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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12979.
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CRITICAL CODE

SOFTWARE PRODUCIBILITY FOR DEFENSE

Committee for Advancing Software-Intensive Systems Producibility

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12979.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
500 Fifth Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.


Support for this project was provided by the Office of the Secretary of Defense, Department of Defense, with assistance from the National Science Foundation under sponsor award number CNS-0541636 and by the Office of Naval Research under sponsor award number N00014-04-1-0736. Any opinions expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agencies and organizations that provided support for the project.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12979.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine


The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.


The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.


The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.


The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.


www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12979.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12979.
×

COMMITTEE FOR ADVANCING SOFTWARE-INTENSIVE SYSTEMS PRODUCIBILITY

WILLIAM L. SCHERLIS,

Carnegie Mellon University,

Chair

ROBERT F. BEHLER,

The MITRE Corporation

BARRY W. BOEHM,

University of Southern California

LORI A. CLARKE,

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

MICHAEL A. CUSUMANO,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MARY ANN DAVIDSON,

Oracle Corporation

LARRY DRUFFEL,

Software Engineering Institute

RUSSELL FREW,

Lockheed Martin

JAMES LARUS,

Microsoft Corporation

GREG MORRISETT,

Harvard University

WALKER ROYCE,

IBM

DOUGLAS C. SCHMIDT,

Carnegie Mellon University

JOHN P. STENBIT, Independent Consultant

KEVIN J. SULLIVAN,

University of Virginia

Staff

JON EISENBERG, Director,

CSTB

LYNETTE I. MILLETT, Senior Program Officer

JOAN D. WINSTON, Program Officer (until May 2008)

ENITA A. WILLIAMS, Associate Program Officer

ERIC WHITAKER, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12979.
×

COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD

ROBERT F. SPROULL,

Oracle Corporation,

Chair

PRITHVIRAJ BANERJEE,

Hewlett-Packard Company

STEVEN M. BELLOVIN,

Columbia University

SEYMOUR E. GOODMAN,

Georgia Institute of Technology

JOHN E. KELLY III,

IBM

JON M. KLEINBERG,

Cornell University

ROBERT KRAUT,

Carnegie Mellon University

SUSAN LANDAU,

Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study

DAVID E. LIDDLE,

US Venture Partners

WILLIAM H. PRESS,

University of Texas, Austin

PRABHAKAR RAGHAVAN,

Yahoo! Labs

DAVID E. SHAW,

D.E. Shaw Research

ALFRED Z. SPECTOR,

Google, Inc.

JOHN A. SWAINSON,

Silver Lake

PETER SZOLOVITS,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

PETER J. WEINBERGER,

Google, Inc.

ERNEST J. WILSON,

University of Southern California

Staff

JON EISENBERG, Director

VIRGINIA BACON TALATI, Associate Program Officer

SHENAE BRADLEY, Senior Program Assistant

RENEE HAWKINS, Financial and Administrative Manager

HERBERT S. LIN, Chief Scientist

EMILY ANN MEYER, Program Officer

LYNETTE I. MILLETT, Senior Program Officer

ERIC WHITAKER, Senior Program Assistant

ENITA A. WILLIAMS, Associate Program Officer

For more information on CSTB, see its Web site at http://www.cstb.org, write to CSTB, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001, call (202) 334-2605, or email the CSTB at cstb@nas.edu.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12979.
×

Preface

The Committee for Advancing Software-Intensive Systems Producibility was appointed by the National Research Council (NRC) and convened under the auspices of the NRC’s Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) to assess the nature of the national investment in software research and, in particular, to consider ways to revitalize the knowledge base needed to design, produce, and employ software-intensive systems for tomorrow’s defense needs. The statement of task is provided in Box P.1.

This report contemplates Department of Defense (DoD) needs and priorities for software research and suggests a research agenda and related actions. This is the final report of the committee, and it builds on two prior reports—Summary of a Workshop on Software Intensive Systems and Uncertainty at Scale1 and Preliminary Observations on DoD Software Research Needs and Priorities.2 This report draws on the briefings listed in Appendix A.

The committee considered four sets of questions:

  • To what extent is software capability significant for the DoD? Is it becoming more or less significant and strategic in systems development?

  • Will the advances in software producibility needed by the DoD emerge unaided from industry at a pace sufficient to meet evolving defense requirements?

  • What are the opportunities for the DoD to make more effective use of emerging technology to improve software capability and software producibility?

  • In which technology areas should the DoD invest in research to advance defense software capability and producibility?

Chapter 1 of this report addresses the first two of these questions. It discusses the essential and evolving role of software in defense systems and the distinctive and unusual characteristics of the software

1

National Research Council (NRC), 2007, Summary of a Workshop on Software Intensive Systems and Uncertainty at Scale, Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Available online at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11936. Last accessed August 10, 2010.

