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GROU]VD-BASED ASTRONOMT A TE]V-TEAR PROGRATVT REPORT PREPARED BY THE PANEL ON ASTRONOMICAL FACILITIES A FOR THE COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE Al:lD PUBLIC POLIC'( OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES-NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (: w f) lAAÂ¿ ^c.urNtlTÂ¡)N Copyright Â© National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Endsheet: A portiarÃ¹ of th.e Netu)otk NebulÃ¸ irL Cggnus, photogaphad, toÃth the 4\-inah Schmtd,t telescope ol the Mount Wllsotu and PÃ¸lÃ¾Ã±.Ã¸l ObseÂ¡oÃ¸toÂ¡Ães. The bop struc-ture i.s conposeil of the debrÃ¬s of a supernoÃ¾Ã¸ erplos.Â¡oÃÃ¹ nanv thousands ol geÃ¸rs Ã¸go. Rad.ia tel.escopes d,etea., the strongest rad,ÃatÃon ftumthe cenfer of the looÃ¾. prÃntÃng 1966, aÃ¬th Second, reoÃ¬sed, Appendk. LÃbÃ¸rg of Congess catatog nttmbet 64-62266 et 7234 P ublication N urnb Pri,ce: $4.O0 Copyright Â© National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
w FI ffi li 1:i I August 19, 7964 Dear Dr. SeÃtz: The Comrnittee on Science anil, Public PoliatÂ¿, on the basis of careful stuilg of thi.s report and, extensioe d,iscussion lDith its authors, is plnased to endorse Ãt to you for transmiflal. The report deals uith grounil-baseil astronomical facÃ¥IitÃes ercl:usioelg. It recommend,s Ã´ertain neÃ» facilities, to be acquired at a. rate based, on an in- temnl criterion--a consewatÃ»)e esti'nnte of the rate at tohich astuonomical progtess can be made. We bekeae thnt this k the rÃ¬ght aytproach to be adopted by panels of experts y:repÃ¸ring 'plnnningi reports, i.e., reports on the oppor- tunities a.nd, needs of aaÃºous f,el.ds of science. DetermhlatÂ¿on of the optixrutm balance of the scÃ¡ences as u.tell as the oaer-all ro,te of scienti.frc progress needed for achÃ³etsing twtional goals requires mÃ¸nq authoritatiÃe inputs of informati.on Ã¯el.e.ti,ng to the aari,ous sciencÃ¸s, and the iudgment of people concet ned lÃ¸ith rwti.ornl policies. We are corwinceÂ¿J that the present rcport Ã´onstitutes a oetA sound input for such d,etermirntion. The report presents an excellently balnnced, program for nea facÃ´lÃties of ground.-bÃ¸sed. astronomV i.n the neÃº decad.e, uell justif,ed, by the i,mportant scientÃ¬frc opportunities brÃ¬eflg d,iscussed, in the report. The care uith ushich radio and, optica,l progra.ms haoe been interuoÃ¹en anil the sel.ection of facikti.es at oarÃ¬,ous leÂ¡sels to sttit the eqJected, spectrum of research and, teachÃ¶ng actiDitÃ¬es are especially noteaot'thV. A good deal of care appears also to haoe gone into the consideratÃon of lhe indÃuidual items of the progtam. Wi,th rcgard, to rud,ioaÃtronomÃ¬,cal facilities, the Commirtea on Science and Pubkc Policy Ã,s aware that Ãn the past some x.Ã¹stantiallg loÃº cost estimates haoe been made, eoen bg Ã¸xpÃ¸rt oÃbonomical engineers. The situation has improoed Â¿n Ãecent gears, houeoer, aniL seoeral maior facÃlities (q 300-foot dish telescope, neu; \S-foot dtÃshes, and, some millimeter uaoe telescopes) haoe been com.pleted' at costs vÃ¾Ãthin a feÃ¼ percentd.ge poi,nts ol the original estimates. A great deal of care uent into ihe cost estÃmates of the facilities proposed here, and ue haoe Copyright Â© National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
