(Examples of established or new mechanisms of relevance to proposed Research Fund)
1: International transfers of money, equipment, and materials
• Deposit of funds provided by institution in one country in bank account of recipient institution in other country.
• Transfer of funds provided by institution in one country directly to recipient scientist in other country—transfer into bank account, by personal delivery of cash or check, or by payment of personal expenses (airfare, hotel, etc.).
• International transfer of funds via CRDF.
• International transfer of funds to institution or individual through commercial service-provider—travel agency, overseas affiliate of paying organization, or multinational service-provider.
• Payment to producer or commercial handler of material and equipment in one country for purchase and shipment abroad to user of material and equipment, including payment of customs fees.
2: Organizations with relevant experience in awarding international research grants and contracts in the life sciences on a competitive basis
• U.S. government organizations: Department of State, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
• U.S. nongovernment organizations: CRDF, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, NIH Foundation.
• Russian ministries and agencies: Department of Education and Science; Ministry of Health and Social Services.
• Other Russian organizations: Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), Skolkovo Foundation, Rusnano.
3: Other relevant experience
• Parallel awards in two countries by government and/or nongovernment entities for joint projects (e.g., NIH-RFBR; Russian Department of Education and Science-U.S. Department of Education).
• Fund transfers within Joint Ventures.
• U.S. government guarantee of repayment of Bank Loan to support commercially oriented project in Russia.
• Fulbright program to support researchers from one country carrying out exploratory or well-defined research in other country.
4: New models
• Expanded role of existing foundation (e.g., Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, U.S.-Russian Foundation for Economic Advancement and Rule of Law, Rostropovich Foundation).
• Establishment of new fund within appropriate existing organization (with or without endowment) that has experience in funding international projects in the life sciences.
• Location of funding organization or recipient organization (or both) within special tax and customs zone.