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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1984. Cancer Today: Origins, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18700.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1984. Cancer Today: Origins, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18700.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1984. Cancer Today: Origins, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18700.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1984. Cancer Today: Origins, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18700.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1984. Cancer Today: Origins, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18700.
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Page 125
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1984. Cancer Today: Origins, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18700.
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Page 126
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1984. Cancer Today: Origins, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18700.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1984. Cancer Today: Origins, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18700.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1984. Cancer Today: Origins, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18700.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1984. Cancer Today: Origins, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18700.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1984. Cancer Today: Origins, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18700.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1984. Cancer Today: Origins, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18700.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1984. Cancer Today: Origins, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18700.
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Index acute lymphocytic leukemia, 11, 82- 86, 88, 98 adenine, 33 see also TAT adjuvant chemotherapy, see under chemotherapy aflatoxins, 65, 71, 74 Africa, 40, 53, 54 Agaricus bisporus, 66 age, 4, 49, 55, 56, 58, 70 alcohol, 55, 61, 68, 92, 96 alleles, 45, 46 allylic benzenes, 67 almonds, 65 American Cancer Society, 60, 77, 99 American Heart Association, 79 Ames, Bruce, 63, 66, 69, 70, 71-72 Ames mutagenicity assay, 66 amines, 65 amino acids, 25, 33, 34-35, 69 see also proteins; and specific amino acids amitriptylin, 94 analgesics, 92, 95, 106 anger, 14, 94 aniline dye, 50 animal tumor cells, 18-19 anise, 67 antibodies and antibiotics, 12, 13, 40, 41, 42, 43, 46, 90 anticarcinogens, 10, 69-72, 75 antidepressants, 94 antigens, 12 antigrowth factors, 90 antihormones, 90 antimitotic cancer drugs, 82, 87 antinausea drugs, 95 antioxidants, 71 antitumor agents, 12, 82, 89 anxiety, 14, 93, 94, 95 121

