National Academies Press: OpenBook

Insect-Pest Management and Control (1969)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R14
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R15
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R16
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R17
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R18
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R19
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R20
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R21
Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R22
Page xxiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R23
Page xxiv Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1969. Insect-Pest Management and Control. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18674.
×
Page R24

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

C-3 PRINCIPLES OF PLANT AND ANIMAL PEST CONTROL VOLUME Insect-Pest Management and Control SUBCOMMITTEE ON INSECT PESTS COMMITTEE ON PLANT AND ANIMAL PESTS AGRICULTURAL BOARD NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Publication 1695 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WASHINGTON, D.C. 1969 NAS-NAE AU68 1973 LIBRARY

This report is one of a series on principles of controlling pests and diseases of plants and animals. The following volumes are in the series: Volume 1 Plant-Disease Development and Control Volume 2 Weed Control Volume 3 Insect-Pest Management and Control Volume 4 Control of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Volume 5 The Vertebrates That Are Pests: Problems and Control Volume 6 Effects of Pesticides on Fruit and Vegetable Physiology The reports were prepared by six subcommittees working under the direction of the Com- mittee on Plant and Animal Pests. The following organizations sponsored this work: Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Agency for International Development, U.S. Department of State National Agricultural Chemicals Association Rockefeller Foundation Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, U.S. Department of the Interior Available from PRINTING AND PUBLISHING OFFICE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 First printing, April 1969 Second printing, August 1970 Third printing, February 1971 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 68-60085

Foreword The objective of the project on plant and animal pest control was to outline, for each of the several classes of pests, the principles of control where these are established; to call attention to effective procedures where true principles are not yet established; and to indicate areas of research that appear to warrant early attention. The reports are not intended to be textbooks in the usual sense, nor encyclopedias, but are intended to deal with basic problems, the principles involved in controlling pests, and the criteria that should be considered in con- ducting research and in evaluating published information. Specific instances of control practices are cited only to illustrate principles and procedures. It is hoped that these reports will be useful to researchers at all levels, to pest-control agencies, to administrators seeking guidance on priorities for application of resources, and to general field workers in the United States and elsewhere. The National Academy of Sciences selected a committee of outstanding scientists to represent the diverse aspects of the problem and assigned to them responsibility for carrying out the project. To assist that committee, six sub- committees of specialists were appointed. Appropriate members of the parent committee were assigned as liaison members of the subcommittee, and in due time all reports were reviewed by the parent committee. Some seventy scientists have collaborated over a four-year period to produce this series. Many others have contributed, to a lesser degree, in preparing state- ments and in reviewing and commenting on drafts of individual sections. Final responsibility for the content of these volumes rests with the parent committee. The Agricultural Board, under whose direction the Committee on Plant and Animal Pests operated, has reviewed and approved each manuscript. iii

Committee Members CHARLES E. PALM, Cornell University, Chairman WALTER W. DYKSTRA, Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior GEORGE R. FERGUSON, Geigy Agricultural Chemicals ROYHANSBERRY, Shell Development Company WAYLAND J. HAYES, JR., Communicable Disease Center, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare LLOYD w. HAZLETON, Hazleton Laboratories, Inc. JAMES G. HORSFALL, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station E. F. KNIPLING, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture LYSLE D. LEACH, University of California, Davis ROY L. LOVVORN, North Carolina State University GUSTAV A. SWANSON, Colorado State University iv

