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Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14 (2013)

Chapter: 4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

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Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
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4

Methanesulfonyl Chloride1

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

PREFACE

Under the authority of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) P.L. 92-463 of 1972, the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances (NAC/AEGL Committee) has been established to identify, review, and interpret relevant toxicologic and other scientific data and develop AEGLs for high-priority, acutely toxic chemicals.

AEGLs represent threshold exposure limits for the general public and are applicable to emergency exposure periods ranging from 10 minutes (min) to 8 hours (h). Three levels—AEGL-1, AEGL-2, and AEGL-3—are developed for each of five exposure periods (10 and 30 min and 1, 4, and 8 h) and are distinguished by varying degrees of severity of toxic effects. The three AEGLs are defined as follows:

AEGL-1 is the airborne concentration (expressed as parts per million or milligrams per cubic meter [ppm or mg/m3]) of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, could experience notable discomfort, irritation, or certain asymptomatic, nonsensory effects. However, the effects are not disabling and are transient and reversible upon cessation of exposure.

____________________

1This document was prepared by the AEGL Development Team composed of Cheryl Bast (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), Lisa Ingerman (SRC, Inc.), Chemical Manager Roberta Grant (National Advisory Committee [NAC] on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances), and Ernest V. Falke (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). The NAC reviewed and revised the document and AEGLs as deemed necessary. Both the document and the AEGL values were then reviewed by the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels. The NRC committee has concluded that the AEGLs developed in this document are scientifically valid conclusions based on the data reviewed by the NRC and are consistent with the NRC guidelines reports (NRC 1993, 2001).

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

AEGL-2 is the airborne concentration (expressed as ppm or mg/m3) of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, could experience irreversible or other serious, long-lasting adverse health effects or an impaired ability to escape.

AEGL-3 is the airborne concentration (expressed as ppm or mg/m3) of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, could experience life-threatening health effects or death.

Airborne concentrations below the AEGL-1 represent exposure concentrations that could produce mild and progressively increasing but transient and nondisabling odor, taste, and sensory irritation or certain asymptomatic, nonsensory effects. With increasing airborne concentrations above each AEGL, there is a progressive increase in the likelihood of occurrence and the severity of effects described for each corresponding AEGL. Although the AEGL values represent threshold concentrations for the general public, including susceptible subpopulations, such as infants, children, the elderly, persons with asthma, and those with other illnesses, it is recognized that individuals, subject to idiosyncratic responses, could experience the effects described at concentrations below the corresponding AEGL.

SUMMARY

Methanesulfonyl chloride is a pale yellow liquid with an unpleasant odor. It is made commercially either by the chlorination of methyl mercaptan or by the sulfochlorination of methane. It is used as an intermediate in the pharmaceutical, photographic, fiber, dye, and agricultural industries. It is also used as a stabilizer, catalyst, curing agent, and chlorinating agent. Methanesulfonyl chloride causes severe ocular, dermal, and mucous membrane irritation. Chlorine gas and sulfur oxides are produced when it is heated until decomposition.

Data were insufficient to derive AEGL-1 values for methanesulfonyl chloride. Therefore, AEGL-1 values are not recommended.

Appropriate chemical-specific data were not available for deriving AEGL-2 values. In the absence of such data, chemicals with a steep concentration-response curve may be derived by dividing AEGL-3 values by 3 (NRC 2001). A steep concentration-response curve has been demonstrated for methanesulfonyl chloride; mortality in rats exposed to it for 4 h was 10% at 20 ppm and 90% at 28 ppm (Pennwalt Corporation 1987).

A 4-h rat BMCL05 (benchmark concentration, 95% lower confidence limit with 5% response) of 15.5 ppm (Pennwalt Corporation 1987) was used as the point of departure for AEGL-3 values. Values were time scaled using the equation Cn × t = k, where n ranges from 0.8 to 3.5 (ten Berge et al. 1986). An empirical value for n was sought by analyzing lethality data in rats exposed for 1-6 h by log probit analysis (see Appendix E). However, the data and modeling results were considered inadequate to define an empirical value of n, but

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

indicated that time is an important component of the concentration-time relationship for methanesulfonyl chloride. When an empirical value cannot be determined, default values of n = 1 for extrapolation to longer durations and n = 3 for extrapolation to shorter durations may be used to derive AEGL values protective of human health (NRC 2001). However, the log probit analyses suggested that the value of n is most likely around 1, and provided sufficient information to exclude the default value of n = 3 for scaling from longer to shorter durations. Therefore, on the basis of available data and log probit analyses, AEGL values were scaled across time using the equation Cn × t = k, with n = 1. Uncertainty factors of 10 were applied to account for interspecies differences and intraspecies variability (total uncertainty factor of 100), because of the lack of information available to describe species differences in toxicity and interindividual variability. Although clinical signs and pathologic findings from the limited data set suggest contact irritation (partial eye closure, disturbed respiratory patterns, salivation, nose rubbing, blinking, nasal discharge, lacrimation, increased relative lung weight, pulmonary congestion, and corneal surface damage) and this type of portal-of-entry effect is not expected to vary greatly between species, the available data are not sufficient to conclusively describe the mechanism of toxicity. The 30-min AEGL-3 value was adopted as the 10-min value because of the added uncertainty of extrapolating a 4-h point of departure to a 10-min value.

AEGL values for methanesulfonyl chloride are presented in Table 4-1.