INDEX appetite, loss of, 95 apple juice, 65 Armstrong, Bruce, 55-56 ascorbic acid, see vitamin C Asia, 53, 54 Astrin, Susan M., 23 B B-cells, 40, 41, 44, 46 bacteria, 66, 67 Barbacid, Mariano, 29, 30, 33-36 Battey, Jim, 44 beef, 54, 58, 68 beer, 67 beets, 65 bereavement, 100-101 beta-carotene, 71 beverages, 10 see also specific beverages Billeter, Martin, 20 biochemistry and biochemists, 6, 7, 24, 27, 32, 35, 36, 64, 83 biology and biologists, 1, 6-8, 17- 18, 23, 39, 46, 89, 90, 91 see also molecular biology and biologists biotechnology, 90 birth defects, 66 Bishop, J. Michael, 19, 21 black pepper, 67 blacks, 2, 58 bladder cancer, 5, 23, 30, 31, 50, 51, 56, 68, 69 blood and bloodstream, 5, 6, 26, 84, 87, 108, 109 blood-brain barrier, 86 blood pressure, 79 Blym, 46 bone marrow, 5, 11, 82, 84, 85 bowel cancer, 12 brain, 85, 86 bran, 59 bread, 54, 55 breast cancer, 4, 5, 12, 17, 31, 52, 53-54, 55, 56, 57-58, 59, 70, 74, 87-88, 90, 99 breast reconstruction, 99 Broca, Pierre Paul, 17 broccoli, 59 Brompton cocktail; 104 Brugge, Joan B., 24 brussels sprouts, 59 Burkitt lymphoma, 32, 40-47 c-myc genes, 21, 23 c-src genes, 21 cabbage, 59 California, 58 calories and caloric intake, 59, 61 Canada, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 105 cancer adolescent, 97 anxiety and, 14, 93, 94, 95 bereavement and, 100-101 biology of, 6-8 bladder, 5, 24, 30, 31, 50, 51, 56, 68, 69 bowel, 12 breast, 4, 5, 12, 17, 31, 52, 53-54, 55, 56, 57-58, 59, 70, 74, 87- 88, 90, 99 central nervous system and, 97-98 cervical, 12, 56 chemicals and, 6, 8, 9, 10, 19, 21, 23, 30, 36, 50, 51, 59, 60, 63- 72, 73, 76 chemotherapy and, 6, 11-12, 14, 81-90, 91, 95, 97, 98 childhood, 11, 82-86, 96, 97 chromosomes and, 8, 18, 19, 39, 47 cigarette smoking and, 9, 10, 36, 50-51, 52, 55, 61, 66, 77, 78 colon, 4, 5, 31, 52, 53, 54, 56, 58- 59, 70, 74, 99 colorectal, 53-54, 55, 56, 57, 58- 59 122

INDEX counseling and, 92, 99 cure rates for, 1, 5, 11, 12, 81, 82, 86, 87, 89, 92, 97 death rates for, 4, 5, 12 depression and, 14, 92, 93, 94, 95, 111 diet and, 6, 8-11, 49-61, 63-72, 73-80 drugs and, 6, 11-12, 13, 14, 15, 81-90, 91, 94, 96, 110 early detection of, 12-13 education and, 92, 99 emotional aspects of, 14, 91-101, 106, 111-114 environment and, 8, 9, 15, 36, 50, 74 epithelial, 12, 87 esophageal, 61, 68, 70, 74 ethnic origin and, 50 fats and, 9, 55-57, 59, 61, 63, 68, 74, 76 fear of, 14, 92, 93, 95, 98-99, 104 fibers and, 9, 58, 59, 61, 63, 69, 76 foods and, 9, 51-52, 68-69, 73-80 gastric, 56 gastrointestinal, 55 global patterns and, 50 hazards, 64 head and neck, 12, 88-89 heredity and, 9 hospices and, 14, 103-116 hospitals and, 1, 97 implications of, 14-15 intestinal, 56 kidney, 51, 56 large bowel, 68 laryngeal, 68, 69, 99 lifestyle and, 9, 50, 51 lip, 56 liver, 5, 70 lung, 4, 5, 9, 12,31, 50, 51, 67, 69, 99 medical aspects of, 11-12, 13-14, 81-90, 92 migrants and, 50, 53-54 minerals and, 10, 70 mouth, 68 neck, see cancer, head and neck nutrients and, 9, 10, 57, 59, 63, 78 nutrition and, 6, 55, 78, 79 oncogenes and, 6-8, 12, 15, 18- 26, 29, 37, 39-47, 90 oral, 4 ovarian, 4, 56, 68 pancreatic, 4, 5, 51, 56, 68 patients, psychosocial effects of cancer on, 13-14, 91-101, 110, 111-114 patients, psychosocial effects of cancer on families of, 14, 91- 101, 111-114 patients, psychosocial effects of cancer on medical staff of, 14, 91-101, 111-114 patients, psychosocial effects of cancer on physicians of, 96 pesticides and, 10, 63, 66, 68, 71, 74 prevention of, 1, 6, 10-11, 15, 27, 65, 71, 76 prostate, 4, 5 proteins and, 6-8, 12, 18, 63, 69, 90 psychosocial aspects of, 6, 13-14, 91-101 radiation and, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15, 19, 21, 23, 30, 70, 81-82, 88, 91, 97, 98 rectal, 4, 5, 53, 56, 59 recurrence of, 13, 83, 98, 99 relapses in, 85-88 religious groups and, 55 remission of, 82, 84, 85, 86, 88 renal, 56 research laboratories and, 1 risk, 9, 10, 51, 52, 56, 60, 64, 67, 70, 71-72, 74-75, 76, 77 scrotal, 50 skin, 70 stomach, 4, 5, 61, 70, 74 123