Preface The war between man and insect pests never ends, but man has made many advances in pest management and control. The many kinds of insects that affect man's health and welfare vary in their ways of life and adapt to changing conditions, including those brought about through man's efforts to control the pests. Control methods effective against one type of insect pest are not necessarily useful against another. Occasionally, a single method provides ade- quate control, but usually a combination of methods is better. One of man's greatest advantages over insect pests is the ability to shift and combine con- trols faster than insects change through mutation and natural selection. Pest management utilizes this advantage. Although among man's most important enemies, insects are also among man's best friends. We could not envision a world as we know it today without the insect parasites, predators, and diseases that attack destructive species; without insect pollination of crops; and without the role that insects play in our complex ecological system. The chief aim of economic entomology is to regulate the abundance or prevent the establishment and spread of insects that are harmful to man. Many principles of insect-pest management and control have guided efforts to achieve this aim. This report describes the principles, both the old and the new, and gives control measures appropriate to each. Members of the Subcommittee on Insect Pests, who represent major aspects of entomology, planned this report and prepared certain parts of it. Other scientists, responding to the Subcommittee's invitation, contributed material bearing on their various disciplines. The Subcommittee expresses deep apprecia- tion to the following persons for substantial contributions: P. Andrilenas,

Vi PREFACE USDA; F. S. Arant, Auburn University; W. L. Baker, USDA; W. F. Baldwin, Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd.; B. R. Bartlett, University of California, Riverside; A. H. Baumhover, USDA; M. Beroza, USDA; A. W. A. Brown, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario; P. S. Callahan, USDA; R. G. Dahms, USDA; H. V. Daly, University of California, Berkeley; H. 0. Deay, Purdue University; P. DeBach, University of California, Riverside; G. C. Decker, University of Illinois (retired); R. L. Doutt, University of Cali- fornia, Berkeley; J. Drew, USDA; T. Eichers, USDA; J. L. Eschle, USDA; A. Fox, USDA; S. Friedman, University of Illinois; H. Frings, University of Oklahoma; J. C. Gaines, Texas A & M University; R. L. Giese, Purdue Uni- versity; A. Gieser, USDA; H. H. Golz, American Cyanamid Company; W. J. Hayes, Jr., U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; L. S. Henderson, USDA; L. A. Hetrick, University of Florida; B. Hocking, Uni- versity of Alberta; C. S. Holling, Canada Department of Forestry; M. Jacobson, USDA; H. R. Johnston, USDA; J. Kelleher, Canada Department of Agricul- ture; D. R. King, USDA; L. E. LaChance, USDA; H. Landani, USDA; F. R. Lawson, USDA; E. J. LeRoux, Canada Department of Agriculture; G. E. Lynn, Dow Chemical Company; F. G. Maxwell, USDA; W. C. McDuffie, USDA (deceased); J. J. Menn, Stauffer Chemical Company; R. L. Metcalf, University of Illinois, Urbana; H. A. U. Monro, Canada Department of Agriculture; S. O. Nelson, USDA; J. W. Peacock, USDA; R. J. Pence, University of California, Los Angeles; R. W. Rings, Ohio State University; W. E. Robbins, USDA; G. G. Rohwer, USDA; C. H. Schmidt, USDA;R. F. Smith, University of California, Berkeley; T. R. E. Southwood, University of London; L. F. Steiner, USDA; A. L. Turnbull, Canada Department of Agriculture; R. van den Bosch, University of California, Berkeley; P. H. Wooley, Michigan State University; D. P. Wright, Jr., American Cyanamid Company. We are also grateful for additional materials provided by J. S. Barlow, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B. C., Canada; J. R. Barrett, Jr., USDA; P. Belton, Canada Department of Agriculture; S. E. Bennett, University of Tennessee; P. J. Chapman, New York Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva; G. W. Dean, University of California, Davis; W. J. Fischang, Purdue University; D. P. Furman, University of California, Berkeley; D. W. Hall, University of Florida; H. S. Hansen, Purdue University; E. F. Herrbach, American Oil Com- pany; R. R. Robinson, USDA; D. A. Wilbur, Kansas State University.

