteran Studies, 43, 54-56

chronic fatigue syndrome, 213, 219

derivative studies, 43, 54-56

diseases of the digestive system, 158

mental and behavioral disorders, 101-102, 104-106, 112

multisymptom illnesses, 207

reference study, 43, 54

B

Basal ganglia injury, 130-131

Bipolar disorder, 99

Birth defects, 231

conclusions, 8, 192-193, 257

deployment status of parents and, 189, 190-191, 192, 231, 234

derivative studies, 42, 43, 45, 54

environmental exposures and, 190

miscarriages and stillbirths, 193, 201

primary studies, 189-190, 191, 200-201

reference study, 51, 53-54

registries, 189-190, 192

secondary studies, 190-191, 192

updated and supplemental literature, 191-192

Volume 4 summary, 4, 19, 189-191

Bladder infections, 181, 182

Blood and blood-forming organs, diseases of, 7

conclusions, 8, 85, 257

hospitalizations, 83-88

latency, 85

mortality studies, 85

nerve-agent exposure and, 84, 87

oil-well fire smoke exposure and, 84, 87

primary studies, 83-84, 86-88

secondary studies, 84

updated and supplemental literature, 83-84

Body mass index (BMI), 92

Borderline personality disorder, 42, 50-51, 107-108

Botulinum toxoid vaccine, 14, 57

Bradford Hill aspects, 27, 28, 35

Brain cancer, 2, 9, 10, 20, 73-74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 125, 231, 261

Bronchitis. See Asthma and bronchitis

Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), 61, 277

C

C-reactive protein, 213

CAGE questionnaire, 49

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2010. Gulf War and Health: Volume 8: Update of Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12835.
×

Canadian Gulf War Veterans Study, 44, 58

derivative studies, 44, 58

diseases of the digestive system, 158, 166

mental and behavioral disorders, 105

chronic fatigue syndrome, 213

reference study, 44, 58

Cancer

all cancers, 8, 74-75, 80-82, 257

brain cancer, 2, 9, 10, 20, 73-74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 125, 231, 261

conclusions, 8, 78, 257

deployment status and, 74-80

derivative studies, 42, 44, 52

digestive tract, 76

hospitalization studies, 73, 74, 75-76, 80, 81

incidence, 42, 52, 57, 78

latency, 8, 28, 41, 73, 74, 78

leukemias and lymphomas, 73

mortality studies, 73, 74-75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 125, 226-227

nerve agent exposure and, 73-74, 75, 77, 78, 79

oil-well fire smoke and, 74, 75, 78

pesticide exposure and, 78

prevalence, 76, 77

primary studies, 75-76, 79-82, 125

recommendation, 78

registry data, 9

research recommendations, 9, 10

secondary studies, 76-78

skin, 73, 76, 77, 78, 166

testicular, 2, 4, 15, 19, 73, 74, 76, 78, 79-80, 81, 208

updated and supplemental literature, 75-78

vaccines/vaccination and, 77

Volume 4 summary, 4, 19, 20, 73-75

Carbamates, 266, 267, 268

Cardiac dysrhythmia, 135, 140, 141

Cardiovascular disease. See Circulatory system diseases

Cause-specific mortality. See External causes of mortality

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 47, 49, 52, 59, 116, 200, 205, 208, 210, 211, 212, 213, 219, 220, 256, 270

Central nervous system (CNS), 160, 267, 270, 275, 276, 278, 279

Chalder Fatigue Scale, 213

Chemical agent exposure, and neurological diseases, 47, 59-60, 121, 133

Chemical and biologic warfare

exposure to agents of, 49, 58

threat of, 14-15, 55, 212, 213

Chlorinated hydrocarbons, 14

Cholinesterase inhibitors.

See also Pesticide/insecticide

exposures;

Pyridostigmine bromide

animal studies, 275-276

exposures during Gulf War, 266-270

genetic susceptibility, 61, 276-278

illnesses associated with, 60, 267-268

long-term effects of low doses, 270

multisymptom illnesses, 57, 61, 62, 278-279

studies in Gulf War populations, 60, 271-274

Chronic dysphoria, 105

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), 7.