of thÃ¸se lacÃ¶lÃ¬fies Ã¸re quite to no grÃºnd.s qÃ¼estÃ.on the rcMltant figures. Some adoanned, honseoer, anil ue loin the authors of the rcport in rccommending that further d,etail,ed cost estimntes be unilertaken pÃÂ¿oÃ to d'ecÃsionÃ irusolaing such facilitips. The total scope ol the fanilifies program appears oery ieasornbl'e and ueII iustifieil bg tha promises of radin a.stronomy. WÃ¶th Ã®egard to optbal faciliti,es ae frnd that the recommendeil plan is ilefinÃ¬telg conseraatÃ»)e. ln fact, if u:e hnoe anE il,oubts at all, it Ã¬Ã that Ã¬t Ã®naA err on the side of conseraatism bg not proaÃ¬ding tufrciÃ¸nt opportunities for the grousÃ,ng rwmbÃ¸ of goung asttonomers at the gadlnte leael Ã¸nil, slightfu beEonÃ¥ to nnke uÃe of f.rst-cbss research facilifies. We are also not sure that the pro- poseil facilities and &tpporti,ng inÃtrumentetion, uhich clea g rcquite rÃ¸piÃ¬l ileoelopment, toould, be adequ.ate to peÃmit their efiectitse use by groups closelE relateil to aÃfionom7 anÂ¿l Aet not quite an integTal palt ol if' We mean, for instance, scÂ¿entists usho are concemeil wÃ¬th the denils of planetarg strachtre and compositÃon. The Panel thnt prepareÂ¿l thiÃ rÃ¸port uas requested to concern Ã¼self pri- marilE uÃ°th astronomÃ¬ral facilities. The report, houeoer, includ,es a bÃ¹'Ã¸f sectinn in ushich estÃ´mates of the annunl costs of scielntif,c actioities, uhÃch are additi'oe to the cos'ts of facilitÂ¿es and thÃ¸h mnintenonce, are prÃ¸sented. The Panefs stud'g of this subiect uas considerablg less d,etailÃ¸d than its studA of facikties rcquÃ¶re' ments, but ue belieoe tlnt the findings are quiie rcasonable and' aÃ¯e consistent u;ith the proposed plnn for facÃkties. The rcport rightlg emphasÃzes o.s'tronomy as a pure scÃence. lts sÃ¸eep granileur hnoe had. an inner fasctuntion for all peopln at all thnes and Ãs anil certain to haoe if in the-Ãuture. We utould be remiss if u.:e iliil not note 1DÃ¡th the Panel the mnior contri.bÃ¼tÃons of astronomA to other sciences-for emmpl'e, the d,iscoaerg of heltum and, the contri,butians to the problem of thermonucleat rcactÃons. Clearly the fed.eral agencg Ã»hose activities u:iLl be most dÃ´rectly affecteil by rcsearch Ã»ith the heÃ¾ of nea Ã¸stuonotnical facÂ¿lties is thÃ¸ National Aero' nautics and, Space Ad.ministration. The connection betuseen the swbiect matter of the NÃ¸tional Aercrwutics an'il Space Ad'mÃ¬nishatiois interest and the intetests of gÂ¡otq4d-based astronomy is cloqe, not onlg in the uell;recognized. problems of the sol sustern, but in the eEnllE exciting areas of interstellar partÃ¼:les and Copyright Â© National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
fielÃ£s, ulÃ¸aoiolet railiation of the stars, anil radio, X+ag, and gamma-raV energ7 sources. The Natiornl Aerorm.tics and Space AdministÃ®ation Ã, in fact, engaged in alJ these field.s uith its orbiting erperÃ¡ments. The natiorÃs neulg gaineiL tech- nologg of ertrateÃ®restrÃ¬a.l a:tronom7 mtkes Ã¬t hnperatÃ»se that the knouleilge tlwt can be had, from the ground in these arcas be pushe.d ahead, as fast Ã¸s possible so th.at the spaÃ¦ effort aill h^aae the strongest possible back-up. A mooe bg thn Nationi.l Aercrrtutics and, Space Administuation to broaden its alreadE sfiong interest in basic astronomical research so as to includ,e grounil,-based, stellar astronomA uoulÃ , be highlg aiLaantageous to the national scÃentifrc effort anÃ¥ to the Natianal AerotwutÃ¡cs and Space Administration itself- The keen and, uell- itÃtifieÂ¿I interest of the National Aerorwttics and Space Ad,ministration in the traÃning of space scÃentists coulil, toell be extend,ed to assiÃtance anil Ã°nuease in fani.lifies for Ã¸lI astronomy, because the space Ã¸nd, ground,-based, actioities of Ã¸stronomers are but the tuo faces of the same coin. The National Science Foundntion has