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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 1970. A Technical Analysis of the Common Carrier/User Interconnections Area. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13320.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 1970. A Technical Analysis of the Common Carrier/User Interconnections Area. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13320.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 1970. A Technical Analysis of the Common Carrier/User Interconnections Area. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13320.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 1970. A Technical Analysis of the Common Carrier/User Interconnections Area. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13320.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 1970. A Technical Analysis of the Common Carrier/User Interconnections Area. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13320.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 1970. A Technical Analysis of the Common Carrier/User Interconnections Area. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13320.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 1970. A Technical Analysis of the Common Carrier/User Interconnections Area. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13320.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 1970. A Technical Analysis of the Common Carrier/User Interconnections Area. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13320.
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A. Techn:lcCl1 MCl1ys:ls of THE COMMON CARRIER/USER INTERCONNECTIONS AREA A Report of the PANEL ON COMMON CARRIER/USER INTERCONNECTIONS COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING BOARD NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES to the Common CClrrier BureClu Federal Commun:lcations Commiss:lon WClshington, D. C, June 1970

FEDERAL COMMUNrCATIONS COMlirSSrON COMMISSIONERS Dean Burch, Chairman Robert T. Bartley Robert Wells Robert E•. Lee Nicholas Johnson Kenneth A.. Cox H. Rex Lee OFFICIALS Max D. Paglin, Executive Director Ben F. Waple, Secretary Henry Geller, General Counsel William H. Watkins, Chief Engineer Donald J. Berkemeyer, Chairman, Review Board Arthur A. Gladstone, Chief, Office of Hearing Examiners Leonidas P. B. Emerson, Chief, Office of Opinions and Review Leonard Weinles, Chief, Office of Information Sol Schildhause; Chief, CATV Bureau Bernard Strassburg, Chief, Common Carrier Bureau George S. Smith, Chief, Broadcast Bureau James E. Barr, Chief, Safety and Special Radio Services Bureau Curtis B. Plummer, Chief, Field Engineering Bureau

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION i • • t • • • • • • • • • • • • LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING BOARD. v vi ABSTRACT ••• • • • I • • • • • • • SECTIONS BACKGROUND, SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1 1 COMMUNICATIONS BACKGROUND . 15 2 TRANSMISSION AND PROTECTION CONSIDERATION 3 21 NETWORK CONTROL SIGNALING 4 33 PROTECTIVE DEVICES •• 5 40 48 CERTIFICATION PROGRAM 6 INNOVATION. • •• 7 57 65 APPLICABLE EXPERIENCE 8 • • INFORMATION AND ORGANIZATION. 75 9

I

N ATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE WASHINGTON. D. C .• 20418 10 June 1970 ANTHONY G. OETTINGER, CHAIRMAN COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING BOARD AIKEN COMPUTATION LABORATORY HARVARD UNIVERSITY CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02138 Mr. Bernard Strassburg, Chief Conmon---Carr-ierBu-reau Federal Communications Commission Washington, D. C. Dear Mr. Strassburg, I take pleasure in submitting this report of the Computer Science and Engineering Board's Panel on Communications/Interconnection. This Panel was asked to make an assessment of the technical factors affecting the common carrier/user interconnection area of pUblic communi- " cations. It was asked to develop technical and background information that might be useful to the Commission, common carriers, users and equipment manufacturers in reaching and implementing solutions to immediate problems, including a technical evaluation of various contending points of view regarding the common carrier/user interconnection area, of the various problems to which these views relate and of the various technical and policy alternatives for responding to these problems in the near future. You stated on September 25, 1969 that "the essential technical questions to be considered by the NAS Panel now appear to be (1) the propriety Of'the telephone company-provided network control signalling requirements and various alternatives to the provision thereof by the telephone company, (2) the necessity and characteristics of telephone company-provided connecting arrangements and various alternatives to the provision thereof by the tele- phone company, and (3) basic standards and specifications for interconnection and the appropriate method to administer them". . The Computer Science and Engineering Board selected Mr. Lewis Billig, Technical Director - Communications, The MITRE Corporation, Bedford, Mass. to chair the Panel. After extensive consultations to identify the most competent people available with the required technical specialties, Mr. Billig nominated the fourteen people listed following this letter for appointment by the Board. i ENGINEERING BOARD, JOSEPH HENRY BUILDING, 21ST & PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE, N.W •• WASHINGTON. D. C. 20418 COMPUTER SCIENCE &

Mr. Strassburg 10 June 1970 -2- The Board hereby commends to you these principal technical findings of the study: 1. Uncontrolled interconnection to the common carrier network as it now exists would be harmful. 2. The requirements of the tariff criteria limiting characteristics of interconnected lines are technically based and in accord with the operational limits of the common carrier network as it now exists. 3. The nature of potential harm, criteria for protection against such harm and the performance of various components of the tele- phone system can be specified explicitly enough to be understood and acted upon properly by people with normal technical competencies. Having found that harm of various kinds can occur and that technical limitations on interconnection are therefore necessary, the Panel studied protective measures. On the technical basis of the third set of findings, the study concluded that the following two approaches -- used either alone or in parallel in such proportions as non-technical factors might determine can supply the required degrees of protection for the network, including network control signalling: 1• Protecti ve arrangements as requi red by the tari ffs 2. A properly authorized program of standardization and properly enforced certification of equipment, installation, and maintenance. Analysis 'of potential harm and protection capabilities revealed no technical reasons why innovation would be significantly restricted by either of the two approaches alone or in combination. The choice clearly impinges on economic and social problems and on questions of industrial structure which are beyond the purview of the study. Sincerely yours, , A-::O~y • ~o-1ew:'t'ttl~'n - g e : r • Chai rman Computer Science and Engineering Board AGO:chm ii