SUBCOMMITTEE ON INSECT PESTS EDWARD R. McGOVRAN, Cooperative State Research Service, U.S. Depart- ment of Agriculture, Chairman DONALD A. CHANT, University of Toronto FRED W. FLETCHER, The Dow Chemical Company GORDON E. GUYER, Michigan State University ARTHUR M. HEIMPEL, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture CLARENCE H. HOFFMANN, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture DARIEL E. HOWELL, Oklahoma State University E. GORTON LINSLEY, University of California, Berkeley L. DALE NEWSOM, Louisiana State University JOHNV. OSMUN, Purdue University REGINALD H. PAINTER, Kansas State University CARROLL N. SMITH, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture EDWARD H. SMITH, Cornell University vn

Contents Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE 1 FACTORS IN INSECT-PEST PROBLEMS 2 DAMAGE FROM INSECT PESTS 4 METHODS AND ECONOMICS 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY 7 Chapter 2 IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION 9 BIOLOGICAL-SPECIES CONCEPT AND MANAGEMENT 10 CLASSIFICATION FOR MANAGEMENT 13 IDENTIFICATION OF INSECT PESTS 14 SYSTEMATICS AND INFORMATION RETRIEVAL 17 BIBLIOGRAPHY 20 Chapter 3 INSECT SURVEYS 23 KINDS OF SURVEYS 24 Qualitative Surveys / 24 Quantitative Surveys / 25 viii

CONTENTS IX USES OF SURVEYS 26 Damage Surveys / 27 Factors Influencing Population Size / 28 Prediction and the Need for Control Measures / 29 METHODS OF SURVEYS 30 Adults / 30 Eggs/31 Larvae and Pupae / 31 BIBLIOGRAPHY 32 Chapter 4 REGULATORY CONTROL 34 PLANT AND ANIMAL QUARANTINES 36 Philosophy of Quarantine Action / 36 Biological Basis for Quarantines / 37 Mechanics of Quarantine Action for Newly Established Pests / 37 Export Certification / 38 Legal Responsibility / 39 Movement of Scientific Specimens / 40 REGULATORY CONTROL PROGRAMS 40 Eradication / 41 Containment / 42 Suppression / 43 Monitoring the Effect of Control Programs on the Environment / 44 Supporting Role of Research and Methods Improvement / 45 BIBLIOGRAPHY 47 Chapter 5 ECOLOGICAL BASIS FOR CONTROL 48 THE ECOLOGICAL APPROACH 48 Agroecosystems / 49 Pest Populations / 50 Population Measurement / 50 MULTIFACTOR STUDIES 52 Key Regulating Factors / 54 Biotic; Abiotic; Migration

CONTENTS Possible Regulating Factors / 57 Vigor; Fecundity; Behavior; Competition; Genetic Factors Use of Mathematical Models / 59 PRACTICAL APPLICATION 61 BIBLIOGRAPHY 62 Chapter 6 PLANT AND ANIMAL RESISTANCE TO INSECTS 64 HISTORY AND EXAMPLES 64 COMPONENTS OF RESISTANCE 68 Nonpreference and Preference / 69 Insects May Starve Rather Than Feed on Resistant Plants; In Some Animals Pest Feeding Is Not Always Related to Skin Thickness Antibiosis / 74 Abnormal Effects When Insect Feeds on Resistant Plant; Effect of Resistant Plant Variety on Insect Population; Possible Physiological and Biochemical Bases of Antibiosis in Plants; Physical and Antibiosis Differences in Plants Are Rarely Important; Effect of Antibiosis on Numbers of Pests of Animals; Morphological Differences as Basis of Resistance in Animals Tolerance / 80 RESISTANCE FACTORS 82 Most Desirable Type of Resistance / 82 Soil Moisture and Nutrition / 82 Temperature / 83 Biological Factors Influencing Resistance / 83 Biotypes; Plant and Insect Diseases; Other Factors RESISTANCE PROGRAM 85 Research Personnel / 85 Insect Populations / 86 Animal Material / 86 Plant Material / 87 Search for Genetic Resistance / 88 Planning Experiments / 89 Testing Procedures for Segregating Generations / 90 RESISTANCE STUDIES 91 Best Material for Study / 91

