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IV. SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS IN BRAZIL There is a bewildering array of scientific institutions and orga- nizations in Brazil. Some are old; some are new; still newer ones are being formed. Some try to stimulate the sciences, some distribute re- search funds, some do research, and others teach. In the following, an attempt is made to distinguish types of scien- tific institutions and to identify those that seem to be the most active. Professional organizations hold fairly regular meetings. One of the difficulties that these organizations face is that distances are great in Brazil and transportation is costly for members of professional or- ganizations to attend meetings. This has given most Brazilian profes- sional meetings a rather distinct flavor. To a great extent meetings are financed by a host university, frequently in cooperation with the municipal government of the locality. Participating members are in- vited to the meetings and transportation and lodging are usually pro- vided. A meeting takes on something of a special characterâthe Governor, the Rector of the University, the Prefeito and other dignitaries of the state and local governments appear, frequently offering banquets, cocktail parties, and receptions. Provisions are made for the whole group to visit the sights of the city and of the countryside and to witness exhibitions of regional dances. Many of the papers presented at the formal sessions are of high quality. The extracurricular activities, seeing what is characteristic of the area, meeting people outside one's own discipline, and the friendliness of the gathering make a Brazilian professional meeting a real highlight, and one which a visiting anth- ropologist certainly should not miss. Some of the professional associations are: Associacao Brasileira de Antropologia c/o Manoel Diegues Junior, rua da Matriz, 92 Botafogo, Rio de Janeiro, Est. da Guanabara Sociedade Brasileira de Sociologia c/o Frank Goldman, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias, e Letras, Sao Paulo 18
Associacao dos Geografos Brasileiros Se^a.o Regional de Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 8105,Sao Paulo Comissao Nacional do Folclore c/o Renato Almeida, IBECC, Rio de Janeiro Sociedade Brasileira de Genetica c/o O. Frota-Pessoa, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias, e Letras, Sao Paulo Most of these associations publish news bulletins which are sent to the members more or less regularly. They also either publish or arrange for the publishing of scientific journals such as the Revista de Antropologia. In addition, most publish the papers given at the annual meetings. There are also a number of governmental and semi-governmental agencies which play an important role in connection with the social sciences. These are of value to the prospective field worker in Brazil. The Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas (National Research Council), Rio de Janeiro, as its name would indicate, is an over-all coordinating agency for all the sciences. However, the CNP only partially includes the social sciences in its orbit of activities. It is nevertheless an im- portant organ of information, particularly for those interested in sciences related to the social sciences. Similarly, IBECC, Instituto Brasileiro de Educa9ao, Cilncia e Cultura (Brazilian Institute of Education, Science and Culture), plays an important role in regard to the social sciences. It is principally a sponsoring agency and an important source of information. It some- times sponsors scientific meetings when local funds are inadequate. The CBPE, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Educacionais (Bra- zilian Center for Educational Research), was created under the larger program of INEP, Instituto Nacional de Estudos Pedagogicos (National Institute of Pedagogical Studies), which in turn is linked to the Ministry of Education and Culture. The CBPE is basically an institution with an applied objective. It uses the social sciences, and particularly the tech- niques of sociology and social anthropology throughout Brazil to gather data to be used for the planning of a new educational system. 19
This Centro maintains its master center in Rio de Janeiro. It also has a number of regional centers (see p. 15). The Centro has set up a training center for research workers in the social sciences. As instructors,\it uses Brazilian anthropologists and sociologists and some foreigners supplied by UNESCO. This center has been in opera- tion for a number of years and has a solid core of research workers. It is carrying out a broad program of bibliographic and field research. Through its tie with its regional centers, the Centro has many of Bra- zil's leading social scientists working for it, directing field teams as well as doing some original bibliographic work. The Centro in Rio also has Brazil's finest social science library. For the social sciences, this is probably the most important in- stitution in Brazil. A visitor to Brazil should be able to get useful in- formation from the people at work here, and particularly orientation about the possibilities for carrying out research work in many regions of Brazil. It would probably also be possible to find research assist- ants here, if the project in some way ties in with the Centro's broad aims. Another important agency located in Rio is CAPES, Campanha Nacional para o Aperfeiyoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (National Campaign for the Improvement of Personnel in Higher Education). This organization is basically oriented toward education and its problems, especially higher education. CAPES is the major agency of the Bra- zilian government for hiring foreign professors in the social sciences and in all fields of education. For the visitor to Brazil, CAPES' major contribution is as a source of information about teaching and research in the universities. In addition to importing foreign specialists, this or- ganization sends Brazilians abroad for training and it supports many new teaching and research projects throughout Brazil. The monthly bulletin it issues is an important source of information. The Funda^ao Getulio Vargas in Rio de Janeiro is another im- portant institution for the observer and student of the contemporary Brazilian scene. The Foundation is particularly active in the field of economic analysis. The monthly report published by the Foundation, the Conjunctura Economica (in Portuguese and in English), is an in- valuable source of accurate and up-to-date information. The Foundation is a possible source of research assistants. The Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, which pub- lishes and interprets census data, is of the utmost importance to the social sciences. The Anuario Estatistico (a yearly publication) and the trimestral statistical bulletin and the laboratories which produce them are useful to the social scientist. 20
