Robert M. White (NAE), chair, is University Professor Emeritus of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and consulting professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Stanford University. From 1993 to 1999, he was head of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and from 1999 to 2004 director of the Data Storage Systems Center at CMU. For his leadership as Under Secretary of Commerce for Technology under the first President Bush, he received the Public Service Award from IEEE. Prior to his government service, Dr. White spent six years at Control Data Corporation (CDC), where, as a member of the management board, he established and managed CDC’s participation in the research consortium, Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation. In his early career, he was an assistant professor of physics at Stanford University and principal scientist at Xerox Corporation’s Palo Alto Research Center for 13 years. The author of four books and many technical articles, Dr. White received his B.S. from MIT and his Ph.D. from Stanford (both in physics). Dr. White’s most recent involvement at the National Academies was as chair of the Oversight Board for Capitalizing on Science, Technology, and Innovation: An Assessment of the Small Business Innovation Research Program.
Todd R. Allen, president and founder of Allen Research, Technologies and Services, Inc. (ARTS, Inc.), has worked in the health care industry with Johnson & Johnson (New Jersey) since 1994 as global manager of engineering, consumer products research, and development operations. Since 2003, he has established models and managed programs for assessing talents and leadership for scientists and engineers at the Ph.D., M.S., and B.S. levels and candidates for the international M.B.A. With more than 25 years of professional engineering practice in the petro-chemical, nonwoven materials, and personal products industries and markets, he has also served on many committees in government, academia, and professional organizations, such as the National Science Foundation, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Association of Engineering Societies, American Association of Community Colleges, American Society for Engineering Education, and the National Urban League. A volunteer chef for the Philadelphia Helping Hand Rescue Mission and a licensed Christian minister, he champions diversity and inclusion as a strategy for national economic growth, national competitive advantage, and local community development. Mr. Allen received a B.S. in engineering from Georgia Tech, an M.S. in engineering from Tulane University, and an M.S. in engineering management from Syracuse University.
Christine Cunningham, vice president at the Museum of Science, Boston, and founder and director of the Engineering is Elementary (EiE) project, oversees the development of curricular materials, teacher professional development, and research and evaluation related to learning and teaching K-16 engineering and science. Her focus is on making engineering and science relevant, understandable, and accessible to everyone, especially marginalized populations, such as women, underrepresented minorities, and people with disabilities. The EiE project (EiE, www.mos.org/eie), founded in 2003, is creating a research-based, standards-based, classroom-tested curriculum that integrates engineering and technology concepts and skills with elementary science topics. As EiE director, Dr. Cunningham is responsible for setting the vision and strategy and securing funding (to date more than $22 million in grants) to support her projects and research. She earned a joint B.A. and M.A. in biology from Yale University and a Ph.D. in science education from Cornell University.
Heidi A. Diefes-Dux, an associate professor in the School of Engineering Education at Purdue University, received her B.S. and M.S. in food science from Cornell University and her Ph.D. in agricultural and biological engineering from Purdue University. As director of teacher professional development for the Institute for P-12 Engineering Research and Learning (INSPIRE), she has developed week-long summer academies and shorter programs for elementary school teachers interested in integrating engineering concepts into their instructional materials. Since 2006, more than 350 teachers in 17 states have attended the academies. Dr. Diefes-Dux is also principal investigator of “R&D: Quality Cyber-Enabled, Engineering Education Professional Development to Support Teacher Change and Student Achievement,” a Discovery Research K–12 Project funded by the National Science Foundation. The purpose of the project is to develop a learning progression for elementary school teachers to improve their capability of adopting and refining engineering learning materials in the classroom. Dr. Diefes-Dix also conducts research on developing, implementing, and assessing authentic mathematical modeling problems for K–16 settings. She is a coauthor of Models and Modeling in Engineering Education: Designing Experiences for All Students (Sense Publishers, 2008).
