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Page 13
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Estimated Costs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Quarantine Facilities for Arriving Air Travelers: Identification of Planning Needs and Costs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13989.
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Page 14
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Estimated Costs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Quarantine Facilities for Arriving Air Travelers: Identification of Planning Needs and Costs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13989.
×
Page 14
Page 15
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Estimated Costs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Quarantine Facilities for Arriving Air Travelers: Identification of Planning Needs and Costs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13989.
×
Page 15
Page 16
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Estimated Costs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Quarantine Facilities for Arriving Air Travelers: Identification of Planning Needs and Costs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13989.
×
Page 16
Page 17
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Estimated Costs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2008. Quarantine Facilities for Arriving Air Travelers: Identification of Planning Needs and Costs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13989.
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Page 17

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13 A major focus of this project was to determine the costs of imposition of quarantine at an airport. We have identified costs for an airport to operate a quarantine area on airport prop- erty for 200 people for a period of up to 2 weeks. While many costs are fixed, some operational costs would vary depending on the exact size and composition of the quarantined popu- lation and the duration of the quarantine period. There are several factors that would be airport specific. For example, if a vacant hanger is used, a determination must be made if airport owners are still paying for the hanger. If the hanger or other space is under lease to another party, then the costs of losing that income must also be considered as part of the total costs. And, if the building is modified to meet a dif- ferent building code (e.g., more exits and/or additional bath- rooms), this cost must also be considered. Some of the supplies and equipment listed can be stored on airport property in the building that will be used for the quar- antine or in secure storage areas. There will be some mainte- nance costs to ensure the readiness of these materials. If not stored in the intended building, some form of secure storage, (e.g., pods or trailers) must be considered. The costs have been organized into four groups: (1) stand- by costs, (2) costs to activate a quarantine, (3) operational costs, and (4) the costs to recover. These cost estimates include most of the major items to be considered, though a larger study could identify others. Costs also would be impacted by the lo- cation and nature of the incident and the composition of the population in quarantine. Finally, some of the expenditures are for items that ostensibly could be re-used if ever needed again, especially if no one in quarantine becomes ill with the disease in question. Those costs are marked with an asterisk (*). Other costs are for items that would have to be replaced. Stand-By Costs Stand-by costs as shown in Table 1 are the costs related to the value of the space and the cost of utilities, plus the costs of basic quarantine start-up provisions and their storage. Thus, these costs are those that support the availability of a facility and to maintain some supplies in storage for imme- diate availability. The costs of depreciation of the property and lost revenue if a revenue-generating building is given over to permanent use as a quarantine area are not calcu- lated. The numbers for depreciation and lost revenue are too variable to try to estimate in this study because they de- pend directly on where the airport is located and the value of the real estate there, the age of the structure, and the rou- tine use of the space potentially earmarked for conversion to a quarantine area. Activation Costs These are the costs of opening the facility to incoming passengers and crew for a period of up to 2 weeks. Included in Table 2 are the costs of rental of portable shower trailers and washers and dryers. Trailers take an average of 24– 36 hours to be delivered on site and connected to existing water supplies. Operational Costs These are the costs as shown in Table 3 that would be in- curred for a 14-day quarantine event. The exact composition of the population would change some figures. For example, the authors estimate that there will be the need for three portable cribs for children under the age of two, but that could end up being five or more. Recovery Costs These are the costs for cleaning the building and restoring it to its previous use (see Table 4). C H A P T E R 4 Estimated Costs