INDEX stress and, 14, 92, 93, 95, % surgery and, 13, 15, 81-82, 87, 88, 97, 99 survivors and survival rates for, 1, 2, 3, 12-13, 84, 86, 87, 91, 97- 98, 100 testicular, 56, 86 tobacco and, 4, 6, 9 transition to health and, 100 treatment of, 1, 6, 12-14, 27, 81- 90, 97-98, 103-116 urinary, 4 uterine, 4, 5, 52, 56 viruses and, 7, 8, 9, 18-24, 29, 30, 31, 40, 46, 49, 50, 70, 90 vitamins and, 69-70 Cancer Drug Development Program, 83 caramelized sugar, 69 carbohydrates, 26 carcinogens and carcinogenesis, 4, 7, 8-10, 11-12, 20, 21, 26-27, 30, 31, 32, 36, 46-47, 59, 60, 63- 64, 71-72, 74, 75, 78, 79, 82, 87, 88 see also mutagens and mutagenesis; tumors and tumorigenesis carcinomas, see carcinogens and carcinogenesis; tumors and tumorigenesis Caribbeans, 58 carotenoids, 69 Carroll, Kenneth, 56 case-control studies, 57-59 CAT scan, 13 Caucasians, see whites cauliflower, 59 celery, 64, 65, 67, 68, 75 cell culture assay, 32 cells abnormal, 5, 7, 6-8, 11-12, 20 animal, 6, 18, 21, 29, 30 cultures, 22, 26, 32, 44, 59 differentiation of, 5, 17, 22, 32, 60 division of, 17, 19, 45, 46, 82 growth of, 5-6, 12, 17, 19, 25, 30, 32, 45, 46, 90 human, 6, 8, 18, 29, 30, 31 leukemia, 11, 85-86 mammalian, 32 mutation of, 5, 19, 31, 64, 67 normal, 6-8, 11, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, 31, 32, 36, 43, 82, 89 oncogenes and, 6-8, 12, 15, 18- 26, 29-37 proliferation of, 60 proteins and, 18, 19, 20, 24-26, 43, 44, 71 reproductive, 97 transformed, 6, 20, 22, 26, 30, 32- 33, 46 cellulose, 58, 59 central nervous system, 86, 97-98 central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis, 86 see also chemotherapy cereals, 70 cervical cancer, 12, 56 chaconine, 68 charcoal, 68 cheeses, 65, 76 chemicals, 6, 7, 8, 9, 19, 21, 23, 30, 36, 49, 51, 59, 60, 63-72, 73, 76 see also chemotherapy chemotherapy adjuvant, 88 advances in, 11-12, 83 breast cancer and, 87-88 cancer and, 6, 11-12, 14, 81-90, 91, 97, 98 childhood leukemia and, 84-85 combination, 86 future of, 6, 89-90 head and neck cancer and, 88-89 immunotherapy and, 90 maintenance, 86 neo-adjuvant, 88 radiation therapy and, 14, 87, 88 reactions to, 95 relapses and, 85, 86 124

INDEX surgery and, 87, 88 trial and error in use of, 11, 83, 84 childhood leukemia, 11, 82-86 chills, 95 chlorpromazine syrup, 104 cholesterol, 57 see also fats chromosomes, 8, 18, 19, 23, 39-47 see also genes cigarette smoking, 9, 10, 36, 50-51, 52, 55, 61, 66, 77, 78, 79 clinical research, 13, 82, 83-84, 85- 88, 91-101 cocaine, 104 cocoa, 67, 68, 75 Cochran, Brent, 45 codon, 33, 34 coffee, 55, 67, 68, 75 Coffin, John M., 20 Cole, Michael, 42 Collett, Marc S., 25 colon cancer, 4, 5, 31, 52, 53, 54, 56, 58, 59, 70, 74, 99 colorectal cancer, 53-54, 55, 56, 57, 58-59 coloring agents, 73 comfrey, 67 computerized axial tomograph, see CAT scan Congress, U.S., see U.S. Congress Connecticut, 105 consumer self-protection, 75-80 contaminants, 9, 10, 63, 64, 68, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77 Cooper, Geoffrey M., 30 corn, 8, 65 cottonseed, 65 Croce, Carlo, 42, 43 cruciferous vegetables, 59 cure rates, for cancer, 1, 5, 11, 12, 81, 82, 86, 87, 89, 92, 97 cytokinetics, 84 cytotoxins and cytotoxic drugs, 12, 82, 90 D dairy products, 69 Dalla-Favera, Ricardo, 36, 42 Damocles syndrome, 98 death rates, for cancer, 4, 5, 12 Delaney Clause, of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 