See also Multisymptom illnesses

chemical sensitivity and, 45

comorbidities, 157, 163

conclusions, 8, 214, 256

definition, 210-211, 212

diagnosis, 41, 211

in disabled veterans, 52, 214, 220

etiology, 121, 211

identification of predictors, 42

mental and behavioral disorders and, 102

multisymptom illnesses, 60, 207, 211

oil-fire smoke exposure and, 214

pesticide exposure and, 52, 55, 213, 214

prevalence, 46, 47, 53, 55, 60, 61, 213, 214

primary studies, 211-212, 219-220

pyridostigmine bromide and, 55, 213, 214

secondary studies, 212-213

threat of chemical weapons and, 55, 212, 213

updated and supplemental literature, 213-214, 220

Volume 4 summary, 19, 211-213

war stress and, 102, 213

Chronic multisymptom illness (CMI). See Multisymptom illnesses

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 145, 148, 150

Chronic widespread pain (CWP).

See also Fibromyalgia

alcohol use and, 177

cognitive performance, 50, 118

combat exposure and, 50, 177, 178

comorbid with mental disorders, 102

conclusions, 8, 257

delayed-onset, 177

identification of predictors of, 42, 50

pesticide exposure and, 178

pyridostigmine bromide exposure and, 178

musculoskeletal, 1, 3, 10, 18, 19, 47, 57, 118, 120

prevalence, 53, 177

primary studies, 176-177, 178, 179

secondary studies, 177-178

self-reports of, 18, 42, 43, 57

stress perceptions and, 177, 178

Volume 4 summary, 3

Circulatory system diseases.

See also specific diseases and conditions

birth defects, 189, 200

conclusions, 8, 140, 257

female veterans, 138

hospitalization studies, 135, 136, 137, 140, 141, 142, 218

latency, 28

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2010. Gulf War and Health: Volume 8: Update of Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12835.
×

mortality studies, 8, 135, 136, 137, 138, 140, 142, 143, 144

nerve-agent exposure and, 135, 136, 137-138, 139, 140, 141, 143

oil-well fire smoke and, 137, 142

prevalence, 135

primary studies, 135, 136-138, 140, 141-144

research recommendations, 10

risk factors, 135

secondary studies, 135-136, 138-140

updated and supplemental literature, 136-140

Volume 4 summary, 4, 19, 135-136

Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), 58, 101, 102-103, 107, 111, 114

Cognitive dysfunction, 1, 10, 19, 50, 51, 101, 102, 118, 119-120, 121, 129, 175.

See also Neurocognitive and neurobehavioral performance

Colitis, 157

Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program (CCEP), 4, 32, 175-176

Contact dermatitis, 164

Coronary heart disease, 135

Crohn’s disease, 155

Cyclosarin. See Nerve-agent exposure

Cytomegalovirus, 213

D

Danish Peacekeeper Studies, 43, 56

derivative studies, 43, 56

diseases of the digestive system, 156-157

multisymptom illnesses, 206, 217

reference study, 43, 56

DEET, 264, 267, 268, 275

Defence Analytical Services Agency (UK), 76, 159, 223

Defense Medical Surveillance System, 154

Dementia, 8, 10, 129, 130

Department of National Defence (Canada), 58

Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)

charge to IOM committee, 2, 11-12, 15-16

National Health Survey of Gulf War Veterans and Their Families, 42, 45-48

Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans’ Illnesses, 2, 3, 16, 259

Depleted uranium (DU) exposure

assessment, 14, 18, 32

endocrine and metabolic diseases, 90, 92, 97

external causes of mortality, 53

fertility problems, 196, 197, 203

genitourinary system diseases, 180-181, 185, 186

neurological symptoms, 47

Depression, 8, 10, 19, 50, 51, 63, 99, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 107, 108, 111, 113, 114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 154, 207, 214, 229, 230, 232.

See also Major depressive disorder

Dermatitis, 164, 165, 166, 206.

See also Skin diseases;

specific diseases

Diabetes

cardiovascular disease, 135

conclusions, 19, 95, 257

depleted uranium exposure and, 90

hospitalizations, 91

nerve-agent exposure and, 89-90, 91

primary studies, 89, 90, 95, 96

secondary studies, 89-91

updated and supplemental literature, 90-91

Volume 4 summary, 4, 89-90

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), 33, 99

Digestive system diseases.

See also specific diseases

cancer, 76

birth defects, 201

comorbidities, 154, 157

conclusions, 8, 159-161, 256

diagnosis, 154-155, 160

hospitalization studies, 155-156, 158, 162

mortality, 158, 159

neurobehavioral performance, 118, 120

pesticide/insecticide exposure and, 56

prevalence, 57

primary studies, 155-156, 162-163

pyridostigmine bromide exposure and, 159

research needs, 261

secondary studies, 156

smoke from buring waste or manure and, 56

updated and supplemental epidemiologic literature, 156-159

Volume 4 summary, 3, 19, 155-156

Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP), 42, 46, 122-123, 132

Down syndrome, 192

Drug abuse and dependence, 99, 100, 104, 112, 113, 208, 232

Dyspepsia, 8, 10, 19, 46, 155, 157, 160, 207

E

Ectopic pregnancies, 194, 195, 201-202

Eczema, 165, 166, 167, 168

Emphysema, 145, 146, 148, 150, 152

Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases.