1. INTRODUCTION

Methanesulfonyl chloride is a pale yellow liquid with an unpleasant odor. It is made commercially either by the chlorination of methyl mercaptan or by the sulfochlorination of methane. It is used as an intermediate in the pharmaceutical, photographic, fiber, dye, and agricultural industries. It is also used as a stabilizer, catalyst, curing agent, and chlorinating agent. Methanesulfonyl chloride causes severe ocular, skin, and mucous membrane irritation. Chlorine gas and sulfur oxides are produced when methanesulfonyl chloride is heated to decomposition (Shertzer 2001). Methanesulfonyl chloride is shipped in 55 gallon drums; production in 1981 was “probably greater than 2.27 × 106 grams” (HSDB 2007). Chemical and physical data for methanesulfonyl chloride are presented in Table 4-2.

2. HUMAN TOXICITY DATA

Methanesulfonyl chloride is a strong irritant to the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, and respiratory tract and is corrosive. Its odor is described as unpleasant, although no information on an odor threshold was found (Shertzer 2001).

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

TABLE 4-1 AEGL Values for Methanesulfonyl Chloride

Classification 10 min 30 min 1 h 4 h 8 h End Point (Reference)
AEGL-1 (nondisabliiig)a NR NR NR NR NR Insufficient data
AEGL-2 (disabling) 0.40 ppm (1.9 mg/m3) 0.40 ppm (1.9 mg/m3) 0.21 ppm (0.98 mg/m3) 0.053 ppm (0.25 mg/m3) 0.026 ppm (0.12 mg/m3) One third of AEGL-3 values (NRC2001).
AEGL-3 (lethal) 1.2 ppm (5.6 mg/m3) 1.2 ppm (5.6 mg/m3) 0.62 ppm (2.9 mg/m3) 0.16 ppm (0.75 mg/m3) 0.078 ppm (0.37 mg/m3) 4-h BMCL05 of 15.5 ppm in rats (Pennwalt Coip oration 1987)

Abbreviations: BMCL05, benchmark concentration, 95% lower confidence limit with 5% response; NR, not recommended because of insufficient data.

aAbsence of an AEGL-1 value does not imply that concentrations below the AEGL-2 values are without effect.

TABLE 4-2 Chemical and Physical Data for Methanesulfonyl Chloride

Parameter

Value

References

Synonyms

Chloromethyl sulfone; mesyl chloride; methanesulfonic acid chloride; methyl sulfochloride

HSDB 2007

CAS registry no.

124-63-0

HSDB 2007

Chemical formula

CH3ClO2S

HSDB 2007

Molecular weight

114.55

HSDB 2007

Physical state

Pale, yellow liquid

HSDB 2007

Freezing point

-32°C

HSDB 2007

Boiling point

62°C @ 18mmHg

HSDB 2007

Flash point

110°C

Shertzer 2001

Density/specific gravity

1.4805 g/L @ 18°C

HSDB 2007

Solubility in water

Insoluble; hydrolyzes slowly

HSDB 2007

Vapor pressure

3.09 mm Hg @ 25°C

HSDB 2007

Conversion factors

1 ppm = 4.68 mg/m3
1 mg/m3 = 0.21 ppm

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

3. ANIMAL TOXICITY DATA

3.1. Acute Toxicity

Groups of five male and five female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to methanesulfonyl chloride at 0, 20, 28, or 54 ppm (analytic concentrations) for 4 h, followed by a 14-day observation period (Pennwalt Corporation 1987). Whole-body exposure chambers were constructed of Perspex and had an internal volume of 115 L. Test atmospheres were generated by supplying methanesulfonyl chloride from a syringe driven by a syringe pump. The compressed air supply to the generator was dried, filtered, and oil free; flow rate was 25 L/min. Test atmospheres were analyzed five times per exposure by gas chromatography flame ionization detection, and were monitored for the presence of droplets of methanesulfonyl chloride at 1.5 and 3.5 h. The study followed Good Laboratory Practice and the guidelines of Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development for assessing acute inhalation toxicity (OECD Test 403). Clinical signs observed during exposure in all groups included closing or partial closing of the eyes, wet fur around the mouth, hunched body posture, and disturbed respiratory patterns. Clinical signs during the observation period included lethargy and disturbances of the respiratory pattern. Respiratory effects persisted for several days in rats that survived. Lung-to-body weight ratio was increased in most decedents, and pulmonary congestion and damage to the corneal surface of the eyes were also found. A 4-h LC50 (lethal concentration, 50% lethality) value of 25 ± 2.7 ppm, a BMCL05 of 15.5 ppm, and BMC01 (benchmark concentration with 1% response) of 17.4 ppm were calculated. Mortality data from this study are summarized in Table 4-3.

TABLE 4-3 Mortality in Rats Exposed to Methanesulfonyl Chloride for 4 Hours

  Mortality
Concentration (ppm) Males Females Combined
0 0/5 0/5 0/10
20 1/5 0/5 1/10
28 4/5 5/5 9/10
54 5/5 5/5 10/10
LC50     25 ppm
BMC01     17.4 ppm
BMCL05     15.5 ppm

Source: Pennwalt Corporation 1987.