14 1. Cost of Space in a Separate Facility if Used for Quarantine Needed: 20 square feet per person x 200 people = 4,000 square feet 7 additional rooms for: recreation/leisure (3), office area, food assembly and serving, medical, and storage. Each room 500 square feet x 7 = 3,500 square Value of the space: $15,000 per month feet. Total space: 7,500 square feet Approximately $2.00 per square foot/month x $7,500 = $15,000 per month 2. Privacy Partitions and Space Dividers Partitions needed for sleeping areas—approximately 320 partitions (based on 100 individually divided spaces and 50 other divided spaces occupied by couples or small families). 7 other divided spaces for recreation/leisure (3), office area, food assembly and serving, medical, and storage—approximately 22 (2-3 dividers per space depending if it is on location next to walls or at end of aisles) 342 dividers x $200 each = $68,400* $68,400* 3. Storage Lockers—6 tiered metal lockers (size 1 cu ft.) with 3 for each row (18 individual lockers) x 12 @ $325 each = $3,900 $3,900* 4. Cleaning supplies Commercial mopping combo @ $26.00 x 5 = $130* Mops @ $11 each x 5 = $55* Trash cans: 1 44-gallon cans per 20 people plus 1 for each of 7 “other use” spaces and 3 extra = 20 cans x $45 per can = $900* Cleaning liquids, approximately 25 gallons x $7.00 per gallon = $175 Trash can liners @ $1.50 per liner x 20 cans x 14 days = $420 $1,680 5. Coffee Machines 2 coffee machines ($25 each x 2= $50) per group of 40; 5 groups (of 40 persons) x $50 = $250 $250 6. Medical Supplies First aid kits—10 kits @ $20 each = $200 Automatic External Defibrillator (AED) @ $1,245 each x 2 = $2,490* Particulate/surgical masks @ $10 per box of 20 x 28 = $280 Powdered Latex-free gloves @ $3.50 per box of 100 x 5 = $17.50 ($18) $2,988 7. Toiletries/Bedding 200 cots + 10% spare (20 additional cots) @ $20 each = $4,400* 2 sheets per bed @ $10 each x 220 = $2,200* Blankets @ $10 each x 220 = $2,200* General toiletry items (toothbrush, toothpaste, soap, shampoo, razor, shaving cream, lotion) @ $10 per person x 220 (20 extra) = $2,200 Towels—240 (200 plus 17% extra) @ $8 per dozen x 20 packs = $160* Washcloths—240 (200 plus 17% extra) @ $4 per dozen x 20 packs = $80* Flip flops for showers—200 x $2 (sold in cases) = $400 $11,640 8. Labor (average) Private security to include this building in routine checks (if not otherwise in use and monitored by security) 1 additional man-hour per day @ $30.00 per hour x 30 days = $900 Or use of Airport Police to include building (non-overtime) 1 additional man- hour per day @ $45.00 per hour x 30 days = $1,350 $1,125 Total Stand-by Costs $104,983 *Possibly one-time expense; could be re-used. Table 1. Total stand-by costs.

15 1. Labor Building Supervisor (prepare area for arrival of individuals in quarantine and for quarantine staff, including set-up, utilities, ordering shower trailers, food and water, sanitation equipment, etc.) 2 personnel for 10 hours each = 20 hours @ $30.00 per hour = $600 $600 2. Showers 3 shower trailers (14-16 shower stalls) available after 48 hrs of initial quarantine mandate. Includes running water and heat. Shower facilities would be delivered and installed within 2 days. Cost includes delivery and set up to existing water supplies (fresh and waste water). Holding tanks and pump-off costs would be extra if needed. $10,000 3. Washer/Dryers Combo washer-dryer sets @ $1200 x 5 (1 per group of 40 people) = $6,000* $6,000* 4. Portable Toilets Rental of 10 porta-johns @$75 each (per month) = $750 1 ADA-approved porta-john @ $125 each (per month) = $125 $875 5. Portable Sinks Rental of 6 dual sinks (with 45-gallon water container, soap dispenser, and trash receptacle @ $85 each (per month) = $510 $510 6. Communications Communications (other than TV/DVD/Books): One room (perhaps 10x50 ft) with Internet (5) access, telephones (5): costs $1,500 7. Utility Start-Up Costs This includes the costs of any activation fees for telephone lines, cable service or other contingency services not included in Operational Costs $1,000 Total Activation Costs $20,485 *Possibly one-time expense; could be re-used. Table 2. Total activation costs.