See also Diabetes;

Obesity;

Thyroid disease

conclusions, 8, 95, 257

depleted uranium exposure and, 90, 92, 97

hospitalization studies, 93-95, 96, 97, 98

mortality studies, 95

nerve-agent exposure and, 89-90, 91, 93, 97

oil-well fire smoke exposure and, 94, 98

prevalence, 96

primary studies, 89, 90, 91-92, 96-98

secondary studies, 89-91, 95

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2010. Gulf War and Health: Volume 8: Update of Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12835.
×

updated and supplemental literature, 90-92, 93-95

Volume 4 summary, 89-90, 93

Enteritis, 157

Epilepsy, 121

Epstein-Barr virus, 124, 213

Exposure to harmful agents.

See also Nerve-agent exposure;

Oil-well fire smoke exposure;

Pesticide/insecticide exposures;

Pyridostigmine

bromide

assessment methods, 17-18, 32

genetic sensitivity, 10, 18

interactions of multiple simultaneous exposures, 17

limitations of information, 17-18

External causes of mortality

conclusions, 8, 224, 257

female veterans, 234

intentional self-harm, 222, 223, 226

nerve-agent exposure and, 223, 225, 227

primary studies, 221-223, 225-227

research recommendations, 9

secondary studies, 222, 223-224

suicides, 221, 223, 225, 226-227

transportation accidents, 3-4, 8, 19, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 234

updated and supplemental literature, 222-224

Volume 4 summary, 3-4, 19, 221-222

F

Fatigue symptoms, 1, 46, 55, 103, 116, 118, 120, 123, 124, 175, 210.

See also Chronic fatigue syndrome

Female veteran health.

See also Pregnancy outcomes;

Women

circulatory system diseases, 138

combat exposure and, 228-229

deployment experiences, 228-229

digestive disorders, 157

effects reported, 229-231

genitourinary system diseases, 180, 181, 182-183, 184-185, 186, 196-197, 230, 233

health care utilization, 229

hospitalization studies, 233

mental and behavioral disorders, 47, 106, 107, 229, 230, 231-232, 234

mortality studies, 234

multisymptom illnesses, 229, 231

neurologic disorders, 230-231

obesity, 93

PTSD, 42, 47, 103, 106, 111, 231-232, 234

respiratory illnesses, 230

sexual assault and harassment (military), 42, 47, 228, 232-233, 234

size of Gulf War force, 228, 234

skin diseases, 229, 230

summary and conclusions, 234

Fertility problems

conclusions, 8, 197, 257

defined, 195

depleted uranium exposure and, 196, 197, 203

female veterans, 231, 233

hospitalizations, 195-197

primary studies, 183, 186, 196, 202-203

secondary studies, 196-197

updated and supplemental literature, 196-197

Volume 4 summary, 196

Fibromyalgia.

See also Chronic widespread pain

conclusions, 8, 178, 257

diagnosis, 18, 41, 175, 178

hospitalization studies, 175-176, 178, 179

multisymptom illnesses, 207

neurologic etiology, 121

prevalence, 46, 175, 178

primary studies, 175-176, 179

psychiatric comorbidities, 101

secondary studies, 176, 178

symptoms, 175

updated and supplemental literature, 176-178

Volume 4 summary, 19, 175-176

Fibrositis, 175

Folliculitis, 164

Fort Devens and New Orleans Cohort Study, 44, 59-60

derivative studies, 44, 60

mental and behavioral disorders, 102-103, 111

multisymptom illnesses, 210

reference study, 44, 59

Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), 8, 10, 154-155, 157, 159, 160, 256, 261

G

Gastritis, 155, 157, 158, 206

Gastroenteritis, 154, 159

Gastroesophageal reflux disease, 155

Gastrointestinal. See Digestive system diseases;

Functional gastrointestinal disorders

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 8, 99, 101, 108, 109, 110

Genetic susceptibility, 10, 18, 44, 61, 129, 261

Genitourinary system diseases

birth defects, 189, 190, 192, 200, 201

conclusions, 8, 184-185, 258

depleted uranium exposure and, 180-181, 185, 186

female veterans, 180, 181, 182-183, 184-185, 186, 196-197, 230, 233

hospitalization studies, 8, 183-184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 196

nerve-agent exposure and, 182, 183, 184, 185, 188

oil-well fire smoke exposure and, 183, 184, 187

outcomes, 180-183

primary studies, 180, 183-185, 186-188

secondary studies, 181-183, 185

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2010. Gulf War and Health: Volume 8: Update of Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12835.
×

updated and supplemental literature, 180-183

Volume 4 summary, 19

Goiter, 92

Goldenhar syndrome, 190, 192, 200

Gulf War syndrome, 1, 9, 11, 42, 50, 52, 59, 61, 77, 115, 116, 118, 123.

