THE GULF RESEARCH PROGRAM
A STRATEGIC VISION
Gulf Research Program
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this document was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Advisory Group responsible for the document were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-31306-3
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-31306-6
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Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
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ADVISORY GROUP FOR THE GULF RESEARCH PROGRAM
BARBARA A. SCHAAL (Chair), Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri
DONALD F. BOESCH, University of Maryland, Cambridge
ROBERT S. CARNEY, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge
STEPHEN R. CARPENTER, University of Wisconsin, Madison
CORTIS K. COOPER, Chevron Corporation, San Ramon, California
COURTNEY COWART, Sewanee: The University of the South, Sewanee, Tennessee
ROBERT A. DUCE, Texas A&M University, College Station
DEBORAH L. ESTRIN, Cornell New York City Tech, New York
CHRISTOPHER B. FIELD, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, California
GERARDO GOLD-BOUCHOT, Center for Research and Advanced Studies at Merida, Yucatan, Mexico
LYNN R. GOLDMAN, George Washington University, Washington, DC
BERNARD D. GOLDSTEIN, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
THOMAS O. HUNTER, Sandia National Laboratories (retired), Albuquerque, New Mexico
SHIRLEY ANN JACKSON, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York
ASHANTI JOHNSON, University of Texas, Arlington, and Institute for Broadening Participation, Damariscotta, Maine
DAVID M. KARL, University of Hawaii, Honolulu
MOLLY McCAMMON, Alaska Ocean Observing System, Anchorage
LINDA A. McCAULEY, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia
J. STEVEN PICOU, University of South Alabama, Mobile
EDUARDO SALAS, University of Central Florida, Orlando
KERRY MICHAEL ST. PÉ, Barataria-Terrebonne National Estuary Program (retired), Thibodaux, Louisiana
ARNOLD F. STANCELL, Mobil Oil (retired), Greenwich, Connecticut
LaDON SWANN, Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium, Ocean Springs, Mississippi
JAMES W. ZIGLAR, Van Ness Feldman, Washington, DC
MARK D. ZOBACK, Stanford University, Stanford, California
CHRIS ELFRING, Executive Director
BETHANY MABEE, Research Associate
LEIGHANNE OLSEN, Senior Program Officer
JOCELYN OSHRIN, 2014 Christine Mirzayan Science & Technology Policy Graduate Fellow
EVONNE TANG, Senior Program Officer
TERI THOROWGOOD, Manager, Administrative Services
KIM WADDELL, Senior Program Officer
MAGGIE WALSER, Senior Program Officer