Mario Godoy-Gonzales is the English as a Second Language/bilingual teacher of science, biology/biotechnology, mathematics, reading, writing, and world history at Royal High School in Royal City, Washington. After emigrating from Chile in 1994, he began his career teaching the children of migrant workers. In 1996, he participated in a summer professional development workshop at the Science Education Partnership at the Fred Hutchison Cancer Research Center, where he was introduced to the emerging field of biotechnology, which became the jumping-off point for his science classes. Later, a summer research fellowship from the M.J. Murdock Trust enabled him to conduct his own research at Central Washington University. Mario has received numerous awards, such as the Golden Apple for Excellence in Education in Washington State, Washington State Migrant Education Teacher of the Year, NEA/NFIE Donna Rhodes Award for Innovation in Education through the Use of Technology in the Classroom, National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Gustav Ohaus Award for Innovation in Science Teaching, MIT Network of Educators in Science and Technology Outstanding Teacher of the Year, and Amgen Award for Science Teaching Excellence. He has given numerous presentations (e.g., to the Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science [SACNAS] and NSTA) describing his experiences and has received many grants (e.g., the NSTA Toyota TAPESTRY grant and the NEA Innovation grant). Mario is also deeply involved with his community (coaching
sports and leading the Cub Scouts) and is on the Washington State Hispanic Think Tank, Latino/Latina Educational Achievement Project, and Teacher Advisory Council for the National Academy of Sciences, the SACNAS Pre-College Board, and the Washington State Student Biotech Expo. He has a B.A. from la Universidád de Chile and an M.A. in curriculum from la Universidád de Antofagasta, Chile.
Pam B. Newberry, director of strategic curriculum initiatives for Project Lead The Way (PLTW), coordinates and ensures the quality of new curricula and is the curriculum instructional designer for the PLTW Virtual Academy (an online resource for educators). From 2002 to 2004, she was PLTW associate director of curriculum, and from 2004 to 2007, she was director of curriculum. Prior to that, she was associate director of the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) Technology for All Americans Project, where she was involved in the development of the ITEA Standards for Technological Literacy. As a classroom teacher, Pam received the 1993 Presidential Award for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching, was named 1994 Teacher of the Year for Mathematics for Virginia, and was designated a National Teacher Training Institute Master Teacher by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and Texaco. In 1996, as an Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellow, she spent eight months working in the Education Division at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration headquarters in Washington, D.C. She was also the recipient of the 2000–2001 Phi Delta Kappa Outstanding Educator Award. Ms. Newberry has a B. S. in industrial arts education (1975) and an M.A., an integrated degree in curriculum and instruction in technology/science/mathematics (1997), from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Linda P. Rosen is CEO of Change the Equation, an initiative of corporate leaders who are connecting and aligning their efforts to transform science, technology, engineering, and mathematics K–12 learning in the United States. Previously, she was president of Education and Management Innovations, a consulting company focused on K–12 STEM education policy and teacher preparation professional development. She has also served as senior vice president for the National Alliance of Business; a senior adviser at the U.S. Department of Education; executive director of the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century (also known as the Glenn Commission); executive director of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), where she launched the 2000 revision of the NCTM mathematics standards; and associate executive director of the Mathematical Sciences Education Board at the National Research Council. Dr. Rosen has taught mathematics and mathematics education courses for high school, college, and graduate students.
James Rutherford is retired education advisor to the Executive Officer of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), where he was responsible for Science Resources for Schools, Challenge of the Unknown, the National Forum for School Science, Science Seminars for Teachers, and other national initiatives, as well as publications, including Science Education News, the annual science Education Directory, the annual This Year in School Science, and Science Education in Global Perspective. He initiated and directed Project 2061, a long-term, comprehensive effort to bring about nationwide reforms in science, mathematics, and technology education. Landmark publications from Project 2061 include Science for All Americans, Benchmarks for Science Literacy, Blueprints for Reform, Resources for Science Literacy, Designs for Science Literacy, and Atlas of Science Literacy. Prior to joining AAAS, in 1977 Dr.
Rutherford was appointed by President Carter to be assistant director of the National Science Foundation, where he was responsible for all science, mathematics, and engineering education programs and federal programs to improve the public understanding of science. When the new U.S. Department of Education was launched, Dr. Rutherford was appointed the first Assistant Secretary for Research and Improvement, where he oversaw the National Institute of Education, National Center for Educational Statistics, Fund for the Improvement of Post-Secondary Education, and federal programs supporting libraries and the development of educational technologies. Earlier in his career, Dr. Rutherford was a professor of science education at Harvard University and New York University, and earlier still, he was a high school science teacher in California. During his academic career, he directed several major projects, including Harvard Project Physics, Project City Science, and the Carnegie Science–Humanities Education Project. Dr. Rutherford was educated in the California public schools and earned degrees from the University of California, Berkeley, Stanford University, and Harvard University.
