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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13028.
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Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private–Public Collaboration

Committee on Private–Public Sector Collaboration to Enhance Community Disaster Resilience

Geographical Sciences Committee

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13028.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
500 Fifth Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security under Award No. HSHQDC-08-C-00176. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations contained in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agencies that provided support for the project. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not constitute their endorsement by the sponsoring agencies.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-16263-0

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-16263-7

Cover: Cover design by Francesca Moghari

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13028.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine


The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.


The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.


The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.


The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.


www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13028.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13028.
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COMMITTEE ON PRIVATE–PUBLIC SECTOR COLLABORATION TO ENHANCE COMMUNITY DISASTER RESILIENCE

WILLIAM H. HOOKE, Chair,

American Meteorological Society, Washington, DC

ARRIETTA CHAKOS,

Urban Resilience Policy, Berkeley, California

ANN-MARGARET ESNARD,

Florida Atlantic University, Fort Lauderdale

JOHN R. HARRALD,

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Alexandria

LYNNE KIDDER,

Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance, Washington, DC

MICHAEL T. LESNICK,

Meridian Institute, Washington, DC

INÉS PEARCE,

Pearce Global Partners, Inc., Los Angeles, California

RANDOLPH H. ROWEL,

Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland

KATHLEEN J. TIERNEY,

University of Colorado, Boulder

BRENT H. WOODWORTH,

Los Angeles Emergency Preparedness Foundation, California

National Research Council Staff

SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Study Director (from July 2009)

CAETLIN M. OFIESH, Study Director (until July 2009)

COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate

JASON R. ORTEGO, Research Associate (from November 2009)

NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Research Associate (until November 2009)

TONYA E. FONG YEE, Senior Program Assistant (until September 2010)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13028.
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GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES COMMITTEE

WILLIAM L. GRAF, Chair,

University of South Carolina, Columbia

WILLIAM E. EASTERLING III,

Pennsylvania State University, University Park

CAROL P. HARDEN,

University of Tennessee, Knoxville

JOHN A. KELMELIS,

Pennsylvania State University, University Park

AMY L. LUERS,

Google, Inc., Mountain View, California

GLEN M. MACDONALD,

University of California at Los Angeles

PATRICIA MCDOWELL,

University of Oregon, Eugene

SUSANNE C. MOSER,

Susanne Moser Research & Consulting, Santa Cruz, California

THOMAS M. PARRIS,

ISciences, LLC, Burlington, Vermont

DAVID R. RAIN,

George Washington University, Washington, DC

KAREN C. SETO,

Yale University, New Haven

National Research Council Staff

MARK D. LANGE, Associate Program Officer

JASON R. ORTEGO, Research Associate

CHANDA IJAMES, Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13028.
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BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES

CORALE L. BRIERLEY, Chair,

Brierley Consultancy, LLC, Highlands Ranch, Colorado

KEITH C. CLARKE,

University of California, Santa Barbara

DAVID J. COWEN,

University of South Carolina, Columbia

WILLIAM E. DIETRICH,

University of California, Berkeley

ROGER M. DOWNS,

Pennsylvania State University, University Park

JEFF DOZIER,

University of California, Santa Barbara

KATHERINE H. FREEMAN,

Pennsylvania State University, University Park

WILLIAM L. GRAF,

University of South Carolina, Columbia

RUSSELL J. HEMLEY,

Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC

MURRAY W. HITZMAN,

Colorado School of Mines, Golden

EDWARD KAVAZANJIAN, JR.,

Arizona State University, Tempe

LOUISE H. KELLOGG,

University of California, Davis

ROBERT B. MCMASTER,

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

CLAUDIA INÉS MORA,

Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico

BRIJ M. MOUDGIL,

University of Florida, Gainesville

CLAYTON R. NICHOLS,

Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (Retired), Ocean Park, Washington

JOAQUIN RUIZ,

University of Arizona, Tucson

PETER M. SHEARER,

University of California, San Diego

REGINAL SPILLER,

Frontera Resources Corporation (Retired), Houston, Texas

RUSSELL E. STANDS-OVER-BULL,

Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, Denver, Colorado

TERRY C. WALLACE, JR.,

Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico

HERMAN B. ZIMMERMAN,

National Science Foundation (Retired), Portland, Oregon

National Research Council Staff

ANTHONY R. DE SOUZA, Director

ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Senior Program Officer

DAVID A. FEARY, Senior Program Officer

ANNE M. LINN, Senior Program Officer

SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Program Officer

MARK D. LANGE, Associate Program Officer

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13028.
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LEA A. SHANLEY, Postdoctoral Fellow

JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Financial and Administrative Associate

NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate

COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate

JASON R. ORTEGO, Research Associate

ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant

CHANDA IJAMES, Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13028.
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This report is dedicated to the memory of Frank Reddish, a long-time leader in natural disaster and recovery. Through years of committed and focused effort, Mr. Reddish made Miami-Dade County and the state of Florida a safer and more resilient place to live. His work drew attention and had impact both locally and nationwide. He contributed powerfully to this committee’s information-gathering workshop, held September 9–10, 2009, and his work will continue to have a positive impact for years to come.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13028.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13028.
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Preface

Recent national and international experience with natural and human-caused disasters highlights several realities. First, the planet on which we live—the planet on which we aspire to forge careers, establish marriages and families, grow economies, and seek peace and security—provides frequent and often unpredictable extreme events. Severe heat waves, cold snaps, and cycles of flood and drought determine what we call climate. Movement in the Earth’s crust is manifested by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Environmental degradation, habitat loss, and reduction in biodiversity can occur incrementally but also through sudden devastation, such as through wildfire or an oil spill.

Second, extremes often trigger disruptions of communities that persist after the event that exceed a community’s ability to recover on its own. These disasters are as much the result of human decisions as of nature. Land use, building codes, the engineering of critical infrastructure, distribution of wealth and poverty, and many other social decisions and actions shape the impacts of extremes and subsequent recovery.

Third, resilience to disasters is built at the community level. No community is immune to disasters, and no community is an island unto itself. The emerging role of critical infrastructure, just-in-time manufacturing, and the globalization of the economy means that all individuals and communities are interdependent.

Fourth, responsibility for building community resilience cannot rest with the public sector alone. In the United States, the public sector represents just ten percent of the workforce. The other ninety percent resides in the private sector—ranging from small, individually owned businesses to national and global enterprises—and in a range of nongovernmental bodies and faith-based organizations. Operation and maintenance of many community assets, including critical infrastructure, remain in private hands. All sectors must collaborate to build community-level disaster resilience.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13028.
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This report addresses these realities. It surveys what we know about effective private–public collaboration and how it may enhance community disaster resilience. It delineates areas where resilience-focused collaboration could benefit with more knowledge, and it lays out a comprehensive research agenda. However, the members of this committee note that in the face of rapid social change and technological advancement, our understanding of resilience–focused private-public sector collaboration is nascent. This report should be considered an initial exploration of a developing subject—not the final, definitive word.


William Hooke, Chair

August 2010

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13028.
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Acknowledgments

In response to a request by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the National Research Council formed an ad hoc committee to assess the current state of the art in private–public sector collaboration dedicated to strengthening community disaster resilience, to identify gaps in knowledge and practice, and to recommend research areas that could be targeted for research investment by the Human Factors Division of the Department of Homeland Security. The committee’s charge included organizing a two-day workshop to explore relevant issues and inform the study committee’s final recommendations. The workshop was held September 9-10, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia, and engaged a group of approximately 60 participants representing, from different regions of the country, individuals from the private and public sectors and from the research community. The committee thanks those individuals for their contributions.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purposes of this review are to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their participation in the review of this report:

Ann Patton, Ann Patton Company, LLC, Tulsa, Oklahoma

Carl Maida, University of California at Los Angeles

Daniel Fagbuyi, The George Washington University, Washington, DC

Peter C. Hitt, U.S. Trust Bank of America Private Wealth Management, Baltimore, Maryland

Robert Kates, Independent Scholar, Trenton, Maine

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Building Community Disaster Resilience Through Private-Public Collaboration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13028.
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Ron Carlee, International City/County Management Association, Washington, DC Claudia Albano, City of Oakland, California

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse, nor did they see, the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Ellis Stanley, Dewberry, LLC. Appointed by the Division on Earth and Life Studies, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Research Council.

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Natural disasters--including hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods--caused more than 220,000 deaths worldwide in the first half of 2010 and wreaked havoc on homes, buildings, and the environment. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential that citizens and communities work together to anticipate threats, limit their effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis.

Increasing evidence indicates that collaboration between the private and public sectors could improve the ability of a community to prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Several previous National Research Council reports have identified specific examples of the private and public sectors working cooperatively to reduce the effects of a disaster by implementing building codes, retrofitting buildings, improving community education, or issuing extreme-weather warnings. State and federal governments have acknowledged the importance of collaboration between private and public organizations to develop planning for disaster preparedness and response. Despite growing ad hoc experience across the country, there is currently no comprehensive framework to guide private-public collaboration focused on disaster preparedness, response, and recovery.

Building Community Disaster Resilience through Private-Public Collaboration assesses the current state of private-public sector collaboration dedicated to strengthening community resilience, identifies gaps in knowledge and practice, and recommends research that could be targeted for investment. Specifically, the book finds that local-level private-public collaboration is essential to the development of community resilience. Sustainable and effective resilience-focused private-public collaboration is dependent on several basic principles that increase communication among all sectors of the community, incorporate flexibility into collaborative networks, and encourage regular reassessment of collaborative missions, goals, and practices.

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