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

Groups of five male and five female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to methanesulfonyl chloride at 165, 174, or 300 ppm (analytic concentrations) for 1 h, followed by a 14-day observation period (Pennwalt Corporation 1986). Animal were exposed (whole body) in 100-L Plexiglas chambers. Test atmospheres were generated by placing methanesulfonyl chloride into a bubbler fitted with an impinger. A metered, dried air supply was delivered into the bubbler and the resulting vapor laden air stream was introduced into the exposure chamber; flow rate was 25-26 L/min. Concentrations of methanesulfonyl chloride were analyzed twice per exposure. The study followed Good Laboratory Practice and U.S. Department of Transportation guidelines. Clinical signs noted during exposure and within 5-h post-exposure included secretory and pulmonary responses (not otherwise specified) and decreased activity in all groups. Rats in the 300-ppm group had closed eyes and exhibited prostration. Signs of toxicity in this group during the observation period included secretory and pulmonary responses and generally poor condition until death on the afternoon following exposure. Survivors in the 165- and 174-ppm groups showed secretory and pulmonary effects through days 4-5; these signs were noted sporadically thereafter. Corneal irregularities and opacities were found in three of nine rats in the 165-ppm group and all eight rats in the 174-ppm group at the end of the observation period. An LC50 value could not be calculated from the data; however, the investigators stated that the 1-h LC50 is most likely in the range of 175 to 250 ppm. Mortality data from this study are summarized in Table 4-4.

Groups of three rats were exposed to nominal concentrations of methanesulfonyl chloride at 2,145 ppm for up to 45 min, 29 ppm for 6 h, or 132 ppm for 6 h, followed by a 14-day observation period (TerHaar 1978). Chamber temperatures were 24-26°C. No further experimental details were provided. Methanesulfonyl chloride was described as a severe tissue irritant, capable of causing necrosis on any tissue it contacts. Results and observations of this study are presented in Table 4-5.

Oral LD50 values for methanesulfonyl chloride of approximately 175 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were determined for rats and mice, respectively (TerHaar 1978). Deaths occurred immediately after dosing, except for two mice that survived a dose near the LD50. Hematuria developed in surviving rats. No additional details were presented.

TABLE 4-4 Mortality in Rats Exposed to Methanesulfonyl Chloride for 1 Hour

  Mortality
Concentration (ppm) Males Females Combined
165 1/5 0/5 1/10
174 1/5 1/5 2/10
300 5/5 5/5 10/10

Source: Pennwalt Corporation 1986.

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

TABLE 4-5 Mortality and Clinical Signs in Rats Exposed to Methanesulfonyl Chloride

Concentration (ppm) Duration Mortality Time to Death Clinical Signs (when first observed)
2.145 45 niin 3/3 1 dead in 30 min
1 dead in 40 min
1 dead in 45 mill
Blinking and nose nibbing (1 min). salivation (4 min). dyspnea and piloerection (5 min). lacrimation and clear nasal discharge (10 min).
29 6 h 0/3 Blinking (1 min). nose nibbing (2 min). piloerection (5 min). vasodilation (15 min).
132 6 h 3/3 2 dead in 20-h post-exposure 1 dead in 3-d post-exposure Blinking and nose nibbing (1 min). dyspnea and piloerection (10 min). clear nasal discharge (15 min). lacrimation and salivation (25 min). wheezing (265 min).

Source: TerHaar 1978.

3.2. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity

No data on the developmental and reproductive toxicity of methanesulfonyl chloride were available.

3.3. Genotoxicity

In the presence of exogenous metabolic activation (S9 mix), methanesulfonyl chloride induced chromosome aberrations in vitro in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (Sipi et al. 1997). Without metabolic activation, no response was observed.

3.4. Chronic Toxicity and Carcinogenicity

No data on the chronic toxicity or carcinogenicity of methanesulfonyl chloride were available.

3.5. Summary

Animal toxicity data are limited. Clinical signs, including ocular and nasal irritation, respiratory difficulty, nasal discharge, wheezing, and corneal opacities, are consistent with severe irritation. Methanesulfonyl chloride induced chromosome aberrations in CHO cells only in the presence of metabolic activation. No data on the developmental, reproductive, chronic, or carcinogenic effects of methanesulfonyl chloride were available.

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

4. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

4.1. Metabolism and Disposition

No information was available on the metabolism and disposition of methanesulfonyl chloride.

4.2. Mechanism of Toxicity

No information was available on the mechanism of toxicity of methanesulfonyl chloride.

4.3. Structure-Activity Relationships

Methanesulfonyl chloride (CH3ClO2S) is structurally similar to thionyl chloride (Cl2OS) and sulfuryl chloride (Cl2O2S). However, thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride readily hydrolyze to SO2 and HCl whereas methanesulfonyl chloride hydrolyzes very slowly. The health effects of these three compounds are similar but their mechanism of toxicity is likely different. Although data are limited, it appears that the effects of thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride result from their hydrolysis products rather than from exposure to the parent compounds; in contrast, because methanesulfonyl chloride is hydrolyzed very slowly, the effects likely result from exposure to the parent compound (EPA 2006; NRC 2011).

4.4. Other Relevant Information

4.4.1. Species Variability

No information on species variability from inhalation exposure to methanesulfonyl chloride was available. However, clinical signs are consistent with contact irritation. Therefore, effects are not expected to vary widely between species. The limited data suggest no difference in acute oral lethality between rats and mice (TerHaar 1978).

4.4.2. Susceptible Populations

No information on populations especially sensitive to methanesulfonyl chloride toxicity was available. However, clinical signs are consistent with contact irritation. Therefore, effects are not expected to vary widely among individuals.