See also Multisymptom illnesses

Guillain Barré syndrome, 121

H

Hair loss and hair diseases, 165, 168

Hawaii and Pennsylvania Active Duty and Reserve

Study, 44, 62

derivative studies, 44, 62

reference study, 44, 62

Healthy warrior effect, 29, 31, 35, 40, 51, 74, 99, 100, 127, 158, 209

Heart attacks, 138

High blood pressure, 135-136, 138, 139, 144

HIV/AIDS, 122, 225

Hospitalizations.

See also Utilization of health services

blood and blood-forming organs, diseases of, 83-88

cancer studies, 73, 74, 75-76, 80, 81

circulatory systems disease studies, 135, 136, 137, 140, 141, 142

discharge diagnoses, 7, 9, 80, 86, 93, 94, 97

endocrine and metabolic diseases, 93-95, 96, 97, 98

female veterans, 233

fertility problems, 195-197

fibromyalgia, 175-176, 178, 179

genitourinary system diseases, 8, 180, 181, 182-183, 184-185, 186, 196

limitations of studies, 95

mental and behavioral disorders, 104, 112

multisymptom illnesses, 207-208, 218-219

musculoskeletal diseases, 170, 171, 172, 173-174

neurological diseases, 128

prevalence, 4, 61

proportional morbidity ratios, 94

respiratory system diseases, 145, 146, 147, 151, 152, 153

skin diseases, 166-167

Volume 4 summary, 19

Hypercholesterolemia, 135

Hypertension, 7, 135, 136, 138, 139, 140, 141, 144, 206, 214

Hyperthyroidism, 91, 96

Hypochondriasis, 99, 102

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, 154, 160, 205, 211

Hypothyroidism, 91, 96, 134

I

Immunizations. See Vaccines/vaccination

Infectious disease/agents, 1, 12, 17, 46, 49, 58, 71, 121, 125, 128, 154, 180, 181, 182

Iowa Persian Gulf Study, 42, 49-51

derivative studies, 42, 50-51

mental and behavioral disorders, 101, 110

multisymptom illnesses, 206

reference study, 42, 49

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 8, 10, 18, 32-33, 154-155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 163, 261

Ischemic heart disease, 137

K

Kansas Veteran Study, 44, 58-59

diseases of the digestive system, 157

mental and behavioral disorders, 105

multisymptom illnesses 77

Khamisiyah demolition. See Nerve-agent exposure

Kidney disease, 180, 181, 184, 187

L

Lead exposure, 14, 49, 126, 129

Leukemias and lymphomas, 73

Lou Gehrig’s disease. See Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Low birth weight, 194, 195

M

Major depressive disorder (MDD) and major depression, 99, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114.

See also Depression

Mental and behavioral disorders.

See also Posttraumatic stress disorder;

other specific disorders

anxiety disorders, 17, 19, 42, 50, 63, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103-104, 105, 106, 107, 110, 111, 113, 114.

See also Generalized anxiety disorder;

Obsessive-compulsive disorder;

Panic disorder;

Posttraumatic stress disorder;

Social phobia

chronic fatigue syndrome, 102

cognitive dysfunction, 101, 102

combat exposure and, 101, 102, 103-104, 105, 108, 114

comorbidities, 19, 50, 101, 102, 107

conclusions, 8, 108-109, 256

disabled veterans, 106, 108-109, 113

female veterans, 47, 106, 107, 229, 230, 231-232, 234

fibromyalgia, 101

hospitalizations, 104, 112

mood disorders, 1, 19, 52, 99, 100, 106, 108, 115-116, 118, 119, 120.

See also Bipolar disorder;

Depression;

Major depressive disorder

multisymptom syndromes, 154, 207

neurocognitive and neurobehavioral performance, 101, 102, 118, 120

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2010. Gulf War and Health: Volume 8: Update of Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12835.
×

perceptions of stressors and, 55

primary studies, 100-104, 105-107, 110-114

quality of life status and, 42, 48

research recommendations, 9

secondary studies, 72, 105, 107-108

somatoform disorders, 99, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, 113.

