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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 16 2019 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Administration and Management â¢ Aviation Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Second Edition Susan J.H. Zellers Charles H. Snowden, Jr. Michael C. Moon Sergey Kireyev Hanson Professional services inc. Indianapolis, IN Jacksonville and Orlando, FL Sarah Arnold Marr/arnold Planning llc Cincinnati, OH David A. NewMyer soutHern illinois university carbondale Carbondale, IL
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 16, SECOND EDITION Project 01-32 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48025-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2019937107 Â© 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo credit: (left) Heber Valley Airport (KHCR), Heber City, Utah, Courtesy of T-O Engineers, Inc.; (right) Stanton Airport, Stanton, Kentucky, Courtesy of Hanson Professional Services Inc. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 16, SECOND EDITION Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Acting Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Megan A. Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 01-32 PANEL Field of Administration Kimberly A. Kenville, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (Chair) Michael P. Hainsey, Golden Triangle Regional Airport, Columbus, MS Diane Hofer, PE, Olsson Associates, Lincoln, NE Linda Howard, Independent Aviation Consultant, Bastrop, TX Chuck Larson, J-U-B Engineers, Inc, Salt Lake City, UT Christopher Rozansky, Naples Airport Authority, Naples, FL Clayton L. Stambaugh, Illinois DOT, Springfield, IL Gabriel Mahns, FAA Liaison Andy Velayos, FAA Liaison Paul J. Eubanks, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison
ACRP Research Report 16: Guidebook for Managing Small Airports, Second Edition, is designed to help airport practitioners, owners, operators, managers, and policymakers of small airports, who may have varying degrees of experience and backgrounds, to fulfill their responsibilities in such areas as financial management, oversight of contracts and leases, safety and security, noise impacts, community relations, compliance with federal and state obligations, facility maintenance, and capital improvements. The first edition has been edited and reformatted for currency, relevance, and usability and updated with additional information and new subject areas (e.g., unmanned aircraft systems, geographic informa- tion systems, digital Notices to Airmen, social media, and federal and state obligations). Also hyperlinks to many of the documents and resources mentioned in this report, such as ACRP publications, industry sources and sample checklists, have been collected into ACRP WebResource 6: Resources for Managing Small Airports (crp.trb.org/acrp0132). Since the publication of ACRP Report 16: Guidebook for Managing Small Airports (2009), a significant amount of research that could be of direct benefit to small airports has been completed, and the Federal Aviation Administration, state agencies, and trade and industry groups have developed and initiated new policies and guidance. In addition, small airports are facing new industry challenges not addressed in the first edition (e.g., unmanned aerial systems). Therefore, an update was needed. Under ACRP Project 01-32, research was conducted by Hanson Professional Services Inc. in association with Marr/Arnold Planning, LLC, and David NewMyer of Southern Illinois University. The research was conducted through industry outreach via a survey of small airport managers identified through coordination with state agencies and various roundtable discussions held at industry conferences. Additionally, an industry panel com- prising several geographically diverse small airports served as a sounding board for the research team at key points in the study process. A resource review examined written and electronic documents that provide the regulations and existing guidance for best practices on managing small airports. Based on this review and industry input, the guidebook is organized into management areas and is intended to be used as a self-help guide, providing the user with key insights, definitions, and background on many small airport management topics as well as links to additional resources. F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Approach to Project 5 1.2 Intended Audience 6 1.3 Industry Survey 7 1.4 Common Resources 12 Chapter 2 Airport RolesâKey Classifications and Regulations in the Airport System 12 2.1 Airport Classification and Why It Matters 21 2.2 Key Types of Regulations for Airport Management 23 Chapter 3 BusinessâFinancial and Administrative Management 23 3.1 Revenue Generation and Use 28 3.2 Budgets 32 3.3 Managing the Airport as a Stand-Alone Business 37 3.4 Revenue Generation and Diversification 42 3.5 Rates and Charges 45 3.6 Leases 56 3.7 Airport Operations Documents 60 3.8 Complaints Under FAR Parts 13 and 16 65 3.9 Insurance 68 3.10 Grants and Capital Improvement Funding 77 3.11 Consultant Selection 82 3.12 Administrative Tasks 89 Chapter 4 OperationsâRunning a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 89 4.1 Inspection 95 4.2 NOTAM Management 98 4.3 Airport Emergency Plans 105 4.4 Fueling Operations 111 4.5 Security 117 4.6 Staff Training 123 4.7 Equipment Management 126 4.8 Record Keeping 128 4.9 Wildlife Management 131 4.10 Airport Obstruction Management 138 4.11 Safety Management System 141 4.12 Winter Operations 149 4.13 Special Events 152 4.14 Americans with Disabilities Act 155 4.15 Unmanned Aircraft Systems C O N T E N T S
160 4.16 Operating Certificate Compliance 164 4.17 Customs Service 166 4.18 Joint-Use Airports 169 Chapter 5 Asset ManagementâMaintaining Current Assets and Planning Development for the Future 169 5.1 Maintaining Existing Assets 173 5.2 Pavement Maintenance 177 5.3 Airport Planning 186 5.4 Airport Business Planning 189 5.5 NextGen Opportunities 194 5.6 Land-Use Compatibility and Zoning 200 5.7 Exhibit âAâ Property Map 202 5.8 Environmental Documentation 209 5.9 Sustainability in Everyday Operations 214 5.10 Project Implementation 223 5.11 Land Acquisition Process 226 5.12 Land Release/Concurrent Use 230 5.13 Airport User Surveys, Benchmarking Studies and Peer Reviews 234 5.14 IT Systems 237 5.15 ATCT Establishment 240 Chapter 6 CommunicationâPromoting the Airport and Connecting with the Community 240 6.1 Community Relations 244 6.2 Branding 245 6.3 Marketing Plans 248 6.4 Communication Tools 251 6.5 Economic Impact 254 6.6 Emergency Communication 257 Chapter 7 Commercial ServiceâAttracting Airlines and Transitioning to Airline Service 257 7.1 Transitioning to Commercial Air Service 266 7.2 Airline Use Agreements 269 7.3 Customer Service 272 7.4 Air Service Development 278 7.5 Essential Air Service Program 280 7.6 Common-Use Facilities 282 7.7 PFC and CFC Funding Sources 284 7.8 Planning for Irregular Operations 286 Aviation-Related Abbreviations 297 Glossary 339 Bibliography Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.