This organization is now completing the Encyclopedia of the Municipios â some forty volumes following the regional division of Bra- zil mentioned earlier. The Encyclopedia contains specific historical, geographical, statistical, economic and pictorial data about each of the almost two thousand counties in Brazil. The Serviqo de Protecao aos Indios maintains the Museo do Indio in Rio de Janeiro. For those interested in work among Brazilian Indians contact with this organization and its parent supervisory body, the Conselho Nacional de Prote9ao aos Indios, is necessary. Official per- mission of this organization is necessary in order to undertake studies of the Indians, unless one chooses to work through one of the religious orders which cares for certain groups of Indians. The cooperation of the Service and, through it, the cooperation of the Brazilian Air Force for transportation and supply assistance, becomes almost a basic re- quirement. In addition to securing the permission and cooperation of the Indian Service, it is also wise for the research worker to establish con- tact beforehand with some Brazilian research organization which is in- terested in the area to which the ethnographer wishes to go. Such or- ganizations include the regional museums and institutes (see Appendix B). A major international organization is also located in Rio de Janeiro. This is the Centro Latino Americano de Pesquisas em Ci&icias Sociais (The Latin American Center for Research in the Social Sciences), which is the UNESCO Latin American research center. (The UNESCO Latin American teaching center is established in Santiago, Chile). Bra- zil contributes financial support to this center and the director is a Bra- zilian anthropologist. A visitor to Brazil should make contact with this organization which, while it does not carry out specific research proj- ects, coordinates and supervises broad areas of anthropological, socio- logical, and economic research in Brazil as well as throughout the rest of South America. This is a clearing house of news for social scientists. The Centro publishes a monthly Bulletin. Arrangements can be worked out for the research worker to be attached to this center in order to carry out specific projects in Brazil. UNESCO has been important in the social sciences in Brazil and is outstanding for the stimulus it gave to the studies of race relations, carried out in the north under the direc- tion of Charles Wagley, in Rio by L. A. Costa Pinto and in Sao Paulo by Florestan Fernandes. There are two other institutions in the North which are of interest to the social scientist. The Institute) Joaquim Nabuco in Recife, Pernam- buco, is under the auspices of the Ministry of Education. It can supply 21
information that will aid the investigator interested in the Northeast coastal and interior areas. Farther south, in the capital of the state of Bahia is the Funda9ao para o Desenvolvimento das Ciencias na Bahia (the Foundation for the Development of the Sciences in Bahia). This Foundation was estab- lished several years ago by the Secretary of Education of the State of Bahia. Its first program in the social sciences was a series of com- munity studies. The Foundation supports projects in all of the sciences. It can help finance projects of Brazilians and foreigners. It has in- formation and facilities to offer to the visitor interested in research in the state of Bahia. These are the principal scientific institutions which can be of help to the visiting anthropologist. Their functions for the visitor are prima- rily in providing information about areas, bibliographic material, and informants and other key persons who become necessary for successful field work. These organizations also can often aid in making travel ar- rangements . There are numerous museums in Brazil. The following are the most important for the social scientist: The Museu Emilio Goeldi in Belem is known principally for its ethnographic collections and its tradition of research among Brazilian Indians. The Museu Nacional in Rio de Janeiro has an excellent ethno- graphic collection. Its personnel are part of the Serviyo de ProteySo aos Indios. Also in Rio is the Museu do Indio which deals with the Bra- zilian Indian. It is also maintained by the Servico de Protegao aos Indios. In Sao Paulo, the Museu Paulista is an ethnographic and historical museum. The Revista do Museu Paulista carries on a long tradition of excellent papers on the Brazilian Indians. In early I960, some of the personnel of the Museum were active in establishing the Instituto de Pre"-Historia e Etnologia. In Parana, the University of Parana in collaboration with the DiviScTo do PatrimQnio Historico e Artistico Nacional (Division of the National Historic and Artistic Patrimony) maintains the Museu de Arqueologia e Artes Populares in Paranagua, Parana. Most of the state capitals have state museums. These are his- torical for the most part. Also in a state capital there may be an Instituto de Geografia e Historia, which is generally non-scientific in outlook, but frequently has a good library. Some of the best libraries in the social sciences to be found in Brazil are private libraries. 22