1. Labor Cleaning Two employees for 4 hours per week = 8 hours x 2 weeks = 16 hours @ $18 per hour = $288 Site Management and Administration 3 Site Supervisors (24-hour coverage for 14 days = 336 hours x $40/hour = $13,440 3 Service Coordinators (24-hour coverage for 14 days = 336 hours x $30/hour = $10,080 4 Assistants (to cover 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. for organizing and serving 3 meals per day and clean up) 2 per 6-hour shift x 2 shifts = 24 hours per day x $67,656 14 days = 336 hours @ $18 per hour = $6,048 Subtotal: $29,528 Security Private security at @ $30.00/hour = $30,240 Or use of Airport Police (non-overtime) @ $45.00 per hour = $45,360 Average costs of security= $37.50 per hour x 3 personnel x 24 hrs x 14 days = $37,800 2. Cleaning Supplies 1 case (6 ct) of Chlorinated Bleach @ $14 x 2 = $28 12 ct Clorox disinfectant wipes @ $36 x 2 = $72 Disinfectant cleaner 1 gallon each @ $17 x 7=$119 1 case (12 ct) of disinfectant spray @ $76x 7 = $532 $751 3. Baby Supplies Diapers, 140 per pack @ $40 each x 3 packs (assorted) = $120 Baby formula (6 32-oz. cans per pack) @ $30 each x 12 packs* = $360 Baby food, 5 cases (24 count) @ $30 per case = $150 Bottles, 5 per baby x 3 babies = 15 bottles x 5 packs (3 ct) @ $8 each = $40 Pacifiers, 1 pack (2ct) @ $5 each x 3 = $15 Baby wipes, 6 packs @ $4 per pack = $24 Portable cribs as needed (one per child < age 2) @ 100.00 each x 3 = $300 Crib mattresses, 3 @ $35 = $105 Crib sheets and baby blankets for 3 cribs and 1 change of sheets, $150 High chairs (3) @ $50 each = $150 $1,414 4. Food/ Beverages/Supplies Meals —(combination of hot and cold food) 3 meals per person per day x 200 individuals = 600 meals per day x 14 days = 8,400 meals @ average $6 per meal = $50,400 Beverages Bottled water, 4 bottles per person per day x 200 individuals = 800 bottles per * Would provide approximately 7 cups of milk per baby for 14 days, assuming 3 babies in quarantine. day x 14 days = 10,400 bottles @ $1 each = $11,200 Other beverages (juice, soda, coffee, tea, etc.) approximately 5 per person per day x 200 = 1,000 beverages per day x 14 days = 14,000 beverages @ $0.50 per beverage = $7,000 Food and Beverage Supplies Hot/cold drinking cups, @ $23 per case (1,000 count) x 14 = $322 Paper plates, @ $17 per case (500 count) x 21 = $357 $71,613 Plastic utensils, 1 case of assorted utensils (100 count) @ $25 x 3 0= $750 Paper napkins, @ $3 per pack (100 count) x 88 = $264 10 coolers @ $20 each = $200 4 bags of 2-lb ice per day for each cooler @ $2 each = $8 per cooler x 10 = $80 per day; $80 x 14 days = $1,120 Table 3. Total operational costs.

17 5. Other Supplies Toilet paper, 1 case (96 count) @ $54 per case x 30 = $1,620 Paper towels, 1 case (16 count) @ $40 x 25 = $1,000 Facial tissue, 1 case (12 box count) @ $25 x 16 = $400 Feminine Products sanitary napkins (100 per case) @ $20 x 4 = $80 tampons (500 count) @ $61 x 1 = $61 Flashlights @ $13 x 12 = $156 Fire extinguisher @ $27 x 2 = $54 Batteries (for flashlights and radios) $200 Entertainment Televisions (5) @ $250 x 5 = $1,250 (or rent for less) DVD players (5) @ $100 x 5 = $500(or rent for less) Games (cards, board games, DVD’s, compact discs) $400 Toys, assorted $300 Radios (4) @ $30 x 4 = $120 Total Operational Costs $6,141 $147,575 Table 3. (Continued). Labor Cleaning Labor for clean up and disinfecting the building. A specialized cleaning company that handles biological hazard clean up may have to be hired. 1 supervisor x 8 hours(2 each day) = 32 hours @ $50 per hour = $1,600 3 people x 32 hours each = 96 hours @ $30 hour = $2,880 Building Supervisor (oversee management of the building and utilities as regular use returns) 32 hours @ $30 per hour = $960 Site Supervisor (finalize records and reports and oversees close out of quarantine operations of items) 40 hours @ $40 per hour = $1,600 Total Recovery Costs $7,040 TOTAL ESTIMATED COSTS FOR QUARANTINE $ 280,083 Table 4. Total recovery costs.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 5: Quarantine Facilities for Arriving Air Travelers: Identification of Planning Needs and Costs explores facility issues, security considerations, and estimated costs (including operating costs) that airport operators and policymakers may want to consider when planning for the potential quarantine of arriving air travelers.

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