CONTENTS XI Chapter 7 Value of Knowledge of Bases of Resistance / 91 Kinds of Studies / 92 LIMITATIONS 93 Time Required / 93 Biotypes as Limitations / 94 Incompatibility of Resistance Characters with Other Needed Characters / 94 Replacement of Varieties / 95 Other Limitations / 95 ADVANTAGES AND POTENTIALITIES 95 Effect of Resistance Is Cumulative and Persistent / 95 Lack of Dangers to Man and Environment / 96 Low Cost, Advantageous Use, and Potentialities / 96 Value of Low Levels of Insect Resistance in Plants / 96 Situations Where Insect-Resistant Plant Varieties Are Most Useful / 97 BIBLIOGRAPHY 98 CONTROL BY PARASITES, PREDATORS, AND COMPETITORS 100 ADVANTAGES AND KINDS 102 ECOLOGICAL BACKGROUND 103 Applicability of Biocontrol / 107 Community Studies / 108 Types of Pest Situations / 109 Life Histories, Ecology, and Bionomics of Entomophagous Species /111 Parasites; Predators; Genetic Factors PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES 118 Introduction of Exotic Species / 118 Foreign Exploration / 121 Shipment of Parasites and Predators / 124 Quarantine of Imported Parasites and Predators/ 127

Xii CONTENTS Release and Establishment of Imported Parasites and Predators / 128 Evaluation of Effectiveness of Natural Enemies / 131 Correlation of Predator and Prey; Parasite Exclusion Evaluation Procedures; Stochastic and Mathematical Models NATURAL ENEMIES 136 Modifying the Environment / 138 Mass Production and Distribution / 140 COMPETITIVE DISPLACEMENT 145 The Principle / 146 Examples of Competitive Displacement in Nature / 147 Possibilities and Procedures as Applied to Pest Insects/ 148 Population Biology / 152 Computers and Population Biology / 156 Analytical Procedures / 157 Operational Procedures / 159 BIBLIOGRAPHY 161 Chapters MICROBIAL CONTROL OF INSECTS 165 PATHOLOGY OF INSECTS 166 Routes of Invasion / 168 The Infection Process / 168 Change in Virulence / 169 Cellular Immunity / 169 Humoral Immunity / 170 Actively Acquired Immunity; Passively Acquired Immunity EPIZOOTIOLOGY 172 Resistance to Disease / 172 Environmental Conditions / 174 Methods of Transmission / 175 MICROBIOLOGY 175 Viruses/ 175 Taxonomy; Mode of Action; Methods of Propagation; Standardization of Preparations; Methods of Application and Use

CONTENTS Xlll Bacteria/ 187 Taxonomy; Methods of Propagation; Mode of Action; Standardization of Preparations; Methods of Application and Use Protozoa/ 191 Taxonomy; Methods of Propagation; Standardization and Methods of Application Fungi / 192 Taxonomy; Standardization and Methods of Application Rickettsiae/ 193 Nematodes / 193 Taxonomy; Propagation and Use BIBLIOGRAPHY 194 Chapter 9 MANAGEMENT BY GENETIC PRINCIPLES ALTERATION OF "FITNESS" Increasing Fitness / 197 Decreasing Fitness / 200 PROSPECTS FOR GENETIC CONTROL BIBLIOGRAPHY 196 197 203 206 Chapter 10 CULTURAL CONTROL SANITATION Plant and Crop Refuse Utilization or Destruction / 209 Agricultural Crops; Trees; Pasture Clean Field Borders / 213 Disposal of Wastes/214 Improved Storage and Processing / 214 TILLAGE ROTATIONS Crop Rotation/218 Animal Rotation / 219 LAND, LIVESTOCK, AND TREE MANAGEMENT Landbank / 220 Strip-Cropping/ 221 208 209 215 218 220

