Summary of a Workshop on the Future of Antennas
Norm Haller, Rapporteur
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 FIFTH STREET, NW Washington, DC 20001
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
This study was supported by Contract HHM402-10-D-0036 between the Defense Intelligence Agency and the National Academy of Sciences. Any views or observations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agency that provided support for the project.
International Standard Book Number: 13: 978-0-309-26683-3
International Standard Book Number: 10: 0-309-26683-1
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Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council
COMMITTEE FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
CHALLENGES TO U.S. NATIONAL SECURITY INTERESTS
J. JEROME HOLTON,* Tauri Group, Chair
EDWARD M. GREITZER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Vice Chair
BRIAN BALLARD,* APX Labs
KENNETH I. BERNS, University of Florida College of Medicine
ANN N. CAMPBELL,* Sandia National Laboratories
DEAN R. COLLINS, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (retired)
SHARON C. GLOTZER, University of Michigan
J.C. HERZ, Batchtags, LLC
KENNETH A. KRESS,* KBK Consulting, Inc.
DARRELL LONG, University of California, Santa Cruz
JULIE J.C.H. RYAN,* George Washington University
JANET K. THERIANOS, Independent Consultant (USAF, retired)
ELIAS TOWE, Carnegie Mellon University
ALFONSO VELOSA III,* Gartner, Inc.
ELI YABLONOVITCH,* University of California, Berkeley
TERRY JAGGERS, Lead DEPS Board Director
DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Study Director
SARAH CAPOTE, Research Associate
MARGUERITE SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator
DIONNA ALI, Senior Program Assistant
CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate
*Planned or attended the workshop.
The workshop described in this report is the second in a series of three workshops, held in early 2012 to further the ongoing engagement among the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Technology Insight—Gauge, Evaluate, and Review (TIGER) Standing Committee, the scientific and technical intelligence (S&TI) community, and the consumers of S&TI products. A restricted version of this report is available by contacting the Public Affairs Office of the sponsoring agency (Defense Intelligence Agency) directly.
We express our appreciation to the members of the Committee for Science and Technology Challenges to U.S. National Security Interests for their contributions to the planning of this workshop. We are also grateful for the active participation of many members of the technology community in the workshop, as well as to the sponsor for its support. The committee also expresses sincere appreciation for the support and assistance of the NRC staff, including Terry Jaggers, Daniel Talmage, Sarah Capote, Marguerite Schneider, Zeida Patmon, and Dionna Ali. Finally, we would like to thank the rapporteur for this report, Norm Haller, a consultant.
J. Jerome Holton, Chair
Edward M. Greitzer, Vice Chair
Committee for Science and Technology
Challenges to U.S. National Security Interests
Acknowledgment of Reviewers
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
James Armitage, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies,
Lawrence J. Delaney, Independent Consultant (Titan Corporation, retired),
Gilman Louie, Alsop Louie Partners, and
Al Romig, NAE, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company.
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the views of individual participants, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lou Lanzerotti (NAE), New Jersey Institute of Technology. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author and the institution.