2

NRC, 2008, Preliminary Observations on DoD Software Research Needs and Priorities: A Letter Report, Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Available online at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12172. Last accessed August 10, 2010

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12979.
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BOX P.1

Statement of Task

This study will bring together academic and industry software systems researchers, software and software tool vendors (suppliers), and systems integrators who comprise the community of skills required for future successes in complex software-intensive systems required by the Department of Defense (DoD). They will:

  1. Assess the emerging situation with respect to the national investment in relevant software research, the present state of and future requirements for tools for software production, testing and maintenance, and the adequacy of human resources;

  2. Examine the needs, relationships, and interdependencies expected of future DoD software research, development and maintenance needs, and consider what advances are needed for continuous improvements in the design, production, and evolution of DoD software-intensive systems;

  3. Make recommendations to responsible agency, executive branch, and legislative officials, and to the software technical community, about how to improve the present state of affairs and achieve future goals.

used in such systems. The chapter also contemplates the extent to which the DoD can rely on industry to innovate at a rate fast enough to allow it to fully meet future defense software requirements.

Chapters 2, 3, and 4 of this report focus on three principal clusters of challenges to software producibility wherein the DoD has particularly unusual needs or “leading demand.” These chapters address the third question presented in the statement of task and describe process management for innovative software systems development (Chapter 2), architectural leadership for large-scale software-intensive systems (Chapter 3), and the need to take a strategic approach to assurance (Chapter 4). These chapters, taken together, address the core features of what we mean by software producibility—the capacity to design, produce, assure, and evolve software-intensive systems in a predictable manner while effectively managing risk, cost, schedule, quality, and complexity.

Chapter 5 discusses the value of research in enhancing software producibility for the DoD. It addresses the role of academic research, the synergy between industry and academic research, and the impact of past investments. It then tackles the fourth question and offers a seven-part agenda for advancing DoD software capability: architecture, assurance, process and economic models, requirements, language and tools, cyber-physical systems, and human-systems interaction.

The committee thanks all those who participated in its workshops and contributed to its deliberations (Appendix A). The committee would also like to thank the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board staff, including Enita Williams, Jon Eisenberg, Lynette Millett, Joan Winston, and Eric Whitaker, who have ably managed the project and coordinated the team effort through three separate reports. Enita Williams and Jon Eisenberg deserve special thanks and appreciation for their heroic effort in the preparation and editing of this final report, which would not have been possible without their highly capable support and collaboration.


William L. Scherlis, Chair

Committee for Advancing Software-Intensive Systems Producibility

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12979.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Rick Buskens, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories

Grady Campbell, Software Engineering Institute

William Campbell, BAE Systems

John Gilligan, Gilligan Group

William Griswold, University of California, San Diego

Anita Jones, University of Virginia

Annette Krygiel, Independent Consultant

Steve Lipner, Microsoft, Inc.

David Notkin, University of Washington

Frank Perry, SAIC

Alfred Z. Spector, Google, Inc.

Daniel C. Sturman, Google, Inc.

John Swainson, CA, Inc.

Mark N. Wegman, IBM

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William H. Press, University of Texas at Austin. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12979.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12979.
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Contents

 

 

SUMMARY

 

1

1

 

RECOGNIZE THE PIVOTAL ROLE OF DOD SOFTWARE INNOVATION

 

17

   

 The Role of Software in Defense,

 

17

   

 Precedent and Innovation in Software,

 

22

   

 The Role of the DoD in Addressing Its Software Needs,

 

35

   

 The Necessity of Innovation in Software,

 

39

2

 

ACCEPT UNCERTAINTY: ATTACK RISKS AND EXPLOIT OPPORTUNITIES

 

45

   

 Innovation, Precedent, and Dynamism,

 

45

   

 Managing Risk at Scale,

 

47

   

 Managing Requirements and Architecture,

 

55

   

 Estimations, Contracting, and Iterative Development,

 

57

   

 Realizing DoD Software Benefits via DoD Instruction 5000.02 and Evolutionary Acquisition,

 

60

   

 Intrinsic DoD Software Expertise—Being a Smart Customer,

 

61

3

 

ASSERT DOD ARCHITECTURAL LEADERSHIP FOR INNOVATIVE SYSTEMS

 

68

   

 Software Architecture and Its Critical Role in Producibility,

 

68

   

 Software Architecture in Industry,

 

72

   

 Architectural Problems as a Source of Software Problems,

 

73

   

 The DoD Experience with Architecture-Based Development,

 

74

   

 Supporting Technology and Research Needs,

 

78

   

 Strengthening DoD Capabilities with Respect to Architecture,

 

81

4

 

ADOPT A STRATEGIC APPROACH TO SOFTWARE ASSURANCE

 

86

   

 Software Assurance and Evidence,

 

86

   

 Software Assurance Fundamentals,

 

98

   

 Challenges for Defense and Similar Complex Systems,

 

102

   

 Two Scenarios for Software Assurance,

 

105

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12979.
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Critical Code contemplates Department of Defense (DoD) needs and priorities for software research and suggests a research agenda and related actions. Building on two prior books--Summary of a Workshop on Software Intensive Systems and Uncertainty at Scale and Preliminary Observations on DoD Software Research Needs and Priorities--the present volume assesses the nature of the national investment in software research and, in particular, considers ways to revitalize the knowledge base needed to design, produce, and employ software-intensive systems for tomorrow's defense needs.

Critical Code discusses four sets of questions:

  • To what extent is software capability significant for the DoD? Is it becoming more or less significant and strategic in systems development?
  • Will the advances in software producibility needed by the DoD emerge unaided from industry at a pace sufficient to meet evolving defense requirements?
  • What are the opportunities for the DoD to make more effective use of emerging technology to improve software capability and software producibility?
  • In which technology areas should the DoD invest in research to advance defense software capability and producibility?
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