gioen the broadest poss:ible support to resea.rch i,n q.stronomV; the Foundntion and the. Office of Narsal Research haoe been the princÃ¹pal channels for Fed,eral participation in the &tppoÃº of thÃ research. lt is essential th(Ã» the broad. sup,port from these sources, uhÃ¶ch constitutes so Dilal a contribution to the adaancement of artronomy, be continued^ The Nati,onal Science Foundation anÃ¬l the Office of Naaal Research, together uith the NÃ¸tional Aercrwutics and SpacÃ¸ AdmÃ,nÃtratÃon, coul"d, form a strong gouetn- ment ted.m thnt uould cÃ¸rry (rstronom7 foruard, on all fronts, by means of a bal- anced, program of wpport of alJ eLements along the lines enaÃÃoned, in this report. ln concltÂ¿sion, Ã»e Ã»Ãh to recommend, a cÃ¸reful stuÃ¬lg o! thi.s report and. the adoption of its recommendatiotÃ to those. u;ho are concerned usith fed,eral pl.anning of suppott of science; Ãt is a carrtullg prepared Ã¸nd, toell-conceioed document. We extend our complÃ,merÃºs on a iob u:ell Ã¬l,one to all those u.tho particip(ÃºeÂ¿l in its preparation, and, especiallE to the chafumnn Ã¸nd, members of the Panel, uho deooted, maior perconal efrort to this r eport. Sincerelg yours, G. B. Kistiakou:skE FOR THE COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE A.ND PUBLIC POLICY iL Copyright Â© National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
tÃ¯ iÃ¬ I l Since its founÂ¿l,ing in 7863, the Academg has hail, a ileep Ã¥nterest ground-based dstronomA. Benjamin A. Goul.d, a chnrter member in of the Acail.emg, uaÃ an interrntionally famous aatronÃ¾mer ol hÃ ilny. George Ellerg Hal.e, the first chairman of the National Research Coun- cil, u,vs enormotÃ¦lg efiectioe in ad,oancÃng a.stronomg itÃ¹ our countrA to a leaÃ¬ling posÃ¡tion in uo Ã astronomg. ln continu&tion oÃ thiÃ interest the Acadenry s CommÃ¶ttee on Science anil Pubkc Pokcg undertook a studg of the need for facilities in this field. It is a priailege to make their usork krnun. FreilerÃck Sei.tz PRESIDENT NÃTIONAI ÃCADEMY OF SCIENCES Washington, D.C August 25, 1964 Copyright Â© National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
PANEL ON ASTRONOMIC AL FACÂ¿LITIES A. E. WhÃ¬rlod. ChaÃ¬Â¡nÂ¿n, LÃ¬ck ObseÃ¾atory, UdoeÃttv ol CaliÃomÃ¬a R. N, Braceroell BadÃo Astonomg InstÃ¬*ute-nadbscÃÂ¿nca f-aboratory, StanÃoÃº, UÂ¡Â¿aeÃ®sÃtg Frcnk D. Dru*e, DepaÃºnetut oÃ Astroflomg, Comell IlnÃ.oerdtg FÂ¡ed,eÂ¡Ã¬Â¿k T..HÃ¸d.dock, ln, BÃ¸diÃ¸ Astronamg ObsemÃ¸torg, ÃlnioersÃt! of MtchÃEatu William LÃIlÂ¿t DepÃ¸rtnÂ¿nt oÃ AsttonÃ´rnq, HaQard, IlrltueÃit| W. W. Moryan,IeÃes ObsetuatoÃ®V, lJnÃoeÃitV of Chlcago Btwe H. Rule, CalilonlÃ¬Ã¸ In"ttÂ¿tute of Technolagg Allan R, SÃ¸nÃ¹rye, Mt. Wdlson Ã¸nÂ¿ palÃ¾Ã±Ã» ObseÃ¾atorÃes, CÃ¸IÃÃontÃ¬4 lflstÃtute o! Technolngg, ComegiÂ¿ InstÂ¡tutÃ¬or! oÃ W Ã¸shÃngtotr COMMITTEE ON SCÂ¡ENCE AND PUBLTC POLICY Ceorye B. KisriÂ¿koÃskg, IIaroard, IJnÃaeÃitV, ChahnÃ¸n LÃ¸uyence R. BlÃ¬nks, Stanfod, tJnÃaersÃtg H.W. Bode, BeIl TelÃ¸phone LaborctoÂ¡ies Frank Brink, It., The RockeÃellet InstÃ¬tute Mellin CalÃ¾in, UnioeÃÃtg ol CalÃforrlta FrÃ¸nk L. Horsfall, lr., Sloan-KetterÃ¹rg InÃtitute for Cancer Research A. L. LehflÃrlger, The lohni HopkÃ¬ns fJniaersÃtg Saunderc Mo.c Lane, I]nÃ,ÃersÂ¿ttJ oÃ ChÂ¿cago Ca PÃafrrnann, Broen |JrlÃ¹)ersit! AllÃ¸n R. Sand,age, MoÃ¼nt WilÃon and, PolonaÂ¡ Obsercato es HartE L. ShapÃro, AmeÃ±cÃ¸n Museum of Natural HÃÃtoÃ®V T. M. Sonneborn, Ind,Ãana UniDersÃ¬tV lohn Yerhoogen, UnÃoeÃÃt! oÃ® Calilornla Abh M- WeÂ¡nbeÃ, Oak RÃdge National LaboraÃoru Robert E. CÃ®een, NotÃonal Acad,ema oÃ Sci.ences, ErecutÃoe Secretarg Copyright Â© National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