64, 74 Delia Porta, Guiseppe, 36 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 8, 17, 19, 22, 23, 30, 33, 39, 41, 60, 64, 71, 90 depression, 14, 92, 93, 94, 95, 111 desipramine, 94 desserts, 58 diet anticarcinogens and, 10, 63-72 breast cancer and, 57-58 cancer and, 6, 8-11, 49-61, 63- 72, 73-80 carcinogens and, 63-72 colorectal cancer and, 58-59 low-risk, 8 policy questions and, 73-80 see also dietary intake data; dietary guidelines; foods; and specific foods Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer, 52, 60 dietary guidelines, 60-61 dietary intake data, 57 DNA, see deoxyribonucleic acid; recombinant DNA Doll, Sir Richard, 55-56 Doyle, Brian, 96 drugs and drug therapy, 6, 11-12, 13, 14, 15, 73, 81, 90, 91, 94, 96, 110 see also chemotherapy Duesberg, Peter H., 20 EDB, see ethylene dibromide eggs, 56, 70 endocrine system, 90 environment, 8, 9, 15, 36, 50, 74 125

INDEX Environmental Protection Agency, 74 enzymes, 25, 26, 71 epidemiology, epidemiologists, and epidemiological studies, 9, 15, 49-61, 63, 64, 68, 69-70, 72 Erickson, Raymond L., 24, 25 esophageal cancer, 61, 68, 70, 74 estragole, 67 ethylene dibromide (EDB), 74 Europe, 53, 104, 105 families of cancer patients, psychosocial effects of cancer on, 14, 91-101, 111-114 family history, and cancer, 49, 58 fats, 9, 55-57, 59, 61, 63, 68, 74, 76 fava beans, 68 FDA, see Food and Drug Administration fear, 14, 92, 93, 95, 98-99, 104 Federal Register, 78 fibers, 9, 58, 59, 61, 63, 69, 76 fish, 54, 69, 72 fiavonoids, 67, 72 flavorings, 67, 68 Food and Drug Act, 73 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 73-74, 76, 77-78 food disappearance data, 52 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 64 see also Delaney Clause food safety policy and laws, 11, 72- 80 foods additives, 9, 10, 63, 73, 74, 75 browned, 68-69 burned, 68-69 cancer and, 9, 51-52, 68-69, 73-80 contaminants, 9, 10, 68, 73, 74, 77 cooked, 64, 68, 69, 72 cured, 61, 65 fatty, 9 grilled, 68, 69, 74 harmful substances in, 10 labeling of, 77-79 natural, 63, 64, 65, 74 pesticides and, 10 pickled, 61 processed, 52, 63, 76 salt-cured, 9 salt-pickled, 9 smoked, 61, 68 spiced, 9 synthetic, 63 see also diet; and specific foods forage crops, 65, 67 Frei, Emil, 81, 85, 87, 88, 89 French bread, 69 french fries, 69 fruit flies, 21 fruit jams, 67 fruits, 9, 10, 55, 56, 58, 61, 65, 74, 76 fungi, 66 furocoumarins, 67 Gallo, Robert, 42 gas, 68 gastric cancer, 56 gastrointestinal cancer, 55 genes abnormal, 5, 7 active, 33-35, 45—46 antibody, 41 cancer and, 5, 6-8, 15, 17-27 chromosomes and, 8, 18, 19, 23, 39-47 coding of, 7, 19, 23, 32, 33, 34, 35, 41, 43, 44, 45 expression of, 44—45, 46 inactive, 33-35 mutation of, 8-9, 43 normal, 7, 33, 37, 43, 45 proteins and, 6-8, 24-26, 32, 33, 43 switching of, 36, 37, 41, 43, 45 126

INDEX transforming, 5, 6, 7, 32, 36, 43, 45 viral, 18-21, 29, 30 see also oncogenes; proteins; proto- oncogenes geneticists and genetic engineering, 6-8, 12, 13, 17-18, 33, 39, 40, 41, 44 GGC (guanine-guanine-cytosine), 34 see also bladder cancer; codon gin, 104 glutathione, 71 glycine, 34, 35 glycoalkaloids, 68 glycoproteins, 26, 90 grains, 9, 55, 58, 59, 61, 65, 67, 70, 74 Graham, Saxon, 59 Gray, Gregory, 56-57 green vegetables, 69 Greer, David S., 103, 106-116 grief, 92, 95, 100 gross national product, 56 growth factors, 12, 90 GTC (guanine-thymine-cytosine), 34 see also bladder cancer; codon guanine, 34 Gyromitra