xiv CONTENTS Fertilizers/221 Time of Planting / 222 Insect-Free Seed and Seeding Methods / 223 Destruction of Volunteer Plants / 224 Destruction of Alternate Hosts / 224 Replacement of Favored or Alternate Hosts / 224 Distance from Other Plantings / 225 Destruction of Early Blooms / 225 Crop-Spacing / 226 Time of Calving, Dehorning, and Castration / 226 Harvesting Procedures / 226 State of Harvesting; Time of Harvesting; Strip-Harvesting; Time of Shearing Other Practices / 229 TRAP CROPS AND LOGS 230 REGULATION OF PLANT STANDS 230 SELECTION OF SITE 231 THINNING AND TOPPING 232 PRUNING AND DEFOLIATING 232 WATER MANAGEMENT 233 Irrigation / 233 Crop Infestations; Mosquitoes and Other Aquatic Pests Impoundments / 235 Drainage / 238 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CULTURAL CONTROL 238 BIBLIOGRAPHY 240 Chapter 11 PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL CONTROL 243 TEMPERATURE 244 Heat / 245 Prolonged High Temperatures; Radio-frequency Energy; Flaming Cold / 248 HUMIDITY 250

CONTENTS XV VISIBLE AND NEAR-VISIBLE RADIANT ENERGY 254 Light Traps / 254 Light Emission; Lamp Attraction; Light-Trap Design and Placement; Protection of Growing Crops; Insect-free Lighting; Traps to Control Flies Short-Duration Light / 263 Response to Infrared / 264 Light Reflection / 265 Laser Phenomena / 265 SOUND 265 BARRIERS AND EXCLUDERS 268 Modified Terrain / 268 Adhesives / 268 Screens and Shields / 269 Air and Water / 270 Protective Packaging / 271 Tying / 272 Electrical Barriers / 272 MECHANICAL METHODS 272 Handpicking / 273 Jarring and Shaking / 273 Driving and Herding / 274 Collecting Devices / 274 Trapping / 275 Brushing and Sweeping / 276 Worming / 276 Swatting and Crushing / 277 Sifting and Separation / 277 Machinery / 277 Washing, Cleaning, and Soaking / 278 Semimechanical Practices / 279 ATMOSPHERE AND ATOMS 279 BIBLIOGRAPHY 280 Chapter 12 ANTIMETABOLITES, FEEDING DETERRENTS, AND HORMONES 282 ANTIMETABOLITES 282 FEEDING DETERRENTS 283

XVi CONTENTS HORMONES 285 BIBLIOGRAPHY 288 Chapter 13 CHEMICAL ATTRACT ANTS AND INSECT BEHAVIOR 290 CHEMICAL ATTRACTANTS 291 Locomotor Stimulants / 291 True Attractants / 292 Arrestants / 293 Feeding, Mating, and Oviposition Stimulants / 293 TYPES OF ACTIVITIES 293 Feeding / 295 Mating / 296 Oviposition / 296 Other Activities / 297 METHODS 298 Recognition / 298 Extraction / 299 Chemical Identification and Synthesis / 300 Assay / 300 UTILIZATION IN CONTROL 305 Detection and Survey / 305 Control / 305 Traps; With Insecticides; With Pathogens; With Sterilants Alteration of Normal Behavior / 308 BENEFIT FROM RESEARCH 308 BIBLIOGRAPHY 309 Chapter 14 CHEMICAL REPELLENTS 310 CHEMICAL REPELLENTS 311 SOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT 312 Sources/ 312 Development/ 312