See also Hypochondriasis;

Somatization disorder

updated and supplemental literature, 105-108

Volume 4 summary, 19, 101-105

Metabolic diseases. See Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases;

specific diseases

Metabolic syndrome, 207

Miscarriages and stillbirths, 8, 9, 43, 54, 55, 193, 194, 195, 201, 231, 234

Moodiness and mood disorders, 1, 19, 52, 99, 100, 106, 108, 115-116, 118, 119, 120, 195.

See Bipolar disorder;

Depression;

Major depressive disorder;

Mental and behavioral disorders

Mortality.

See also External causes of mortality

blood and blood-forming organs, diseases of, 85

cancer studies, 73, 74-75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 125

circulatory system disease studies, 8, 135, 136, 137, 138, 140, 142, 143, 144

endocrine and metabolic disease, 95

neurological diseases, 125, 128, 129-130, 133

respiratory system diseases, 147, 148-149, 151, 153

self-reported exposure and, 43, 52-53, 57

Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), 7, 19, 42, 44, 45, 50, 52, 60, 157, 163, 206, 255, 271

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

combat exposure and, 121

conclusions, 8, 125-126, 257

female veterans, 231

latency, 8, 125

mortality studies, 75, 125, 133

pathogenesis, 124

primary study, 125, 133

research recommendations, 9

risk factors, 124-125

secondary study, 125

updated and supplemental literature, 125

Multisymptom illnesses.

See also Chronic fatigue

syndrome

biologic and chemical weapons threat and, 62, 205

chemical sensitivity and, 44, 60, 206

cholinesterase inhibitors and, 57, 61, 62, 278-279

chronic fatigue syndrome and, 60, 207, 211

chronic widespread pain, 209-210

conclusions, 8, 57, 210, 256

definitions, 7, 205, 209

factor analyses and surveys, 42, 43, 44, 50, 52, 61-62, 204-207, 215-217

female veterans, 229, 231

fibromyalgia, 207

genetic susceptibility, 261-262, 276-278

hospitalization studies, 207-208, 218-219

nerve agent exposure and, 47, 48, 57, 58, 263, 271-274

neurobehavioral performance, 115-116, 118, 120

neurologic etiology, 121, 206

pesticide/insecticide exposure and, 62, 205, 259, 265, 266-270, 271-274, 278-279

possible causes, 47, 259-260

prevalence, 11, 42, 48, 58, 62, 77, 209

PTSD overlap, 206, 207

pyridostigmine bromide use and, 205, 259, 265, 271-274

research recommendations, 9, 10, 260, 261-262

stressors and, 205-206

symptom clusters, 204-207, 216-218

vaccination and, 44, 52, 57, 58

Volume 4 summary, 3, 19

Musculoskeletal diseases.

See also Fibromyalgia;

Multisymptom illnesses

birth defects, 190, 201

conclusions, 8, 171, 257

hospitalization studies, 170, 171, 172, 173-174

nerve-agent exposure and, 59-60, 170-171, 173-174

oil-well fire smoke exposure and, 171, 173

prevalence, 57, 210

primary studies, 169, 170-171, 172-174

secondary studies, 169, 171

updated and supplemental literature, 170-171

vaccination and, 51, 60

Volume 4 summary, 19, 169

Myasthenia gravis, 268

N

National Health Survey of Gulf War Veterans and Their Families, 42, 45-48

derivative studies, 42, 46-48

diseases of the digestive system, 155, 157, 162

mental and behavioral disorders, 102, 105, 107, 108, 114

multisymptom illnesses, 206, 208-209, 211, 212

reference study, 45-46

Nerve-agent exposure

animal studies, 25, 276

blood and blood-forming organs, diseases of, 84, 87

cancer, 73-74, 75, 77, 78, 79

cholinesterase inhibitors, 269-270

chronic multisymptom illness, 47, 48, 58

circulatory system diseases, 135, 136, 137-138, 139, 140, 141, 143

endocrine and metabolic diseases, 89-90, 91, 93, 97

genitourinary system diseases, 182, 183, 184, 185, 188

modeling, 15, 17-18, 32, 41, 46, 47-48, 73-74, 84, 116, 122, 147, 170, 184, 269

multisymptom illnesses, 47, 48, 57, 58

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2010. Gulf War and Health: Volume 8: Update of Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12835.
×

musculoskeletal diseases, 59-60, 170-171, 173-174

neurological diseases, 45, 47, 60, 122-123, 128, 129, 130, 132

neuropsychological functioning, 44, 55, 60

prophylaxis. See Pyridostigmine bromide

reproductive outcomes, 199

respiratory symptom system diseases, 20, 47, 145, 147, 148, 153

signs and symptoms of toxic effects, 267, 269-270

Volume 4 summary, 20

Nervous system diseases.