Rather than examine the long list of institutes which existâsome only on paper, some actually functioningâit is perhaps more worth- while to go over the major centers of activity in the social sciences. Rio de Janeiro has traditionally been the center of the Brazilian world, and this has been as true for the social sciences as for other aspects of Brazilian life. Undoubtedly the change of the capital from Rio to Brasilia will bring about a shift in this emphasis. Plans are under consideration for the establishment of a major university and museum in Brasilia, and undoubtedly more such moves will be made. However, for the time being, Rio continues to be the most active center. In Rio, the University of Brazil gives courses in the social science program of its Faculty of Philosophy, and in the newly created Instituto de Ciencias Socials, which plans an eventual graduate training and re- search program. Also important is the Pontifica Universidade Catolica, and its newly created Escola de Sociologia e Politica do Instituto de Estudos Politicos e Sociais. This school offers a four-year course in the social sciences. Outside of Rio there are a number of other active centers. In the north is the Museu Goeldi in Belem. A good deal of data on the modern aspects of the Amazon Valley also exists in the archives of the unsuc- cessful Superintendencia do Piano de Valorizaya"o Econoâ¢mica da Amazonia, located in Bele*m. This is an economic development organization for the entire valley. Moving southward, the next active center is Recife, Pernambuco. Here are the Instituto Joaquim Nabuco and the Centro Regional de Pes- quisas Educacionais. The Faculty of Philosophy and the state museum are also important centers in Recife. These centers are particularly concerned with Afro-Brazilian aspects, and with data of modern Bra- zilian culture in general. In Ceara there is the Instituto do Ceara, founded in 1887, which has published its journal, the Revista do Instituto do Ceara, annually since 1887. This Institute has one of the finest historical collections in Brazil. A little further to the south, in Alagoas, is the Comissao Alagoana de Folclore. Folklore in Brazil, while not actively taught in the Facul- ties, nevertheless holds a place of honor as an intellectual pursuit. Alagoas is one of the more fascinating areas for this type of study. 23
In Bahia there is another active center in anthropology. The Faculty of Philosophy offers a four-year course in the social sciences. The Fundacao which has already been mentioned is an important contact point. It publishes a quarterly bulletin. Also in Bahia is the Instituto de Economia e Financas, a semi-governmental organization working in collaboration with the University of Bahia. This again is a develop- mental institution. It uses the methods and data of the social sciences as a basis for state planning in all fields. In Minas Gerais, the state University has an active center in economic and political studies, as well as in sociology. The University Council publishes the trimestral journal, Revista Brasileira de Estudos Politicos. In Sao Paulo two different units of the University are active in the social sciences. First is the Escola de Sociologia e Politica, the oldest (1933) teaching center in the social sciences in Brazil. This in- stitution is probably unique in all of South America. Recently turned into a Foundation, the Escola, as it continues to be known, has a four- year undergraduate program and a two-year graduate program leading to the degree of Master of Social Sciences. This school is a semiauto- nomous part of the University of Sao Paulo, and is probably the most flexible of all Brazilian institutions in this field. The Faculty of Philosophy also has a strong department which gives a four-year course in the social sciences, as well as the types of graduate work previously described. Many of the people of the Faculty are connected with the regional center of educational research. The Faculty of Philosophy is also active in the field of human genetics. It does original research and, under a Rockefeller grant, offers a special course in human genetics. The Museo Paulista has already been mentioned. In the state of Parana there is another interesting development. Here work is being done in the social sciences, and especially in arch- aeology and human genetics, as well as in modern Brazilian culture. There is a Conselho de Pesquisas (Research Council) in the Faculty of Philosophy which acts as a coordinating organ for scientific activities in the state. In summary, flowing out from Rio de Janeiro there is a strong current of applied anthropology and sociology, as well as economics. There is a certain concentration on the use of the social sciences for educational research and planning and for regional development. A 24
good deal of pure research goes onâethnology and archaeology in the far north, social anthropology and folklore in the central regions, eco- nomics and a start on political science in Minas Gerais, ethnology, social anthropology and human genetics in the Sao Paulo region, and archaeology and human genetics in the south. Certain other sources are potentially important for the social scientist. Among these are the various semiautonomous commodity in- stitutes, such as the Instituto de Acucar e Alcool, the Instituto Brasi- leiro de CafÂ£, the Instituto de Cacau (Bahia), and the Instituto Bra- sileiro de Mate. These institutes frequently have excellent specialized libraries dealing with all aspects of the crop with which they are con- cerned, and also have a number of persons interested in the social sciences who have done spade work in the field. These institutes have their own statistics bureaus and some of them issue regular journals which carry information of value to the social scientist. Information, leads, tips, and facilities can be provided by the state as well as by federal bureaus of agriculture. Materials relating to land tenure, land use, migration, and immigration data can be found in these bureaus. Most of the state governments also maintain their own statistical organizations and issue their own anuarios, or annual statistical data. A non-scientific source of pictorial data is the archives of the popular magazines O Cruzeiro and Manchette. Journalism has tradi- tionally had a high prestige role in Brazil, and these publishing concerns in Rio have some excellent photographic material from all the regions of Brazil. The Sunday papers in the principal cities carry important articles by prominent scholars as well as useful book review sections.