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Riot Is of Tic Ads SASS find R~i~ Edidon, 1981 Subcommittee on Blologlcal Energy mml~ ~ alma Norton Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Commlsslon on Natural Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS shing~n, D C. 1981
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to proce- dures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a pri- vate, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Acad- emies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. This study was supported by the Bureau of Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Admin- istration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, by Agricultural Re- search, Science and Education Administration of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and by Agriculture Canada. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data National Research Council. Committee on Animal Nutrition. Subcommittee on Biological Energy. Nutritional energetics of domestic animals and glossary of energy terms. Edition of 1966, prepared by the Committee on Animal Nutrition of the National Research Council, published under title: Biological energy interrelationships and glossary of energy terms. Bibliography: p. 1. Animal nutrition. 2. Animal nutrition-Terminol- ogy. 3. Bioenergetics-Terminology. I. National Research Council. Committee on Animal Nutrition. Biological energy interrelationships and glossary of energy terms. II. Title. [ DNLM: 1. Animal nutrition- Nomenclature. 2. Energy metabolism-Nomenclature. SF 95 N2775n] SF95.N3 1981 636.08'52 80-28912 ISBN 0-309-03127-3 Fuse Printing, January 1981 Second Printing, October 1990 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America
PR EFACE In 1962 a report was prepared for the Committee on Animal Nu- trition (CA N ~ by Lorin E. Harris entitled Glossary of Energy Terms. This report was intended for use as a reference in connec- tion with the Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series. The report was revised in 1966 as Biological Energy Interrela- t~onships and Glossary of Energy Terms, and research workers were urged to re,port their data according to the calorie system so that sufficient information could be obtained to construct feed composition and nutrient requirement tables for various species of animals with quantities given in calories. These efforts have been most successful, and tables of feed composition and nutrient re- quirements prepared by the species-oriented subcommittees of the Committee on Animal Nutrition are routinely included in each re- port of the Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series. Several new systems of feed evaluation have come into use since 1966, with varied and sometimes conflicting use of terminology. The Committee on Animal Nutrition therefore requested the ap- pointment of a subcommittee to ~ I) develop more systematic terminology for the description of energy utilization by animals and (2) reconcile the terminology used in feeding systems with the more idealized scheme for describing energy metabolism of animals. · ·
IV The CAN Subcommittee on Biological Energy was appointed to address these issues. Two formal meetings were held, the first on September 29-30, 1977, in Washington, D.C., and the second on March 2-3, 1978, in Chicago, Illinois. The activities of the subcom- mittee were expanded to address the compromises included in the development of practical feeding systems in order to have a system simple enough to be accepted for general use. The information contained in this report is the result of the ef- forts of the members and the suggestions by individuals engaged in energy metabolism research. In particular, David R. Ames, Henry S. Bayley, John E. Cantion, Richard C. Ewan, John E. Halver, and Glen P. Lofgreen assisted by preparing critical reviews, and their suggestions are deeply appreciated. Also reviewing this report were the members of the Committee on Animal Nutrition, the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, and the Com- mission on Natural Resources. Staff of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Philip Ross (executive secretary), Selma P. Baron (staff officer), and Sheridan E. Caldwell (secretary) assisted the subcommittee in the production of this report.
CAN SUBCOMMITTEE ON BIOLOGICAL ENERGY H E N R Y F. T Y R R E ~ ~ (~air~n), u s D A, S EA /A R. Ru~nant Nutrition Laboratory, Belts~rille, Maryland ~ E o NT A R D S . B U ~ C, University of Maine WILLIAM N. GARRETT, Umversity of CaLfornia, ~vis A N R . S ~ B B A ~ D, Agriculture Cana ~ ROBERT R. SMITH, U.S. Fish and Wil~ife Service COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION JOSEPH P. FONTEN OT (Chai~an), Virginia Polytec~ic Institute and State University CARL E. COPPOCK, Te~s A&M University R ~ C H A R D D . G ~ O D R ~ C H. University of Minnesota BERY ~ E. M ARCH, University of British Columbia PAUL W. MOE, USDA, SEAiAR, Ruminant Nutrition ~borato~, Beltsville, Maryland QU IN TO N R. RO G ~ RS, University of Califorma, Davis GARY L. RUMSEY, Tunison ~boratory of Fish Nutrition D U AN E E. U ~ ~ R KY, Mic~gan State UniYersity v
BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND RENEWABLE RESOURCES G E O R G E K . D AV IS (Chair~n), University of Florida, retired CH ES TE R O. M cC O R KE E, ~ R . ~ Vice Chai~an), University of California, Davis JOHN D. AX TELL, ~rdue University NEVILLE P. CLARKE, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station SALLY K. FAIRFAX, University of California, Berkeley O H N E . H A ~ V E R. University of Washington R O B. E R T O . H E R R M A N N. Pennsylvania State University MINO RU HIRONAKA, University of Idaho ~ A U R E N C E R . ~ A H N. Wil~ife Management Institute BERNARD S. SCHWEIGERT, University of Califorr~ia, Davis GEORGE R. STAEBLER, Weyerhaeuser Co., retired PAUL E. WAGGONER, Connecticut Agric~tural Experiment Station, New Haven PHILIP ROSS, Execu~ve Secreta~ COMMISSION ON NATURAL RESOURCES RO BERT M . WHITE (Chai~an), University Corporation for Atmospheric Research TIM O TH Y AT KESO N. Steptoe & Johnson S T. A N ~ E Y ~ . A U E R B A C H. Oak Ridge National ~boratory NORMAN A. COPELAND, E. I. du Pont de Nemours ~ Co., retired G E O R G E K. D AV IS, University of Florida, retired E D W A R D D . G O L D B E R G. Scripps Institution of Oceano~aphy C H A R L E S J . M A N K I N. O~ahoma Geological Survey CH ES TE R O . M cC O R KE E, ~ R ., University of California, Davis NORTON NELSON, New York University Medical Center D A N ~ E ~ A. O K U N. University of North Carolina DAVID PIM ENTEL, CorneD University JOHN E. TILTON, Pennsylvania State University A ~ V ~ N M . W E ~ N B E R G. Oak Ridge Associated Universities E. BRIGHT WILSON, ex offcio, Harvard University W A ~ ~ A C E D . B O W M A N. Execu tive Direc tor Vl
CONTENTS Nutritional Energetics of Domestic Animals and Glossary of Energy Terms Introduction Units of Measurement Biological Basis of Energy Partition Definition of Terms Conventional Scheme Relationship of Environmental Temperature to Energy Metabolism Systems Used to Express Feed Energy Values and an Animal's Requirement for Energy Application to Growing Ruminants Application to Lactating Ruminants Application to Nonruminant Herbivores, Especially Horses and Rabbits Application to Swine Application to Poultry Application to Aquatic Animals References Append ix · ~ vll 2 3 s 9 13 19 27 31 34 37 39 41 45 51