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

4.4.3. Time Scaling

AEGL values were scaled using the equation Cn × t = k where n ranges from 0.8 to 3.5 (ten Berge et al. 1986). An empirical value for n was sought by analyzing lethality data in rats exposed for 1-6 h. Log probit analysis of the data (see Appendix E) yielded a point estimate of n = 0.7, with lower and upper bounds of 0.3 and 1.1, respectively; however, the p value of the chi-square goodness-of fit-test indicated a poor fit of the model to the data. Additional log probit analysis without the 6-h data (the two data points were associated with 0% and 100% mortality, so added little useful information to the analysis) yielded an estimate of n = 0.66, with upper and lower confidence limits of 0.61 and 0.71, respectively. For the reduced data set, which only included two durations (1 and 4 h), the p-value of the chi-square goodness-of-fit test was 1.0, indicating an exact fit to the data. Overall, the data and modeling results were considered inadequate to define an empirical value of n, but indicated that time is an important component of the concentration-time relationship for methanesulfonyl chloride. When an empirical value cannot be determined, default values of n = 1 for extrapolation to longer durations and n = 3 for extrapolation to shorter durations may be used to derive AEGL values protective of human health (NRC 2001). However, the log probit analyses suggested that the value of n is most likely around 1, and provided sufficient information to exclude the default value of n = 3 for scaling from longer to shorter durations. Therefore, on the basis of available data and log probit analyses, AEGL values were scaled across time using the equation Cn × t = k, with n = 1.

5. DATA ANALYSIS FOR AEGL-1

5.1. Human Data Relevant to AEGL-1

No human data relevant to development of AEGL-1 values for methanesulfonyl chloride were available.

5.2. Animal Data Relevant to AEGL-1

No animal data relevant to development of AEGL-1 values for methanesulfonyl chloride were available.

5.3. Derivation of AEGL-1 Values

No human or animal data were available for derivation of AEGL-1 values for methanesulfonyl chloride. Therefore, no AEGL-1 values are recommended.

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

6. DATA ANALYSIS FOR AEGL-2

6.1. Human Data Relevant to AEGL-2

No human data relevant to development of AEGL-2 values for methanesulfonyl chloride were available.

6.2. Animal Data Relevant to AEGL-2

No animal data relevant to development of AEGL-2 values for methanesulfonyl chloride were available.

6.3. Derivation of AEGL-2 Values

Appropriate chemical-specific data for deriving AEGL-2 values were not available. In the absence of such data, chemicals with a steep concentration-response curve may be derived by dividing AEGL-3 values by 3 (NRC 2001). A steep concentration-response curve has been demonstrated for methanesulfonyl chloride; mortality in rats exposed to it for 4 h was 10% at 20 ppm and 90% at 28 ppm (Pennwalt Corporation 1987). AEGL-2 values are presented in Table 4-6, and calculations are presented in Appendix A.

7. DATA ANALYSIS FOR AEGL-3

7.1. Human Data Relevant to AEGL-3

No human data relevant to development of AEGL-3 values for methanesulfonyl chloride were available.

7.2. Animal Data Relevant to AEGL-3

A 4-h BMCL05 of 15.5 ppm and BMC01 of 17.4 ppm (Pennwalt Corporation 1987) was calculated from a well-conducted acute inhalation study with rats (see Appendix D). A 1-h rat study was also available (Pennwalt Corporation 1986); however, the data did not allow for the calculation of an LC50 value, although the investigators stated that the 1-h LC50 is most likely in the range of 175 to 250 ppm. Ocular and nasal irritation, piloerection, and vasodilation were observed within the first 15 min of exposure in rats exposed to methanesulfonyl chloride at 29 ppm for 6 h, but no deaths occurred (TerHaar 1978).

7.3. Derivation of AEGL-3 Values

The 4-h rat BMCL05 of 15.5 ppm (Pennwalt Corporation 1987) was used as the point of departure for calculating AEGL-3 values. Values were scaled

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

across time using the equation Cn × t = k, with n = 1, on the basis of the time-scaling analysis in Section 4.4.3. The 30-min AEGL-3 value was adopted as the 10-min value because of the uncertainty of extrapolating a 4-h point of departure to a 10-min value. Uncertainty factors of 10 were applied to account for inter-species differences and intraspecies variability (total uncertainty factor of 100), because of the lack of information available to describe species differences in toxicity and interindividual variability. Although clinical signs and pathologic finding from the limited data set suggest contact irritation (partial eye closure, disturbed respiratory patterns, salivation, nose rubbing, blinking, nasal discharge, lacrimation, increased relative lung weight, pulmonary congestion, and corneal surface damage) and this type of portal-of-entry effect is not expected to vary greatly between species, the available data are not sufficient to conclusively describe the mechanism of toxicity. AEGL-3 values for methanesulfonyl chloride are presented in Table 4-7, and calculations are presented in Appendix A.

AEGL-3 values are considered adequately protective. If the study by TerHaar (1978) is used to calculate values, a point of departure of 29 ppm for a 6-h exposure would be chosen on the basis of no mortality, although severe irritation was present. Time scaling and applying the uncertainty factors described above yields higher AEGL-3 values of 3.5 ppm for the 10-min and 30-min durations, 1.7 ppm for 1 h, 0.44 ppm for 4 h, and 0.22 ppm for 8 h.

8. SUMMARY OF AEGLS

8.1. AEGL Values and Toxicity End Points

AEGL values for methanesulfonyl chloride are presented in Table 4-8. AEGL-1 values are not recommended because of insufficient data. AEGL-2 values were derived by taking one-third of the AEGL-3 values, and AEGL-3 values were based on a 4-h rat BMCL05 value (Pennwalt Corporation 1987).