FOREWORD The Panel on Astronomical Facilities was established late in 1962 by the National Academy of Sciences as an actÃviÃ of the Academy's Committee on Science and Public Policy. The established purpose of the Panel was to study the probable need for major new astronomical facilities in the United States during the next ffve to ten years, and to recommend guiding princÃples and estimates of cost in order that federal fuÂ¡ds might be em- ployed with maximum efficiency to promote advancement of astronomy in all its bÂ¡anches. The members of the Panel, cbosen to be representative of the most active groups in both optical and radio astuonomy, have attemptetl to assess the dÃ¹ection that the obsewational branch of the science is likeÃ¾ to take in the decade ahead, and to Â¡ecommend a program of facilities that will build upon the strength ancl productivity that the American Ã¢stronomical community has already demonstrated. The study was conffned to grounil-based facilities. Investigations of the universe by telescopes carried above the eaÂ¡th's aÃ»nosphere are under the cognizance of review bodÃes considering various aspects of the national space program, and the Panel has not considered them to be within its stated purview. It has, however, given thought to the relative roles of orbiting and ground-based telescopes and to the proper divÃsion of tasks betwÃ©en the two methods of observatÃon, in oriler to appraise any imbalance in support or emphasis tliat may exist. The Panel has been guided by the view that Ã¢stronomy is a branch of the physical sciences engaged in basic research of Copyright Â© National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
the purest sort, haditionally motivated by the desire to Imow and und.er_ stand. It is true that astronomy has also provided economic or practical dividends such as navigation, guidance systems, aod the gatherinf of data that gpirle and support the national space program. Furthelnore, ashonomy has enriched all other sciences: examples ,tÃ£ dr" di."ou"rv of the element helium from observations of the sr::r; ttre recognition of thennonuclear reac_ tions as a source of energy and as an explanation of the origin of the ele_ ments; and rÃevelopment of a picture of the early history Ã³f tlre earth_ important to both geology and biology. Nevertheless, thÃ© panel has con_ sidered its assignment to be the formulation of a facilities program dictated by the orderÃ¾ development of observational astronomy ai a pure science, not tied to mission-oriented facilities that may be proviÃ¡ed with other goals in mind. The Panel has sought to anive at a set of recommendations that will be_ reasonable and pr.udent, consistent with growth rates already estab- lished. The Panel has felq however, tÃ¯at these rational precautions should be secondary to its mÃ¢in charge: to recommend ground--based instruments that will enable astronomers to exploit the opportrmities that beckon-both age-old problems that are on the verge of yielding to observational attack and exciting new developments of transcendent importance. _ The support that the federal govemment gives to such a program is in the same category as that given to ÃnvestigatioÃ of the inteÂ¡ioi ofihe earth, of the depths of the ocean, of tlie upper atmosphere, and incleed to thÃ© e4lloratjon of space by orbiting vehicles. These efiorts are all consequences of the natural human desire to understand ttre larger aspÃ¨cts oÂ¡ mart's environment. To the non-specialist the far reaches of space and time investi. gated by the astronomer have widespread appeal. The panel believes that an Ãnvestment in ground-based astronomical facilities of the order of one half of I per cent of that going into the space efiort woulil be consistent with a balanced program of federal support for science. '--- 4 Copyright Â© National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