PANEL . PANEL CHAIRMAN Lewis S. Billig Technical Director Conununications The MITRE Corporation Bedford, Mass. 01730 Ronald Enticknap Raymond M. Alden Associate Group Leader Executive Vice President - M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory Operations Lexington, Mass. 02173 United Utilities, Inc. Kansas City, Missouri 64112 James D. Babcock Charles L. Hutchinson Chairman of the Board Hutchinson Associates Allen-Babcock Computing, Inc. Wilmington, Delaware 19809 Los Angeles, California 90067 Robert C. Karvwatt Jack A. Baird Director of Conununications Services Vice President Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. Penn Central Company Holmdel, New Jersey 07733 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Ralph L. Clark Jordan Kassan Associate Director President International Conununications Dynelec Systems Corporation Glen Rock, New Jersey 07452 Office of Teleconununications Policy Washington, D. C. 20504 Charles H. Elmendorf Herman Lukoff Assistant Vice President Director of Research and American Telephone & Advanced Techniques Telegraph Company Univac Division of Sperry-Rand New York, New York 10007. Blue Bell, Pennsylvania 19422 iii

John L.Wheeler B ernard Rider. President· . Engineering 'Manager American COmmunications Corp. Xerox Corporation Arlington, Virginia 22209.· Rochester, New York 14604 Elmer B. Shapiro Harry S, White,· .Jr , Senior Research Engineer Chairman, American National Stanford Research Institute, Standards Institute (ANSI) Menlo Park, California 94025 National Bureau of Standards Washington, D. C, 20234 PANEL AmES George W. Gilman Victor Evana Senior Consultant Consultant The MITRE Corporation Office of Telecommunications Bedford, Mass. 01730 Policy Washington, D. C. 20504 ,, iv

N ATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES a COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING BOARD 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE WASHINGTON, D. C. 20418 15 April 1970 Professor Anthony G. Oettinger Chairman Computer Science and Engineering Board National Academy of Sciences Washington, D. C. 20418 Dear Professor Oettinger: The Special Panel·on the CotmllOn Carrier/Interconnection area of the Computer Science and Engineering Board was established to perform a technical analysis of certain factors in the cotmllOn/carrier/user interconnections area in accordance with the terms of Contract No. RC-1009l, dated 27 June 1969.· I t is a pleasure to transmit this report which represents the judgments of that Panel. Both the timeliness of the report and its content reflect a high level of dedication and professional objectivity of the entire Panel through- out all phases of the study. The work of the Panel Was possible only because of the cooperation of the many organizations and individuals in producing technical papers and presenting supplemental briefings which provided the basic information on which the Panel based its judgments. Many of the papers reflect special research undertaken in response to the request of the Panel for technical support. In addition to contributing to the report, the papers submitted constitute the bulk of the existing literature of the field for the cotmllOn carrier/user interconnections area. From the start, it was our aim to produce a report which reflected the best technical competence and experience available on the various aspects of this problem area. I believe that we have succeeded in this, and am pleased to commend this report to the Computer Science and Engineering Board. . This has been a rewarding experience for me, personally and professionally, and I believe the same is true for the members of the Panel. Sincerely, .? J !.J(..Ulj /1-/)., .:>I ~., - 1".- r, Lewis S. Billig Chairman Special Panel on CotmllOn Carrier/Interconnections v

ABSTRACT This report represents the result of a study of the technical issues involved in the interconnection of user-owned terminal equipment to the regulated common carrier network. The pertinent characteristics of the network were analyzed to determine its susceptibility of harm to personnel, equipment, network performance, and degradation of service to other users. It was determined that such susceptibility does exist and that uncontrolled interconnection would indeed be harmful. The require- ments of the tariff criteria limiting signal amplitude, waveform, and frequency distribution of interconnected lines were found to be in accord with the operational limits of the network and to be technically based. Several methods of protecting the network -- when interconnected to user-owned equipment -- from hazardous voltages, line unbalance, excessive signal levels, and improper network control signaling were investigated. The Panel concluded that the protective arrange- ments required by the tariffs can provide the basis for the required degree of protection. A properly-authorized program of standardization and enforced certification of equipment, installation and maintenance can be developed to provide the desired protection. The Panel concluded that innovation by carriers need not be significantly impeded by this program, while opportunities for innovation by users would be increased. The poor information exchange among carriers, users, and manufacturers has resulted in considerable misunderstanding and the Panel concludes that mechanisms are needed to address this problem. vi

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A Technical Analysis of the Common Carrier/User Interconnections Area assesses the technical factors affecting the common carrier/user interconnection area of public communications. This book develops technical and background information that might be useful to common carriers, users, and equipment manufacturers in reaching and implementing solutions to immediate problems. This includes a technical evaluation of various contending points fo view regarding the common carrier/user interaction area, the various problems to which these views relate, and the various technical and policy alternatives for responding to these problems in the near future.

A Technical Analysis of the Common Carrier/User Interconnections Area addresses questions of the propriety of the telephone company-provided network control signalling requirements and various alternatives to the provision thereof by the telephone company; the necessity and characteristics of telephone company-provided connecting arrangements and various alternatives to the provison thereof by the telephone company; and basic standards and specifications for interconnection and the appropriate method to administer them.

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