TABLE 4-6 AEGL-2 Values for Methanesulfonyl Chloride

10 min 30 min 1 h 4 h 8 h
0.40 ppm (1.9 mg/m3) 0.40 ppm (1.9 mg/m3) 0.21 ppm (0.98 mg/m3) 0.053 ppm (0.25 mg/m3) 0.026 ppm (0.12mg/m3)

TABLE 4-7 AEGL-3 Values for Methanesulfonyl Chloride

10 min 30 min 1 h 4 h 8 h
1.2 ppm (5.6 mg/m3) 1.2 ppm (5.6 mg/m3) 0.62 ppm (2.9 mg/m3) 0.16 ppm (0.75 mg/m3) 0.078 ppm (0.37 mg/m3)
Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

TABLE 4-8 AEGL Values for Methanesulfonyl Chloride

  Exposure Duration
Classification 10 min 30 min 1 h 4 h 8 h
AEGL-1 (nondisabliiig)a NR NR NR NR NR
AEGL-2 (disabling) 0.40 ppm (1.9 mg/m3) 0.40 ppm (1.9 mg/m3) 0.21 ppm (0.98 mg/m3) 0.053 ppm (0.25 mg/m3) 0.026 ppm (0.12 mg/m3)
AEGL-3 (lethal) 1.2 ppm (5.6mg/m3) 1.2 ppm (5.6 mg/m3) 0.62 ppm (2.9 mg/m3) 0.16 ppm (0.75 mg/m3) 0.078 ppm (0.37 mg/m3)

Abbreviations: NR, not recommended because of insufficient data.

aAbsence of an AEGL-1 value does not imply that concentrations below the AEGL-2 values are without effect.

8.2. Comparison with Other Standards and Guidelines

There are no other standards or guidelines for methanesulfonyl chloride.

8.3. Data Adequacy and Research Needs

There are no human data on methanesulfonyl chloride, and animal data are limited. Additional acute inhalation toxicity studies in other species would be helpful.

9. REFERENCES

Arkema. 2007. Methanesulfonyl Chloride, IUCLID Data Set. Arkema, Toxicology and Environment Department. June 21, 2007.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2006. Proposed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Sulfuryl Chloride. NAC/AEGL Committee, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. November 2006.

HSDB (Hazardous Substances Data Bank). 2007. Methanesulfonyl chloride (CAS Reg. No. 124-63-0). TOXNET, Specialized Information Services, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD [online]. Available: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB [accessed Sept. 4, 2012].

NRC (National Research Council). 1993. Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substances. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC (National Research Council). 2001. Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC (National Research Council). 2011. Sulfuryl chloride. Pp. 282-306 in Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, Vol. 10. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

Pennwalt Corporation. 1986. An Acute Inhalation Toxicity Study of Methane Sulfonyl Chloride in the Rat. Report No. 85-7854. Bio/Dymanics Inc. October 8, 1986 (as cited in Arkema 2007).

Pennwalt Corporation. 1987. Methanesulfonyl Chloride, Acute Inhalation Toxicity in Rats, 4-Hour Exposure. Report No. PWT 45/861670. Huntingdon Research Centre. February 23, 1987 (as cited in Arkema 2007).

Shertzer, H.G. 2001. Organic sulfur compounds. Pp. 746-747 in Patty’s Toxicology, Vol. 7, 5th Ed., E. Bingham , B. Cohrssen, and C.H. Powell, eds. New York: Wiley.

Sipi, P., C. Rosenberg, Z. Rudek, P. Jäppinen, H. Vainio, and H. Norppa. 1997. Cytogenetic effects of softwood kraft pulp bleaching effluents and methanesulfonyl chloride in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Mutat. Res. 390(1-2):105-112.

ten Berge, W.F., A. Zwart, and L.M. Appelman. 1986. Concentration-time mortality response relationship of irritant and systemically acting vapours and gases. J. Hazard. Mater. 13(3):301-309.

TerHaar, C.J. 1978. Initial Submission: Basic Toxicity of Methanesulfonyl Chloride with Cover Letter Dated 08/26/92. Submitted to EPA by Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY. EPA Document No. 88-920009463. Microfiche No. OTS0571119.

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

APPENDIX A

DERIVATION OF AEGL VALUES FOR METHANESULFONYL CHLORIDE

Derivation of AEGL-1 Values

Data are insufficient to derive AEGL-1 values for methanesulfonyl chloride. Therefore, AEGL-1 values are not recommended.

Derivation of AEGL-2 Values

AEGL-2 values were derived by taking one-third of the respective AEGL-3 values, because there inadequate data to derive AEGL-2 values. This approach is justified by the steep concentration-response for this chemical (NRC 2001).

10-min AEGL-2:

1.2 ppm ÷ 3 = 0.40 ppm

30-min AEGL-2:

1.2 ppm ÷ 3 = 0.40 ppm

1-h AEGL-2:

0.62 ppm ÷ 3 = 0.21 ppm

4-h AEGL-2:

0.16 ppm ÷ 3 = 0.053 ppm

8-h AEGL-2:

0.078 ppm ÷ 3 = 0.026 ppm

Derivation of AEGL-3 Values

Key study:

Pennwalt Corporation. 1987. Methanesulfonyl Chloride, Acute Inhalation Toxicity in Rats, 4-Hour Exposure. Report No. PWT 45/861670. Huntingdon Research Centre. February 23, 1987 (as cited in Arkema 2007).