esculenta, 66 H H-ras, 32 habits, 78-80 hair follicles, 11, 82 hair loss, 11, 82 hamburgers, 64 Harvey sarcoma virus, 31 Hawaii, 58 Hay ward, William S., 23, 42 head and neck cancer, 12, 88-89 Health and Human Services, Department of, 77 Health Care Financing Administration, 106 heart disease, 79 height, 57 Helsing, Knud, 100 Henderson, Maureen, 1 herbal teas, 67 heredity, 9, 17-18, 49 heroin, 104, 106 Hindus, 55 Hodgkin's disease, 86 Holland, Jimmie C., 91-101 honey, 67 Hood, Leroy, 41, 42, 43 hormones, 55, 90 horseradish, 68 hospices American movement toward, 14, 104-106 assessment of care in, 106-107 compared to hospitals, 104, 107- 108, 110, 114 costs of, 114-116 history of, 103-104 home-care, 107-108, 111-116 hospital-based, 107-108, 111-116 intangible elements of care in, 115- 116 medical intervention and, 108-110 pain and, 104,110-111 quality of life and, 111-114 see also hospitals hospitals, 1, 97, 104, 107-108, 110, 114 see also hospices Huebner, Robert J., 20-21 human bladder oncogene, 23, 30, 31, 33, 34 Hunter, Tony, 25 hydrazines, 66 hydrogen peroxide, 70 hydroxyl radical, 70 imipramine, 94 immune system, 12, 40, 41 immunoglobulin loci, 41 127

INDEX Leder, Philip, 39, 41, 42, 44, 46 Lenoir, Gilbert, 44 lettuce, 65 leukemias, 4, 5, 11, 31, 47, 82, 86, 87, 88 Levinson, Arthur, 25 lifestyle, 9, 50, 51, 56, 79 lip cancer, 56 lipid peroxidation, 71 liver, 5, 69 liver cancer, 5, 70 livestock, 52, 67 London, 103, 104 Lost Chord cancer program, 99 Lubin, Jay, 58 lung cancer, 4, 5, 9, 12, 31, 50, 51, 67, 69, 99 lymph nodes, 84, 87 lymph stream, 6, 87 lymphocytic leukemia, see acute lymphocytic leukemia lymphomas, 32, 40-43, 84, 86, 87 Lyons, Joseph L., 55 M immunology and immunologists, 84, 90 immunotherapy, see under chemotherapy India, 55, 58 individuals, cancer studies on, 57 industrial chemicals and pollutants, 10, 49, 51, 72, 73, 74 infections, 50 infertility, 99 insomnia, 93, 95 insects, 66, 68 interferon, 12, 90 intestinal cancer, 56 intestinal mucosa, 11, 82 intravenous therapy, 108-110 ionizing radiation, 8, 70 Israel, 53-54 jams, 76 Japan and Japanese, 53, 54, 56, 58, 68 Jews, 54 John A. Hartford Foundation, 106 K-ras, 32 Kelly, Kathleen, 45 kidney cancer, 51, 56 kinases, 25, 26 Kirsten sarcoma virus, 31 Klein, George, 41 laboratory animals, 59-60, 64, 66, 67, 70, 72 laboratory studies, 6-8, 52, 59-60, 64-65, 68, 69-70 lacto-ovovegetarians, 55 large bowel cancer, 68 laryngeal cancer, 68, 69, 99 Lazarus syndrome, 100 Marcu, Kenneth, 42, 43 Marks, Paul A., 1, 6, 12, 15 Martin, G. Steven, 20 Martin-Zanca, Dionisio, 35 mastectomy, 99 mayonnaise, 76 McClintock, Barbara, 8 meats, 9, 10, 55, 56, 58, 66, 68, 69, 70, 72, 74, 75 medical staffs, of cancer patients, psychosocial effects of cancer on, 14, 91-101, 111-114 Medicare, 106, 107, 115 medicine, see drugs; chemotherapy; hospices; hospitals; surgery; and specific medicines melanomas, 4 meningeal leukemia, 85-86 meninges, 85 128

