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T R A N S P O R T A T I O N R E S E A R C H B O A R D WASHINGTON, D.C. 2005 www.TRB.org T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP REPORT 109 Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation SUBJECT AREAS Public Transit A Guidebook for Developing and Sharing Transit Bus Maintenance Practices JOHN SCHIAVONE Transit Resource Center Guilford, CT
TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administrationânow the Federal Transit Admin- istration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including plan- ning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organizations: FTA, The National Academies, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activ- ities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. TCRP REPORT 109 Project E-5 ISSN 1073-4872 ISBN 0-309-08842-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2005934507 Â© 2005 Transportation Research Board Price $24.00 NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Boardâs judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the Transit Development Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Published reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America Special Notice The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the National Research Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Boardâs mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 109 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, TCRP Manager EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications HILARY FREER, Senior Editor BETH HATCH, Editor PROJECT PANEL E-5 Field of Maintenance MICHAEL WEHR, Milwaukee County Transit System, Milwaukee, WI (Chair) FRED M. GILLIAM, Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Austin, TX LARRY KUCERA, ATC Phoenix Transit, Phoenix, AZ THOMAS MAZE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA ELISA M. NICHOLS, Kensington Consulting LLC, Kensington, MD DARRYL SPENCER, Dallas Area Rapid Transit STEPHEN M. STARK, MTA New York City Transit FRANK W. VENEZIA, Lea + Elliott, Inc., Naperville, IL GENE WALKER, Golden Gate Bridge, Highway, and Transportation District, San Rafael, CA MICHAEL OâCONNOR, FTA Liaison FRANK N. LISLE, TRB Liaison
FOREWORD By Christopher W. Jenks TCRP Manager Transportation Research Board This report should be of interest to transit bus maintenance managers and others interested in the development of written transit bus maintenance procedures, or âprac- tices,â and the sharing of these practices with others in the transit industry. The report provides guidance on how to develop effective transit bus maintenance practices tailored to oneâs local operating environment. It provides seven sample practices devel- oped using the guidance. Complementing this report is an on-line Web Board spon- sored by the Transportation Research Boardâs Committee on Transit Fleet Mainte- nance. This Web Board allows transit agencies to post their maintenance practices for others to review, revise as necessary for their own operating conditions, and use. The report provides instructions on how to access the Web Board, use it to develop main- tenance practices, and share these practices among transit agencies. People involved in maintenance of transit buses must frequently address issues for which no internal written maintenance practices are available. Consequently, informa- tion must be gathered to assist in determining how best to address the issues. Whether the issue is an equipment problem, an inspection procedure, a campaign replacement, a climatological adaptation, or a routine cleaning, information usually is gathered from other transit systems and vendors, and a maintenance practice is developed to meet the needs of the local system. That practice then becomes the de facto norm for the system until a better way to address the issue is identified. Unfortunately, the results of such efforts are not typically shared with the rest of the transit industry. Consequently, many transit systems, facing the same need to pro- vide detailed work procedures, expend valuable time and resources duplicating the research of other transit systems. Consequently, research was needed to provide guid- ance to transit systems on a methodology for developing bus maintenance practices and sharing them with the rest of the transit industry. The intent of this research was not to develop universal best maintenance practices, but, rather, to assist maintenance man- agers in obtaining and validating relevant information, filling in the gaps where neces- sary, developing a practice most applicable to local conditions, and appropriately shar- ing maintenance practices with the rest of the transit industry. Under TCRP Project E-5, the Transit Resource Center, in collaboration with John Schiavone, Consultant, was asked to develop a guidebook that provides a methodology to assist maintenance managers in developing and sharing bus maintenance practices. To complete the project objective, the research team conducted a review of research in the area of developing and sharing maintenance practices in transit and other related industries, such as trucking, airlines, and defense. A survey of APTA and CTAA mem- bers was also conducted to obtain information on methods that members currently used to develop and share maintenance practices, membersâ willingness to share mainte- nance practices with others in the industry, membersâ ideas on the guidebook content,
and membersâ suggestions on maintenance problem areas that would serve as useful case studies in the guidebook. The research team then identified and evaluated currently available tools and information sources that can assist in developing and sharing tran- sit bus maintenance practices and identified the strengths and weaknesses of each tool and information source. Currently available tools and information sources included transit maintenance Web Boards, transit system best practices and process sheets, and vendor-supplied information. Based on the information collected, the research team developed this guidebook. The guidebook contains detailed instructions on how a maintenance manager can develop a maintenance practice based on the local operating environment and provides seven case studies of specific maintenance practices developed using the guidebook process. Concurrent with the development of the guidebook, the research team enhanced an on-line Web Board sponsored by the Transportation Research Boardâs Committee on Transit Fleet Maintenance. This Web Board allows transit agencies to post their maintenance practices for others to review, revise as necessary for their own operating conditions, and use. The report provides instructions on how to access the Web Board and use it to develop maintenance practices and to share information on transit bus maintenance practices among transit agencies.