Toxicity end point:

4-h rat BMCL05 of 15.5 ppm

Time scaling:

AEGL values were scaled using the equation Cn × t = k where n ranges from 0.8 to 3.5 (ten Berge et al. 1986). An empirical value for n was sought by analyzing lethality data in rats exposed for 1-6 h. Log probit analysis yielded a point estimate of n = 0.7, with lower and upper bounds of 0.3 and 1.1, respectively; however, the p value of the chi-square

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×
 

goodness-of-fit test indicated a poor fit of the model to the data. Additional log probit analysis without the 6-h data (the two data points were associated with 0% and 100% mortality, so added little useful information to the analysis) yielded an estimate of n = 0.66, with upper and lower confidence limits of 0.61 and 0.71, respectively. For the reduced data set, which only included two durations (1 and 4 h), the p-value of the chi-square goodness-of-fit test was 1.0, indicating an exact fit to the data. Overall, the data and modeling results were considered inadequate to define an empirical value of n, but indicated that time is an important component of the concentration-time relationship for methanesulfonyl chloride. When an empirical value cannot be determined, default values of n = 1 for extrapolation to longer durations and n = 3 for extrapolation to shorter durations may be used to derive AEGL values protective of human health (NRC 2001). However, the log probit analyses suggested that the value of n is most likely around 1, and provided sufficient information to exclude the default value of n = 3 for scaling from longer to shorter durations. Therefore, on the basis of available data and log probit analyses, AEGL values were scaled across time using the equation Cn × t = k, with n = 1. (15.5 ppm)1 × 4 h = 62 ppm-h

Uncertainty factors:

10 for interspecies differences
10 for intraspecies variability
Total uncertainty factor of 100

10-min AEGL-3:

Set equal to the 30-min value of 1.2 ppm

30-min AEGL-3:

C1 × 0.5
h = 62 ppm-h
C = 124 ppm
124 ppm ÷ 100 = 1.2 ppm

1-h AEGL-3:

C1 × 1
h = 62 ppm-h
C = 62 ppm
62 ppm ÷ 100 = 0.62 ppm

4-h AEGL-3:

C = 15.5 ppm
15.5 ppm ÷ 100 = 0.16 ppm

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

8-h AEGL-3:

C1 × 8 h = 62 ppm-h
C = 7.75 ppm
7.75 ppm ÷ 100 = 0.078 ppm

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

APPENDIX B

ACUTE EXPOSURE GUIDELINE LEVELS FOR METHANESULFONYL CHLORIDE

Derivation Summary

AEGL-1 VALUES

Data were insufficient for deriving AEGL-1 values for methanesulfonyl chloride. Therefore, AEGL-1 values are not recommended for this chemical.

AEGL-2 VALUES

10 min 30 min 1 h 4 h 8 h
0.40 ppm (1.9 mg/m3) 0.40 ppm (1.9 mg/m3) 0.21 ppm (0.98 mg/m3) 0.053 ppm (0.25 mg/m3) 0.026 ppm (0.12 mg/m3)
Data adequacy: Sparse data set for methanesulfonyl chloride. For chemicals with a steep concentration-response curve, AEGL-3 values may be divided by 3 to estimate AEGL-2 values (NRC 2001). A steep concentration-response curve has been demonstrated for methanesulfonyl chloride; mortality in rats exposed to it for 4 h was 10% at 20 ppm and 90% at 28 ppm.

AEGL-3 VALUES

10 min 30 min 1 h 4 h 8 h
1.2 ppm (5.6 mg/m3) 1.2 ppm (5.6 mg/m3) 0.62 ppm (2.9 mg/m3) 0.16 ppm (0.75 mg/m3) 0.078 ppm (0.37 mg/m3)
Key reference: Pennwalt Corporation. 1987. Methanesulfonyl Chloride, Acute Inhalation Toxicity in Rats, 4-Hour Exposure. Report No. PWT 45/861670. Huntingdon Research Centre. February 23, 1987 (cited in Arkema 2007).
Test species/Strain/Number: Rat, strain not specified, 10/sex/concentration
Exposure route/Concentrations/Durations: Inhalation; 20, 28, and 54 ppm for 4 h
Effects: Clinical signs of irritation in all test groups.
Concentration (ppm) Mortality
0 0/10
20 1/10
28 9/10
54 10/10
LC50 25 ppm
BMC01 17.4 ppm
BMCL05 15.5 ppm
Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×
End point/Concentration/Rationale: 4-h BMCL05 of 15.5 ppm (see Appendix D), considered threshold for lethality.
Uncertainty factors/Rationale: No information available to describe species differences in toxicity or interindividual variability. Although clinical signs and pathologic findings from the limited data set suggest contact irritation and this type of portal-of-entry effect is not expected to vary greatly between species, the available data are not sufficient to conclusively describe the mechanism of toxicity.
Total uncertainty factor: 100
Interspecies: 10
Intraspecies: 10
Modifying factor: Not applicable
Animal-to-human dosimetric adjustment: Not applicable
Time scaling: AEGL-3 values were scaled using the equation Cn × t = k where n ranges from 0.8 to 3.5 (ten Berge et al. 1986). An empirical value for n was sought by analyzing lethality data in rats exposed for 1–6 h. Log probit analysis yielded a point estimate of n = 0.7, with lower and upper bounds of 0.3 and 1.1, respectively; however, the p value of the chi-square goodness-of-fit test indicated a poor fit of the model to the data. Additional log probit analysis without the 6-h data (the two data points were associated with 0% and 100% mortality, so added little useful information to the analysis) yielded an estimate of n = 0.66, with upper and lower confidence limits of 0.61 and 0.71, respectively. For the reduced data set, which only included two durations (1 and 4 h), the p-value of the chi-square goodness-of-fit test was 1.0, indicating an exact fit to the data. Overall, the data and modeling results were considered inadequate to define an empirical value of n, but indicated that time is an important component of the concentration-time relationship for methanesulfonyl chloride. When an empirical value cannot be determined, default values of n = 1 for extrapolation to longer durations and n = 3 for extrapolation to shorter durations may be used to derive AEGL values protective of human health (NRC 2001). However, the log probit analyses suggested that the value of n is most likely around 1, and provided sufficient information to exclude the default value of n = 3 for scaling from longer to shorter durations. Therefore, on the basis of available data and log probit analyses, AEGL values were scaled across time using the equation Cn × t = k, with n = 1. The 30-min AEGL-3 value was adopted as the 10-min value because of the uncertainty associated with extrapolating a 4-h point of departure to a 10-min value.
Data adequacy: Sparse data set. AEGL-3 values are considered protective. If the study by TerHaar (1978) is used to calculate values, a point of departure of 29 ppm for a 6-h exposure would be chosen on the basis of no mortality, although severe irritation was present. Time scaling and applying the uncertainty factors described above yields higher AEGL values of 3.5 ppm for the 10- and 30-min durations, 1.7 ppm for 1h, 0.44 ppm for 4 h, and 0.22 ppm for 8 h.
Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