See also Alzheimer’s disease;

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis;

Multiple sclerosis;

Parkinson’s;

Peripheral neuropathy and myopathy;

other specific diseases

brain injury and, 129

chemical agent exposure and, 47, 59-60, 121, 133

combat stress and, 125

environmental factors, 124-125, 129

factor-derived syndromes, 130-131

female veterans, 230-231

genetic susceptibility, 44, 61, 129

hospitalization studies, 128

latency, 121, 125, 130

mortality studies, 125, 128, 129-130, 133

neuromuscular symptoms, 43, 52, 123, 210

neurotoxicant exposure and, 45, 47, 60, 122-123, 128, 129, 130, 132

pesticide/insecticide exposure and, 51, 55, 121, 122, 123-124, 129, 133

pyridostigmine bromide and, 55, 121, 123-124

research recommendations, 9, 126, 261

vaccines/vaccination and, 121, 123-124, 125, 133

Neurocognitive and neurobehavioral performance conclusions, 8, 118, 257

deployment status and, 115, 117, 118, 119

derivative studies, 42, 43, 44, 48, 52, 56, 58-60

domains examined, 116-117

factor analysis, 117-118

mental and behavioral disorders and, 101, 102, 118, 120

nerve-agent exposure and, 44, 56, 59-60, 116-117, 118

primary studies, 115, 116, 119-120

psychological stressors and, 56

secondary studies, 115, 116, 117

tests, 33, 115, 116-117

updated and supplemental literature, 116-118

Volume 4 summary, 19, 115-116

Neurotransmitters, 265-266

New Orleans Reservist Studies, 45, 63

derivative studies, 45, 63

mental and behavioral disorders, 102-103, 111

multisymptom illnesses, 210

reference study, 45, 63

Nuclear Industry Family Study, 194

Nutritional diseases. See Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases;

specific diseases

O

Obesity, 92-93, 95, 135

Obsessive-compulsive disorder, 99, 104

Oil-well fire smoke exposure

blood and blood-forming organs, diseases of, 84, 87

cancer, 74, 75, 78

chronic fatigue syndrome, 214

circulatory system diseases, 137, 142

endocrine and metabolic diseases, 94, 98

extent of, 13-14, 17, 47, 229

external causes of mortality, 53

genitourinary system diseases, 183, 184, 187

modeling, 18, 32, 45, 46, 49, 50, 84, 94, 137, 142, 146, 171, 184

musculoskeletal diseases, 171, 173

reproductive outcomes, 192

respiratory system diseases, 4, 20, 42, 50, 55, 145, 146, 152-153

Operation Desert Shield, 1, 11, 13, 17

Operation Desert Storm, 1, 11, 13, 17

Oregon and Washington Veteran Studies, 43-44, 57

derivative studies, 43-44, 57

multisymptom illnesses, 274

Organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy, 265, 268

Organophosphates, 14, 18, 20, 60, 61, 78, 130, 266, 267, 268, 270

Osteoarthritis, 171

P

Pain.

See also Chronic widespread pain;

Fibromyalgia disorder, 107

nervous system diseases and, 122, 124

systemic, 177

visceral, 154, 159, 160

Paints, exposure to chemical-agent-resistant compounds, 14, 17, 47, 206

Palpitations, 138, 139, 140

Panic disorder, 99, 101, 104, 110

Paraoxonase-1 (PON1), 52, 61, 130, 276-277

Parkinson’s disease, 2, 8, 15, 75, 121, 125, 129-130, 231, 270, 278

Pennsylvania Air National Guard Study, 44, 61-62

derivative studies, 44, 62

reference study, 44, 61

Peptic ulcer, 158, 163

Perinatal outcomes. See Birth defects

Peripheral neuropathy and myopathy

conclusions, 8, 124, 257

defined, 121

derivative studies, 52, 53

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2010. Gulf War and Health: Volume 8: Update of Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12835.
×

diagnosis, 122

nerve-agent exposure and, 122-123, 132

pesticides and, 122, 133

primary studies, 122-123, 132-133

pyridostigmine bromide and, 122

secondary studies, 123

types, 121-122

updated and supplemental literature, 123-124

Volume 4 summary, 4, 19, 122-123

Permethrin, 266, 268, 275

Persian Gulf War Veterans Act, 1, 11

Personality disorders, 42, 50-51, 102, 107-108

Pesticide/insecticide exposures.