Christian D. Schunn is an associate professor of psychology and a research scientist at the Learning Research and Development Center at the University of Pittsburgh. His basic research involves studying experts and novices in complex domains like science, engineering, submarining, and weather forecasting to develop theoretical and computational models of the cognition underlying their performance and the difficulties in developing expert-like performance. He then conducts applied research to develop and evaluate tools and curricula informed by the results. Recently, his basic research has involved interdisciplinary collaboration with mechanical and industrial engineers on the nature of cognition underlying innovative engineering design processes, for example, the interaction between the physical design environment and analogical reasoning in highly innovative design groups. At the applied level, he has developed design-based learning curricula for middle and high school science classrooms that have been found to be more successful than existing hands-on and textbook science curricula at teaching basic science concepts and scientific reasoning skills and in stimulating interest in careers in engineering, science, and technology. Dr. Schunn received his Ph.D. from Carnegie Mellon University in 1995.
Susan Sclafani, director of State Services for the National Center on Education and the Economy (NCEE), works with a coalition of states committed to following the recommendations in Tough Choices or Tough Times (NCEE, 2007), beginning with the implementation of the Board Examinations System in high schools. From 2005 through 2008, as managing director of Chart-well Education Group, LLC, Dr. Sclafani worked with governmental and nonprofit organizations on education projects in the United States, India, the Middle East, and China. She also led international benchmarking visits for states and school districts to learn from the best practices of high-performing nations. As Assistant Secretary of Education for Vocational and Adult Education and Counselor to the Secretary of Education from 2001 to 2005, Dr. Sclafani was the U.S. representative to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. While at the Department of Education, she created the Mathematics and Science Initiative, the High School Redesign Initiative, and the E-Language Learning Project with the Chinese Ministry of Education. Prior to serving in government, Dr. Sclafani held a variety of leadership positions, including chief of staff for Education Services for the Houston Independent School District. From 1975 to 1983, she helped start, and then led, the High School for Engineering Professions, a magnet school in Houston.
James (“Jim”) C. Spohrer, director of IBM University Programs (IBM UP) since 2009, founded IBM's first Service Research Group in 2003 at the Almaden Research Center with a focus on STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) for Service Sector Innovations. Under his leadership, this group earned ten times its investment and received four IBM Outstanding and 11 Accomplishment Awards in seven years. Working with service research pioneers from many academic disciplines, Jim advocates for Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Design, an integrative extended-STEM framework for the development of global competency, economic growth, and the advancement of science. In 2000, he became the founding chief technical officer of IBM’s first Venture Capital Relations Group in Silicon Valley. In the mid-1990s, he led Apple Computer’s Learning Technologies Group, where he was named Distinguished Engineer Scientist and Technologist. Dr. Spohrer earned a Ph.D. in computer science/artificial intelligence from Yale University and a B.S. in physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Elizabeth K. Stage is director of Lawrence Hall of Science, the public science center at University of California, Berkeley. Previously, she was director of the Mathematics Professional Development Institutes under the Office of the President of the University of California. Dr. Stage has worked to increase opportunities for all students to learn mathematics and science. Her national service includes director of critique and consensus at the National Research Council (NRC) National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment. She is an elected fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a former member and chair of the California Curriculum Commission. She is also a member of the Science Standing Committee for the National Assessment of Educational Progress. In 1996, Dr. Stage was awarded the Smith College Medal. She has an Ed.D. in science education and an M.Ed., both from Harvard University, and an A.B. in chemistry from Smith College. She has been a member of the NRC Committee on the Review on Understanding the Influence of Standards in K–12 Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education (1998 to 2001) and the Committee on the Review and Evaluation of NASA's Pre-College Education Program (2006 to 2008).
Roberta Tanner teaches physics and other mathematics and science classes at Loveland High School in Loveland, Colorado, and has taught in the Thompson School District for 18 years. With help from a local engineer, she developed, and now teaches, a project-oriented course on microchips and electrical engineering for high school students. She also started the Advanced Placement physics program in her district. Ms. Tanner was teacher-in-residence with the Physics Education Research Group at the University of Colorado in 2006–2007 and received the Intel International Excellence in Teaching Award in 2004. She is currently a member of the National Academies Teacher Advisory Council. Ms. Tanner completed her undergraduate work in physics and mechanical engineering at Kalamazoo College and Michigan State University and earned her teaching certificate and a master’s degree in education at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Before becoming a teacher, she worked as a mechanical engineer in product development at IBM.