INDEX 6-mercaptopurine, 84 Merrill, Richard, 73, 74, 75-77 metastases, 6, 13, 87 methotrexate, 84 migrants, 50, 53-54 milk, 54, 66 Miller, Anthony B., 49, 57, 59 minerals, 10, 70 see also specific minerals mitosis, 45 molds, 64, 65, 74 molecular biology and biologists, 1, 6, 7, 8, 12, 15, 18, 26, 29, 30, 32, 89, 91 see also biology and biologists monkey retrovirus, see v-sis monoclonal antibodies, 12 see also antibodies and antibiotics Mormons, 55 mortality and mortality rates, 4, 100 mos genes, 22 Moulding, Christopher, 44 mouse plasmacytoma, 40 mouth cancer, 68 Mullan, Fitzhugh, 98-99 Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial, 79 Murphy, William, 44 mushrooms, 66 mustard, 68 mutagenicity tests, 64, 66 mutagens and mutagenesis, 10, 19, 20, 23, 40, 60, 63-64, 75 myc genes, 20, 23, 31-32, 37, 42-47 N National Hospice Study, 106, 109, 111, 114 National Research Council, 52, 60-61 nausea, 11, 82, 86, 95 NCI, see National Cancer Institute neck cancer, see head and neck cancer Neel, Benjamin G., 23 New Guinea, 40 New York, 58 nitrates, nitrites, and N-nitroso compounds, 65-66, 70, 71 NMR, see nuclear magnetic resonance nortriptyline, 94 Norway, 58 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13 nucleotides, 23, 31, 33, 45 nutrients, 9, 10, 57, 59, 63, 78 nutrition, 6, 55, 78-79 nuts, 10 o occupational safety, 77 oils, 56 oncogenes cancer and, 6-8, 12, 15, 18-26, 29-37, 39-47, 90 cells and, 20-26 discovery of, 8, 15 human, 18 human bladder, 31, 33, 35 mutation of, 34, 35, 36, 40 proteins and, 6-8, 12, 20, 22-26, 29-37, 90 see also genes; proteins; proto- oncogenes oncology and oncologists, 96 oral cancer, 4 ovarian cancer, 4, 56, 68 oxygen, oxidants, and oxidation, 70- 71 P N-rai, 32 narcotics, 106, 110 National Cancer Chemotherapy Program, 83 National Cancer Institute (NCI), 72, 82, 83, 91 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 79 p21, 32 129

INDEX prostate cancer, 4, 5 proteins animal, 55, 56, 57 cancer and, 6-8, 12, 18, 63, 68, 90 cells and, 18, 19, 20, 24-26, 43-44, 71 genes and, 6-8, 24-26, 32, 33, 43 oncogenes and, 6-8, 12, 20, 22- 26, 29-37, 90 synthesis of, 20, 33 viruses and, 19—20 see also amino acids; oncogenes; proto-oncogenes proto-oncogenes, 21-23, 29-35, 41 see also genes; oncogenes; proteins psoralen, 67 psychiatric disorders, see psychosocial effects of cancer psychological effects of cancer, see psychosocial effects of cancer Psychosocial Collaborative Oncology Group, 93, 94 psychosocial effects, of cancer, 6, 13- 14, 91-101, 110, 111-114 psychotropic drugs, 14, 94 Punjabis, 58 pyrrolizidine alkaloids, 67 Q PAHs, see polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons pain, 104, 110, 111 pancreatic cancer, 4, 5, 51, 56, 68 Pap smear, 12 Parsis, 55 parsley, 67 parsnips, 67 patients, psychosocial effects of cancer on, 13-14, 91-101, 110, 111-114 peanut butter, 65 peanuts, 64, 65, 75 pecans, 65 pentosan fraction, 58 periwinkle, 85 personal autonomy, 77-78 pesticides, 10, 63, 66-68, 71, 74 pharmacology, 84, 89 pharyngeal cancer, 68 Phillips, Roland, 55 physicians, of cancer patients, psychosocial effects of cancer on, 96 phosphate ions, 25 phosphoproteins, 24 phosphorylation, 25, 26 Pierotti, Marco A., 35 piperine, 67 pistachios, 65 plant chemicals and plant toxins, 66- 68, 71 platinum, 89 polio, 15 pollutants, 49, 51 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 68 pork, 58 potatoes, 54, 68, 75 Potter, Huntington, 44 Pott, Percival, 50 pp60v-src genes, 24 prednisone, 84, 85 pregnancy, 58 promoters, 60 quercetin, 67 race, 49 radiation and radiation therapy, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15, 19, 21, 23, 30, 70, 81-82, 87, 88, 97, 98 see also chemotherapy radishes, 65 ras genes, 20, 22, 31, 32, 36, 37, 43 rat sarcoma virus, 31 Reach for Recovery cancer program, 99 recombinant DNA, 8 130