CONTENTS xvii USES OF REPELLENTS 313 Protection of Domestic Animals / 313 Protection of Man / 315 Effectiveness of Repellents; Skin Applications; Clothing Treatments; Systemic Repellents; Special Precautions Prevention of Infestation in Limited Areas / 319 Outdoor Areas; Buildings; Food and Drink Cases and Small Enclosures Protection of Crop Plants / 321 Protection of Forests / 321 EVALUATION OF REPELLENT USE 322 BIBLIOGRAPHY 322 Chapter 15 STERILIZATION 324 DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOCIDAL CONTROL 325 Early Studies on Mutations and Sterility / 325 X Rays; Gamma Rays; Chemosterilants Practicability in Control of Screw-Worm / 327 APPLICATION OF STERILITY PRINCIPLE 330 Rearing, Sterilization, and Release of Insects / 330 Necessary Characteristics of Species To Be Controlled; Facilities Required Sterilization of Insects in a Natural Population / 335 Necessary Characteristics of Species To Be Controlled; Methods of Application POTENTIALS FOR APPLICATION OF AUTOCIDAL CONTROL 336 Trend of Uncontrolled Insect Population / 337 Effect of Insecticides on Population Trends / 338 Effect of Sterilization of Insects in a Natural Population / 339 Effect of Release of Sterile Insects on Population Trends / 340 Characteristic Trends of Insect Populations Subjected to an Integrated Program of Insecticide Treatments and Sterile-Insect Releases / 341

XViii CONTENTS STERILIZATION METHODS 343 Radiation / 343 Stage of Insect Irradiated; Modifying Effects of Gases on Radiosensitivity Chemicals / 344 Mass Rearing / 345 Mass Handling for Sterilization / 347 Measurement of Efficiency / 347 SUSCEPTIBILITY RANGE 348 EFFECTS OF STERILIZATION ON SEXUAL BEHAVIOR 348 Mating Capacity and Competitiveness of Sterilized Males/348 Effects on Females of Insemination with Defective Sperm / 349 Effect of Multiple Matings by Females / 349 Longevity and Field Activity of Sterilized Insects/ 350 Mating between Colonized and Wild Strains / 350 CYTOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS 35 1 Radiation/351 Chemosterilants / 351 Antimetabolites; Alkylating Agents; Other Chemosterilants FIELD EVALUATION OF METHOD 352 Methods for Assessing Numbers of Insects per Unit of Area / 352 Evaluation of Liberation of Mass-Reared and Sterilized Insects / 353 Techniques for Release / 353 Evaluation of Treatment of Natural Populations / 354 Measurements of Efficiency / 355 EFFECT OF POPULATION SELECTION WITH CHEMOSTERILANTS 356 SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS 356 INDUCTION OF STERILITY BY RELEASE OF EXOTIC STRAINS 357

CONTENTS xix NEEDED RESEARCH 357 BIBLIOGRAPHY 358 Chapter 16 INSECTICIDES 360 HISTORY AND PRINCIPLES OF INSECTICIDAL CONTROL 360 CLASSIFICATION AND CHEMISTRY 363 Inorganic Insecticides / 363 Organic Insecticides / 364 Botanicals and Derivatives; Organic Thiocyanates; Dinitrophenols; Sulfonates, Sulfides, Sulfones, and Sulfites; Chlorinated Hydrocarbons; Organophosphorus Esters; Carbamates; Oils INSECTICIDE DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH 373 Development of an Insecticide / 373 Screening Programs / 375 Formulation / 376 Field Evaluation / 377 Development of Analytical Methods / 379 Metabolism Studies / 380 Animal Toxicology / 380 Economics of Research and Development / 381 TOXICITY AND FATE OF INSECTICIDES 382 Mode of Action / 382 Specificity / 384 Insect Resistance to Insecticides / 385 Degradation and Fate in the Environment, Plants, and Animals / 391 INSECTICIDE APPLICATION 394 Selection of Appropriate Insecticides and Formulations / 394 Efficacy; Compatibility; Phytotoxicity; Insect Resistance to Insecticides; Joint Action of Chemicals; Persistence; Side Effects and Food-Chain Involvement; Selectivity; Other Factors Timing and Frequency of Application / 400 Timing of Applications; Frequency of Insecticide Application

