IMAGE CREDITS AND SOURCES:
M. Rempel, High Altitude Observatory. Big Bear Solar Observatory. For further information on the simulation, see M. Rempel, Numerical sunspot models: Robustness of photospheric velocity and magnetic field structure, Astrophysical Journal 750(1):62, 2012.
J.T. Karpen, S.K. Antiochos, and C.R. DeVore, The mechanisms for the onset and explosive eruption of coronal mass ejections and eruptive flares, Astrophysical Journal 760:81, 2012. Reproduced by permission of the AAS.
National Research Council, Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2013; the Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON), scheduled for launch in late 2016, will investigate how large-scale patterns in our weather system affect the near-Earth space environment (University of California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory); see page 23 credit; see page 16 credit; L. Phelps and National Solar Observatory/AURA/NSF.
D. McComas, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), based on Adler Planetarium/SwRI/NASA image from D.J. McComas, F. Allegrini, P. Bochsler, M. Bzowski, E.R. Christian, G.B. Crew, et al., Global observations of the interstellar interaction from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), Science 326:959-962, 2009, doi:10.1126/science. 1180906, with mock Interstellar Mapping Probe (IMAP) data taken from taken from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), courtesy of GSFC/Princeton/UofC/UCLA/UBC/Brown/NASA).
Central image: Joe Grebowsky, NASA GSFC; surrounding images: Robert Pfaff, NASA/GSFC and Thomas Immel, University of California, Berkeley; “magnetic fields” image adapted from Bryan Brandenburg, http://www.bryanbrandenburg.net.
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES™
Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine
The nation turns to the National Academies—National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council—for independent, objective advice on issues that affect people’s lives worldwide.