INDEX rectal cancer, 4, 5, 53, 56, 59 red wine, 67 Reddy, E. Premkumar, 35 religious groups, 55 renal cancer, 56 relapses, unexpected, 85-86 reproductive organs, 14 research laboratories, 1 retroviruses, 19-23, 29, 30, 32, 35, 43 see also viruses rhubarb, 65, 68 ribonucleic acid (RNA), 19, 33 rice, 54 Risk Assessment in the Federal Government, 64 RNA, see ribonucleic acid Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 106 roughage, 58 Rous, Francis Peyton, 18, 19 Rous sarcoma virus, 18, 19, 20, 24 Rowland, Julia, 98 saccharin, 76, 78 safrole, 67 Santos, Eugenic, 35 sarcomas, 18, 19, 20 sarsaparilla root beer, 67 sassafras, 67 Saunders, Cicely, 103-104, 106 Scandinavia, 58 Schreiber, Steven, 96 Scolnick, Edward M., 22 Scotch, 68 scrotal cancer, 50 seafood, 70 Sefton, Bartholomew M., 25 selenium, 10, 70, 71 see also minerals serine, 25 serum cholesterol, 79 Seventh Day Adventists, 55, 58 sex, 55 Shih, Chiaho, 30 skin cancer, 4, 70 skin rashes, 67 smallpox, 15 smoking, see cigarette smoking social effects of cancer, see psychosocial effects of cancer socioeconomic status, 55, 56 soft drinks, 79 solanine, 68 spinach, 65 spinal cord, 85 spinal fluid, 86 spontaneous carcinogenesis, 48-49 see also carcinogens and carcinogenesis src genes, 20, 21, 24, 25, 26 Stehelin, Dominique, 21 sterigmatocystin, 65 Stewart, Timothy, 44 Stiles, Charles, 45 stomach cancer, 5, 56, 61, 70, 74 stress, 14, 92, 93, 95, 96 sugars, 56, 69, 104 Sugimura, Takashi, 68-69 suicide, 96, 100 superoxide, 70 surgery, 13, 15, 81-82, 87, 88, 91, 97, 99 survivors and survival rates, of cancer, 1, 2, 3, 12-13, 84, 86, 87, 91, 92, 97-98, 100 Szklo, Moyses, 100 TAT (thymine-adenine-thymine), 33 see also codon Taub, Rebecca, 44 tarragon, 67 Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act(TEFRA), 105, 114 tea, 55, 67, 68, 75 teratogens, 66, 68 131

INDEX testicular cancer, 56, 86 therapeutic nihilism, 94-95 threonine, 25 thymine, 33, 35 see also TAT toast, 64, 69 tobacco, 4, 6, 55, 66 tocopherol, see vitamin E Todaro, George J., 20-21 toxicity, 11, 12, 63, 68, 70, 71, 82, 83, 84, 89, 90 toxicology, 66, 84 toxins, 64, 65, 67, 71, 74 tree nuts, 65 tricyclic antidepressants, 94 tumors and tumorigenesis, 5, 8, 12- 13, 18-19, 20, 25, 26, 30, 31, 35, 36, 40, 47, 59, 60, 66, 70, 81, 82-84, 87, 90 see also carcinogens and carcinogenesis tyrosine, 25 U vegetables, 9, 10, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 65, 74, 75, 76 see also cruciferous vegetables; green vegetables; vegetarians; yellow vegetables; and specific vegetables vegetarians, 55 vincristine, 85 vinegar, 67 virologists and virology, 18-19 viruses, 7, 8, 9, 18, 24, 29, 30, 31, 40, 46, 49, 50, 70, 90 see also retroviruses vitamin A, 10, 69, 71 vitamin C, 70, 71 vitamin E, 70, 71 vitamins, 69-70 see also specific vitamins vomiting, 11, 82, 86, 95 W walnuts, 65 water, 70 weight, 57, 58, 77, 79 Weinberg, Robert A., 26, 30, 33, 34, 46 ultraviolet radiation, 8 Umbrelliferae family, 67 United Kingdom, 56, 104 United States, 5, 12, 50, 53, 56, 61, 64, 65, 67, 78, 79, 88, 105 U.S. Congress, 14, 76, 83, 105, 106 U.S. government, 10, 77 uric acid, 71 uterine cancer, 4, 5, 52, 56 Weissmann, Charles, 20 wheat, whole, 58 whiskey, 68 whites, 3, 53 Wigler, Michael, 30, 33, 34 Wilms' tumor, 88 World War II, 50, 51 v-myc, 21 v-sis, 25 v-src, 21, 24 vaccines, 15 valine, 34, 35 Vande Woude, George F., 22 Varmus, Harold E., 21, 25 vegetable oil, 70 X rays, 13, 108, 109 yeast, 21 yellow vegetables, 69 Yunis, Jorge, 39 132

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