1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER 1 Introduction Overview, 3 Background and Purpose, 3 Guidebook Structure and Contents, 3 Using this Guidebook, 4 Benefits, 4 Other Transportation Industries, 4 APTAâs Bus Standards Activities, 4 Specific Benefits to Bus Transit, 5 Determining the Need for Practices, 5 7 CHAPTER 2 Reference Materials and Web Board Use Overview, 7 Part 1: Legal Considerations, 7 Overview, 7 Intellectual Property, 7 Consequences of Not Protecting Intellectual Property, 9 Examples and Clauses, 9 Web Board Disclaimer, 9 Part 2: Reference Material, 9 Overview, 9 Using the Web Board, 9 Obtaining Reference Material, 10 Part 3: Prioritizing Reference Material, 15 Part 4: Tailoring Practices to Local Conditions, 16 Background, 16 Weather-Related Conditions, 16 Part 5: Developing Time Standards, 17 Uniform Procedures, 18 Establishing Standard Repair Times, 18 Monitoring Time, 18 Setting Policy, 19 Employee and Union Involvement, 19 Other Sources, 19 Part 6: Integrating Practices with Training, 19 Part 7: Regulatory Compliance, 19 Overview, 19 FTA Programs and Requirements, 20 Triennial Review, 20 Model Transit Bus Safety and Security Program, 20 Federal Requirements, 20 The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), 20 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 20 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS), 21 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 21 Vehicles, 21 Facilities, 21 Certifications and Licenses, 23 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 23 Buses, 23 Facilities, 23 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 23 Overview, 23 Facility Safety, 24 Personal Safety, 24 State and Local Requirements, 25 OSHA and the EPA, 25 Department of Transportation, 25 Local Health and Environmental Agencies, 25 Uniform Building Codes, 25 Compliance Checklist, 26 Compliance Monitoring, 26 CONTENTS
Contact List, 26 USDOT, 26 FMVSS, 26 EPA, 27 OSHA, 27 FTA (Also See USDOT), 27 CDC, 27 28 CHAPTER 3 Improving Writing Skills and Using Graphics Overview, 28 Writing Effectively, 28 The Five âCsâ for Good Writing, 28 Tips for Improving Existing Text, 28 Writing Resources, 29 Using Photographs and Graphics, 30 Overview, 30 Acquiring Electronic Picture Files, 30 Storing Files, 30 Inserting Pictures into a Word File, 30 Moving Pictures Around on the Page, 32 Enlarging or Reducing Picture Dimensions, 32 Cropping Pictures, 32 Deleting Pictures, 32 Adding Arrows, Circles, and Labels, 32 Reducing the Size of Word Files, 33 Reducing Photo File Size for Web Board Posting, 33 Troubleshooting, 33 35 CHAPTER 4 Developing and Validating Practices Overview, 35 Developing Practices, 35 MS Word Template, 35 Effort Required, 35 Who Develops the Practice? 35 Step-by-Step Practice Instructions, 36 Validating and Updating Practices, 40 Validating, 40 Updating, 41 42 CHAPTER 5 Uniform Title Format for Sharing Practices Overview, 42 Practice Title Format, 42 Topic Heading, 42 Task Description (If Applicable), 43 Component Application (If Applicable), 43 Bus Application (If Applicable), 43 Posting Practices on the Web Board, 43 44 CHAPTER 6 Sample Maintenance Practices Sample Maintenance Practice #1: Bus PMI; 1990 GMC/RTS/NOVA, 40-Ft High Floor, 46 Sample Maintenance Practice #2: Bus PMI; 2003 STARTRANS Senator, 20-Ft.; Ford E-350 Chassis, 56 Sample Maintenance Practice #3: Component PMI; Thermo King Model T11-M85 AC with IntelligAIRE II; 2004; Gillig; 30-Foot Low Floor, 61 Sample Maintenance Practice #4: Electrical; Repair; All Buses, 74 Sample Maintenance Practice #5: Brakes; Remove and Replace Front Brakes; 2003 STARTRANS Senator, 20-Ft.; Ford E-350 Chassis, 83 Sample Maintenance Practice #6: Body; Door Adjustment; Vapor/NFIL Slide Glide Door; 2002 New Flyer 40LF, 88 Sample Maintenance Practice #7: Service; Service Line Functions, 94 102 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS A-1 APPENDIX A Legal Considerations B-1 APPENDIX B MS Word Template Instructions C-1 APPENDIX C MS Word Template