tr fÃ t: ': , i l CON?EN?'S I INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL STATEMENT 1 I The Nature of Astronom\ l Deaelopment ol a World, Picture Role of the United States in Astronomical Research g OptÃ¬cal Astronomg 3 RadÃo A,stuorLorng 4 CurrentProblems 5 CreatÂ¡on oÃ the ChemÃcal Elements 6 NeÃ¸ Rnotoled,ge lrora RÃ¸dio AstÃ®oÃ±omv 6 CalaÃ¹zs Erplod,Ãng 6 I QuasÃ¯Stetlat Radio Sources I The lnadequacg of Present FacÃ¬lÃties The Relntion of Ground,-Based, and Space Astronomu to TI THE PRESENT POSITTON IN GROUND-BASED ASTRoNoMy 13 TheoretÃ¹:Ã¸lAstrophVsics is Optical ArttonomA 14 Prcsent DoÃ¬Â¡tÂ¡nant PositÂ¿on o! the UÃ»ited, States 74 ÃoÃ FutÃ¸e Success 75 Th.e LimÃ£ting FÃ¸ctol Asttonom| Radio 18 Pre$ent PosÃÃÃon of the United States 78 Need. lol Hteh AfleulÃ¸Â¡ ResoÃ¼ttÃ¬nn 18 ResolutÃorl oÃ RÃ¸dÂ¿o Gala*ies 79 Prcblem 20 ResohÂ¡Ãon Ã¸nd the CosmologÃcal Methods oÃ AchÃÂ¿oing HÂ¿Bh AngulÃt ResolutÃon 27 Collecting Area and Sidelobes as LimitrÂ¿ng Factors 23 Parubolic Antennas 24 Ã -.- Copyright Â© National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
The Dilzmmn of the Astuonomg GraduÃ¸te School in 1964 26 Mdnpotner Tlohthtg of Asaononets CoÃ¸pÃ¸ted, to TrÃ¸inlng o! Other phgsteal ScientÃ¬.sts 29 U. S. Memberchtp lo the lrÃºeÃ®rÃ¸tionÂ¿l, Astronomhal UnÃ¬on 3l GraÃ u&te Stud,eÃt Populntlon in Ashonomg DepaÃhnent$ Sz A Prcie.tÃ¬on 35 TerÃYeat Conclusion 37 A PROGNAM FOR CONSTRUCTION OF OPTICAL TELESCOPES 38 Tgpes Neeiled sa Spea tl-Purpose Tel.escopes 39 SolarTebscopes 39 Categories 40 Si.z,e PerlotmnncÃ¸ aersas Size 40 Big? HorD 42 Large Telescopes 42 Location of Large Telescopes a3 Under What Auspi.ces? 44 PteoÃous Pefiormance 44 lÃtstÂ¡tution 44 Tgpe o1 Goal The Prlmar! 46 EngineeÃºng Studg for a Giant Tel.escope 46 Size Telescopes of Mod,erate 47 SmallTelescopes 48 Summary of ReconÃ®nendati,ons lor OpticÃ¸l Telescopes 49 N A PROGRAM FOR CONSTRUCTION OF RADIO TELESCOPES 50 A Maior High-Resolution lnstrument 50 A HÃ¬gh-Resolution ArraE of Limited CapabilitA 62 Larye ParÃ¸boloids 5s lnstruments SmÃ¸ller Special-PuÃ®pose 54 DesÃgn Studg fot the Largest Possible Steerable Paraboloid, s6 Copyright Â© National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
A SoIn RaÃ¬lar Sgstem 5z Summarg of RecommenÂ¿htÃnns lor RailÃ¬n Telescopes d7 V AUXILIARY INSTÃUMENTS ATID AUTOMATION 58 Auriliaru Instruments 58 Rtd,latÃ¬oo DeteetoÂ¡s 59 AuaÃllarg OptÃ¬tal Insttuments 60 AtÃ»wsphe c DÂ¿shÃ»bances 67 RecommendtÂ¡tions 62 Autofiwtion 63 lntÃ®od,ucitotu 63 ol DatÃ¸ 64 Acqu&tÃon Ã¸nd, Redua'tÃotl o! Neu; AutoÃtotÃ¬c TnctrÃ¸nents 65 Deoelopm.ent Infon&tÃor. Stotuge 66 AutonÃ»ted. ObsetuatoÃ as 67 Recotumend,alÃorls 68 VI THE MAGNITUDE OF THE PROGBAM 71 IntÃ®oduction 77 Summary of Recommendations and, Costs 74 OptlcÃ¸l Asttunomv 74 Athonomg 75 Rad,lo AutÂ¡liary lÃ»st )rnetuts and, AutomatiÃ¾n 75 AÃnual OperatÃag Support 76 oÃ Cost EsthnÃ¸tes and Proiected. Spending Rate 76 Ba.si,s FocÃ¬lÃtg Cost Est Ã±Ã¸tes 76 Atunual OpetutÂ¿ng SuppolÂ¿ lot Neto FocilÃtÃes 80 SpendtngRoÂ¿e 83 ExÃstÃ¬tul FaailÃtÃes 87 Annral ScÃÃ¸ntifio SuppoÃ®t ÃoÃ APPENDIX 88 i Ã¡ .._ Copyright Â© National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.