XX CONTENTS Insecticides in Combination with Other Pesticides and Fertilizers / 401 Dispersal Problems during and after Application / 402 Drift in Air; Dispersal in Soil and Water Application Equipment / 404 Hydraulic Sprayers; Air-Blast Sprayers; Dusters; Aerosol Generators; Granular-Insecticide Applicators; Aircraft Application; Hand Application Equipment; Animal Pesticide Applicators Fumigants / 415 Sorption and Residues; Concentration X Time Products; Important High-Vapor-Pressure Fumigants; Mixtures Containing Low-Vapor- Pressure Fumigants; Soil Fumigants; Precautions for Safe Handling of Fumigants INSECTICIDES AND HUMAN SAFETY 424 PESTICIDE REGULATION AND REGISTRATION 432 Registration Procedure / 432 Establishment of Residue Tolerance in Food / 433 Functions and Areas of Responsibility of Federal Agencies with Respect to Establishing Tolerances / 434 Experimental Permits and Temporary Tolerances / 435 Foreign Registrations / 435 RESEARCH NEEDS 435 Research for New Insecticides / 436 Studies of the Effects of Insecticides on the Environment / 436 Improvement of Application Techniques and Equipment / 437 Fumigant Research Needs / 438 Formulation Studies / 438 Research on Effects of Pesticides on Human Health and Safety / 439 BIBLIOGRAPHY 440 Chapter 17 INTEGRATED SYSTEMS OF PEST MANAGEMENT 447 DEFINITION OF INTEGRATED CONTROL 448

CONTENTS XXi HISTORY OF INTEGRATED CONTROL CONCEPT 449 EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS OF PEST MANAGEMENT 450 NEED FOR INTEGRATED SYSTEMS OF PEST MANAGEMENT 453 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE INTEGRATED-CONTROL CONCEPT 457 Consideration of the Ecosystem / 457 Utilization of Indigenous Natural Control Agents / 461 Maintenance of Ecosystem Complexity / 462 Avoidance of Disruptive Actions / 462 Application of Minimum Selective Hazards / 462 Exclusion from New Areas / 465 Crop Adaptability to Ecosystems / 466 Utilization of Economic Thresholds / 468 Prediction of Population Trends / 470 Maintenance of Subeconomic Populations / 471 SUCCESSFUL UNILATERAL PEST-MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 471 FROM CHEMICAL TO INTEGRATED CONTROL PROGRAMS 472 DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED SYSTEMS 474 BIBLIOGRAPHY 482 Chapter 18 ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES OF PEST MANAGEMENT 484 ECONOMIC RESEARCH ON INSECT-PEST MANAGEMENT 485 ECONOMICS OF INSECT CONTROL ON THE FARM 486 Input-Output Relationships / 487 Costs and Returns / 487 Risk and Uncertainty / 488 Sources of Data for Economic Analysis / 489 Test Plots; Case Studies; Surveys; Data Needs Analytical Techniques / 491 Tabular Analysis; Game Theory; Production Function Analysis; Budgeting and Programming

xxii CONTENTS AGGREGATIVE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF INSECT- CONTROL SYSTEMS 495 IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES ON USE OF INSECT-CONTROL SYSTEMS 497 BIBLIOGRAPHY 498 Chapter 19 ORGANIZATION AND EDUCATION 499 ORGANIZATION 499 Research and Education / 499 Pest Management and Control Operations / 500 EDUCATION 502 Training in Pest Management and Control / 502 Basic Biology; General Entomology; Training for Research; Pest-Management Philosophy; Population Ecology; Systems Design and Analysis; Discussion Training for Extension / 505 Training for Specialized Control / 506 NEED FOR INSECT-PEST MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN THE FUTURE 507 BIBLIOGRAPHY 507

Next: INTRODUCTION »
Insect-Pest Management and Control Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF
  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!