APPENDIX C

CATEGORY PLOT FOR METHANESULFONYL CHLORIDE

title

FIGURE C-1 Category plot of animal data and AEGL values for methanesulfonyl chloride.

TABLE C-1 Data Used in the Category Plot for Methanesulfonyl Chloride

Source Species Sex No. Exposures ppm Minutes Category Comments
NAC/AEGL-1       NR 10 AEGL  
NAC/AEGL-1       NR 30 AEGL  
NAC/AEGL-1       NR 60 AEGL  
NAC/AEGL-1       NR 240 AEGL  
NAC/AEGL-1       NR 480 AEGL  
NAC/AEGL-2       0.40 10 AEGL  
NAC/AEGL-2       0.40 30 AEGL  
NAC/AEGL-2       0.21 60 AEGL  
NAC/AEGL-2       0.053 240 AEGL  
NAC/AEGL-2       0.026 480 AEGL  
Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×
Source Species Sex No. Exposures ppm Minutes Category Comments
NAC/AEGL-3       1.2 10 AEGL  
NAC/AEGL-3       1.2 30 AEGL  
NAC/AEGL-3       0.62 60 AEGL  
NAC/AEGL-3       0.16 240 AEGL  
NAC/AEGL-3       0.078 480 AEGL  
Pemiwalt Coiporation 1987 Rat Both 1 20 240 SL Mortality (1/10); clinical signs, pulmonary function changes for several days; relative lung weight increase in decedents: damase to corneal surface of eyes
  Rat Both 1 28 240 SL Mortality (9/10)
  Rat Both 1 54 240 3 Mortality (10/10)
Pemiwalt Coiporation 19S6 Rat Both 1 165 60 SL Mortality (1/10); secretory and pulmonary effects through days 4–5: corneal uresulanties (3/9 survivors)
  Rat Both 1 174 60 SL Mortality (2/10); secretory and pulmonary effects through days 4–5: corneal uresulanties (8/8 survivors)
  Rat Both 1 300 60 3 Mortality (10/10);
TerHaar 1978 Rat   1 2,145 45 3 Mortality (3/3)
  Rat   1 29 360 1 Blinkius. nose rubbing, piloerectiou, vasodilation (3 exposed rats)
  Rat   1 132 360 3 Mortality (3/3)

For category: 0 = no effect, 1 = discomfort, 2 = disabling, 3 = lethal; SL = some lethality.

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

APPENDIX D

BENCHMARK DOSE CALCULATIONS FOR METHANESULFONYL CHLORIDE


Probit Model (Version: 2.8; Date: 02/20/2007)

Input Data File: C:\BMDS\UNSAVED1.(d)

Gnuplot Plotting File: C:\BMDS\UNSAVED1.plt

Wed Jul 11 10:33:08 2007


BMDS MODEL RUN - 4-hour study

title

The form of the probability function is:

  P[response] = Background
+ (1-Background) * CumNorm(Intercept+Slope*Log(Dose)), where CumNorm(.) is the cumulative normal distribution function

Dependent variable = COLUMN3
Independent variable = COLUMN1
Slope parameter is not restricted

Total number of observations = 4
Total number of records with missing values = 0
Maximum number of iterations = 250
Relative Function Convergence has been set to: 1e-008
Parameter Convergence has been set to: 1e-008

User has chosen the log transformed model

Default Initial (and Specified) Parameter Values
Background = 0
Intercept = -8.60752
Slope = 2.6668

Asymptotic Correlation Matrix of Parameter Estimates

Background

Intercept

Background

1

-1

Intercept

-1

1

(***The model parameter(s) -background have been estimated at a boundary point, or have been specified by the user, and do not appear in the correlation matrix)

Analysis of Deviance Table

Model Log (likelihood) No. Parameters Deviance Test DF P-value
Full model −6.50166 4      
Fitted model −6.50166 2 3.41848e-009 2 1
Reduced model −27.7259 1 42.4485 3 <0.0001

AIC: 17.0033

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

Parameter Estimates

      95.0% Wald Confidence Interval
Variable Estimate Standard Error Lower Confidence Limit Upper Confidence Limit
Background 0 NA    
Intercept −24.1018 7.1988 −38.2112 −9.99242
Slope 7.61759 2.27204 3.16448 12.0707

NA: indicates that this parameter has hit a bound implied by some inequality constraint and thus has no standard error.