See also specific classes of pesticides

animal studies, 25, 277

assessment, 17, 18, 45

cancer, 78

chronic fatigue syndrome, 52, 55, 213, 214

chronic widespread pain, 178

documentation of, 267-268

external causes of mortality, 53

illnesses associated with, 267-268

multiple chemical sensitivity, 52

multisymptom illnesses, 62, 205, 259, 266-270, 278-279

neurological diseases, 51, 55, 121, 122, 123-124, 129, 133

psychological health, 55

reproductive outcomes, 192

respiratory system diseases, 51, 145

skin diseases, 56, 164

types, 266

Petroleum-based combustion products, exposure to, 14, 17, 46, 49, 57, 229

Polyneuropathy, 122.

See also Distal symmetric polyneuropathy

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

borderline personality disorder and, 107-108

comorbidities, 102, 107-108, 111, 118, 154, 157, 163

conclusions, 8, 256

diagnosis, 99-100, 101, 102-103

female veterans, 42, 47, 103, 106, 111, 231-232, 234

multisymptom illnesses, 206, 207

personality and coping factors and, 63

predictors of, 103, 104, 107, 111

prevalence, 47, 50, 61, 62-63, 101, 102, 103, 104, 106, 111, 112

POWs, 107, 114

sexual assault and harassment and, 42, 47

Volume 4 conclusions, 3, 19

Pregnancy outcomes, adverse.

See also Birth defects

conclusions, 8, 195, 257

mood problems, 195

prevalence, 47, 55-56, 61

primary studies, 193, 201-202

reference study, 51, 53-54, 61

secondary studies, 193-194

updated and supplemental literature, 194-195

Volume 4 summary, 193-194

Preterm births, 194, 195, 231

Prostatitis, 180, 181

Psoriasis, 164, 165, 166, 167

Psychiatric conditions. See Mental and behavioral disorders;

Posttraumatic stress disorder;

other specific disorders

Pyrethroids, 14, 266-267, 268

Pyridostigmine bromide (PB), 132

adverse health outcomes, 57

animal studies, 275-276

assessment of exposure, 18, 32, 45, 46, 49

chronic fatigue syndrome, 55, 213, 214

chronic multisymptom illness, 62

chronic widespread pain, 178

exposure opportunities, 14-15

multisymptom illnesses, 205, 259

neurological symptoms, 55, 121, 123-124

psychological health, 55

toxicity symptoms from overexposure, 1, 267, 268-269

Q

Quality-of-life studies, 78

assessment, 44

multiple chemical sensitivity and, 42, 50

psychiatric disorders, 42, 48

R

Rashes, 46, 57, 164, 165, 166, 229, 230

Reproductive outcomes.

See also Fertility problems;

Perinatal outcomes;

Pregnancy outcomes;

Sexual dysfunction

cohort study, 6

female, 231

male, 55-56

Respiratory system diseases

conclusions, 4, 8, 149, 257

deployment status and, 145-146, 147, 148-149, 150, 151

derivative studies, 42, 43, 47, 52, 53-54, 55

female veterans, 230

hospitalization studies, 145, 146, 147, 151, 152, 153

mortality studies, 147, 148-149, 151, 153

nerve agent exposure and, 20, 47, 145, 147, 148, 153

oil-well fire smoke exposure and, 4, 20, 42, 50, 55, 145, 146, 152-153

pesticide exposure and, 51, 145

primary studies, 145-146, 147, 150-153

research recommendations, 10

secondary studies, 146-149

updated and supplemental literature, 147-149

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2010. Gulf War and Health: Volume 8: Update of Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12835.
×

Volume 4 summary, 3, 19, 20, 145-147

Rheumatic diseases, 171

S

Sarin. See Nerve-agent exposure

Scud missile smoke and debris, exposure to, 53, 60, 214

Seabee Studies, 44, 60-61

derivative studies, 44, 60-61

diseases of the digestive system, 157, 163

reference study, 44, 60, 61

Seborrheic dermatitis, 164, 168

Serum hormone-binding globulin, 196

Sexual assault and harassment (military), 42, 47, 228, 232-233, 234

Sexual dysfunction

combat exposure and, 198

conclusions, 8, 185, 199, 257

nerve-agent exposure and, 199

primary studies, 203

secondary studies, 181, 182

updated and supplemental literature, 198-199

Volume 4 summary, 198

Skin diseases.