Goodness of Fit

Scaled
Dose Estimated probability Expected Observed Size Residual
0.0000 0.0000 0.000 0 10 0.000
20.0000 0.1000 1.000 1 10 −0.000
28.0000 0.9000 9.000 9 10 −0.000
54.0000 1.0000 10.000 10 10 0.000

Chi-square = 0.00; DF = 2; P-value = 1.0000

Benchmark Dose Computation
Specified effect = 0.05

Risk Type = Extra risk
  Confidence level = 0.95
  BMD = 19.0685
  BMDL = 15.5113

title

FIGURE B-1 Probit model with 0.95 confidence level.

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

APPENDIX E

CALCULATION OF THE TIME-SCALING EXPONENT ‘n’

Log Probit Analysis of Full Dataset:

Filename: Methanesulfonyl chloride time scaling

Date: 09 February 2012 Time: 16:05:18

Sequence No. Concentration (ppm) Minutes Exposed Responded
1 165 60 10 1
2 174 60 10 2
3 300 60 10 10
4 20 240 10 1
5 28 240 10 9
6 54 240 10 10
7 29 360 3 0
8 132 360 3 3

Used Probit Equation Y = B0 + B1*X1 + B2*X2

X1 = conc mg/m3, ln-transformed

X2 = minutes, ln-transformed

Chi-square = 48.83

Degrees of freedom = 5

Probability Model = 2.40E-09

Ln(Likelihood) = -20.30

B 0 = -2.3058E+01 Student t = -1.1494

B 1 = 2.5164E+00 Student t = 1.3933

B 2 = 3.5681E+00 Student t = 1.3718

Variance B 0 0 = 4.0242E+02

Covariance B 0 1 = -3.5556E+01

Covariance B 0 2 = -5.1770E+01

Variance B 1 1 = 3.2617E+00

Covariance B 1 2 = 4.4695E+00

Variance B 2 2 = 6.7650E+00

Estimation ratio between regression coefficients of ln(conc) and ln(minutes)
Point estimate = 0.705
Lower limit (95% CL) = 0.296
Upper limit (95% CL) = 1.114

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×

Log Probit Analysis of Reduced Dataset:

Filename: Methanesulfonyl chloride time scaling
Date: 09 February 2012 Time: 16:07:06

Sequence No. Concentration (ppm) Minutes Exposed Responded
1 165 60 10 1
2 174 60 10 2
3 300 60 10 10
4 20 240 10 1
5 28 240 10 9
6 54 240 10 10

Used Probit Equation Y = B0 + B1*X1 + B2*X2
X1 = conc mg/m3, ln-transformed
X2 = minutes, ln-transformed

Chi-square = 0.01
Degrees of freedom = 3
Probability Model = 1.00E+00

Ln(Likelihood) = -4.05

B 0 = -8.3259E+01 Student t = -3.5083
B 1 = 7.6810E+00 Student t = 3.5633
B 2 = 1.1669E+01 Student t = 3.7691

Variance B 0 0 = 5.6320E+02
Covariance B 0 1 = -5.1013E+01
Covariance B 0 2 = -7.3391E+01
Variance B 1 1 = 4.6466E+00
Covariance B 1 2 = 6.6254E+00
Variance B 2 2 = 9.5856E+00

Estimation ratio between regression coefficients of ln(conc) and ln(minutes)
Point estimate = 0.658
Lower limit (95% CL) = 0.611
Upper limit (95% CL) = 0.705

Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×
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×
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×
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×
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×
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×
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×
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×
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Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×
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Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×
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Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×
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Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
×
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Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
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Suggested Citation:"4 Methanesulfonyl Chloride Acute Exposure Guideline Levels." National Research Council. 2013. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18313.
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Extremely hazardous substances (EHSs) can be released accidentally as a result of result of chemical spills, industrial explosions, fires, or accidents involving railroad cars and trucks transporting EHSs. Workers and residents in communities surrounding industrial facilities where EHSs are manufactured, used, or stored and in communities along the nation's railways and highways are potentially at risk of being exposed to airborne EHSs during accidental releases or intentional releases by terrorists. Pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified approximately 400 EHSs on the basis of acute lethality data in rodents.

As part of its efforts to develop acute exposure guideline levels for EHSs, EPA and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in 1991 requested that the National Research Council (NRC) develop guidelines for establishing such levels. In response to that request, the NRC published Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substances in 1993. Subsequently, Standard Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances was published in 2001, providing updated procedures, methodologies, and other guidelines used by the National Advisory Committee (NAC) on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances and the Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) in developing the AEGL values.

Using the 1993 and 2001 NRC guidelines reports, the NAC—consisting of members from EPA, the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Energy (DOE), the Department of Transportation (DOT), other federal and state governments, the chemical industry, academia, and other organizations from the private sector—has developed AEGLs for more than 270 EHSs. In 1998, EPA and DOD requested that the NRC independently review the AEGLs developed by NAC. In response to that request, the NRC organized within its Committee on Toxicology (COT) the Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels, which prepared this report. This report is the fourteenth volume in that series. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 14 summarizes the committee's conclusions and recommendations.

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