See also specific disorders

cancer, 73, 76, 77, 78, 166

conclusions, 8, 167, 257

disabled veterans, 164, 165, 168

female veterans, 229, 230

hospitalizations, 166-167

neurobehavioral performance, 118, 120

pesticide/insecticide exposure and, 56, 164

prevalence, 46, 57

primary studies, 164, 165, 167, 168

secondary studies, 164, 165-167

smoke from burning waste or manure and, 56

solvent exposure and, 164

updated and supplemental literature, 165-167

vaccines and, 51

Volume 4 summary, 3, 19, 164-165

Sleep disturbance/disorder, 1, 10, 62, 99, 103, 106, 118, 120, 175, 210, 230

Small-fiber polyneuropathy, 124

Social phobia, 99

Solvents, exposures to, 1, 11, 12, 14-15, 17, 25, 49, 133, 164, 206

Somatization disorder, 99, 106-107, 109, 154, 160

Somatoform disorders, 99, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, 113, 207

Smoke from burning waste or manure, 56.

See also Oil-well fire smoke exposure

Spondyloarthropathy, 171

Standardized mortality ratio (SMR), 31, 128

Standardized mortality studies, 31

Stress. SeePosttraumatic stress disorder

Stroke, 135, 138

Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID), 33, 50, 58, 59, 101, 102, 110, 111

Substance abuse, 8, 19, 100, 108, 109.

See also Alcohol abuse

Substance use disorders, 99, 100, 102, 106

Sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis dysfunction, 205

T

Tachycardia, 139, 206

Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), 119

Testicular cancer, 2, 4, 15, 19, 73, 74, 76, 78, 79-80, 81, 208

Testosterone, 196

Thyroid disease

conclusions, 95, 257

depleted uranium and, 92

primary studies, 91-92, 96

secondary studies, 92

updated and supplemental literature, 91-92

Thyroxine-stimulating hormone, 93

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), 1, 12, 26, 31, 121

U

Ulcerative colitis, 155

United Kingdom Veterans Studies

chronic fatigue syndrome, 213-214

derivative studies, 42-43, 52-53, 54

diseases of the digestive system, 158-159

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 43, 53-54, 90

mental and behavioral disorders, 105, 113

multisymptom illnesses, 206, 209-210, 215, 217

reference studies, 51, 53-54

University of London, 42-43, 51-53, 93, 119, 123, 132

University of Manchester, 43, 53

Urinary tract infections, 180, 181

Urolithiasis, 180, 181

US Agricultural Health Study, 270, 278

US National Comorbidity Survey Replication, 100

Utilization of health services, 42, 45, 50, 229.

See also Hospitalizations

V

Vaccines/vaccination

cancer,77

chronic multisymptom illness, 44

limitations of studies, 32

multisymptom illnesses, 44, 52, 57, 58

musculoskeletal diseases, 51, 60

neurological diseases, 55, 121, 123-124, 125, 133

skin diseases, 51

Verruca vulgaris, 19, 164, 165, 167, 168

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2010. Gulf War and Health: Volume 8: Update of Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12835.
×

Veterans Programs Enhancement Act, 1, 11

Visceral hypersensitivity, 154, 159, 160

Volume 4, Gulf War and Health

assessment of studies cited in, 3, 12, 16, 255

charge to committee, 12, 15

conclusions, 18-20, 255-256

recommendations, 20

summary of findings and recommendations, 19-20, 255-256

W

Warts, 19, 164, 165, 167, 168

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), 115, 116-117, 119

Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), 119

Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), 119

Women.

See also Female veteran health;

Pregnancy outcomes

troops deployed to Persian Gulf, 13, 228

World Health Organization (WHO), 105

Wound healing, retarded, 165

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2010. Gulf War and Health: Volume 8: Update of Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12835.
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For the United States, the 1991 Persian Gulf War was a brief and successful military operation with few injuries and deaths. However, soon after returning from duty, a large number of veterans began reporting health problems they believed were associated with their service in the Gulf. At the request of Congress, the IOM is conducting an ongoing review of the evidence to determine veterans' long-term health problems and what might be causing those problems. The fourth volume in the series, released in 2006, summarizes the long-term health problems seen in Gulf War veterans. In 2008, the IOM began an update to look at existing health problems and identify possible new ones, considering evidence collected since the initial summary.

In this report, the IOM determines that Gulf War service causes post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and that service is associated with multisymptom illness; gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome; alcohol and other substance abuse; and anxiety disorders and other psychiatric disorders. To ensure that our veterans receive the best possible care, now and in the future, the government should continue to monitor their health and conduct research to identify the best treatments to assist Gulf War veterans still suffering from persistent, unexplained illnesses.

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