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Drinking Water and Health Volume 2 SAFE DRINKING WATER COMMITTEE Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards Assembly of Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1980
The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its Congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, non-profit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the Academy of Sciences. NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineenng, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. At the request of and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Contract No. 68~1-3169 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 77-89284 International Standard Book Number 0-309-02931-7 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America First Printing, September 1980 Second Printing, July 1985 Third Printing, December 1986
List of Participants SAFE DRINKING WATER COMMITTEE JOHN DOULL, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Chairman I. CAMELS MORRIS, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Vice Chairman JOSEPH F. BORZELLECA, Medical College of Virginia, Richmond RICHARD S. ENGELBRECHT, University of Illinois, Urbana DAVID G. HOEL, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina CORNELIUS W. KRUSE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore EDWIN H. LENNETTE, California Department of Health, Berkeley SHELDON D. MURPHY, University of Texas Medical School of Houston PAUL M. NEWBERNE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MALCOLM C. PIKE, University of Southern California, Los Angeles MARVIN A. SCHNElDER~N, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Mary- land RONALD C. SHANK, University of California, Irvine IRWIN H. SUFFET, Drexel University, Philadelphia SHELDON WOLFF, University of California, San Francisco · -
iv List of Participants NA`NRC Staff RILEY D. HOUSEWRIGHT, Project Director ROBERT I. GOLDEN, Assistant Project Director ROY WIDDUS, Sta~O~cer FRANCES M. PETER, Editor Subcommittee on Adsorption IRWIN H. SUFFET, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Chairman MARTIN ALEXANDER, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York JOHN T. COOKSON, JR., ITC Environmental Consultants, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland FRANCIS DIGlANO, University of Massachusetts, Amherst ROBERT KUNIN, Yardley, Pennsylvania JOSEPH SHANDS, University of Florida, Gainesville VERNON L. SNOEYINK, University of Illinois, Urbana Subcommittee on Chemistry of Disinfectants and Products I. CARRELL MORRIS, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Chairman RUSSELL F. CHRISTMAN, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Fice Chairman WILLIAM H. GLAZE, North Texas State University, Denton GEORGE R. HEEZ, University of Maryland, College Park ROBERT C. HOEHN, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg ROBERT L. JOLLEY, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee Subcommittee on Efficacy of Disinfection RICHARD S. ENGELBRECHT, University of Illinois, Urbana, Chairman MARTIN FAVERO, Center for Disease Control, Phoenix, Arizona ARNOLD GREENBERG, California Department of Health, Berkeley J. DONALD JOHNSON, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill CORNELIUS W. KRUSE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore EDWIN H. LENNETTE, California Department of Health, Berkeley WALTER L. NEWTON, Fairfax, Virginia VINCENT P. OLIVIERI, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore PASQUA~E V. SCARPINO, University of Cincinnati OTIS I. SPROUL, Ohio State University, Columbus
List of Participants v Consultant MICHAEL J. MCGUIRE, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, Los Angeles EPA Project Officer JOSEPH COTRWO, Office of Water Supply, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA Liaison Representative WILLIAM MARCUS, Office of Water Supply, U.S. Environmental Protec- tion Agency, Washington, D.C.
Contents PREFACE I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY II THE DISINFECTION OF DRINKING WATER III THE CHEMISTRY OF DISINFECTANTS IN WATER: REACTIONS AND PRODUCTS IV AN EVALUATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT APPENDIX 1977 AMENDMENT TO SAFE DRONING WATER ACT INDEX .. V11 1X 1 5 139 251 381 383
Preface In 1975 the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council initiated a series of studies to meet the congressional mandate of the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL 93-523~. Results of these studies were published in Drinking Water and Health (National Academy of Sciences, 19771. Amendments to the act in 1977 called for revisions of the studies "reflecting new information which has become available since the most recent previous report [and which] shall be reported to the Congress each two years thereafter" (see Appendix). Results of studies completed by the Safe Drinking Water Committee since 1977 are contained in this book and a companion volume, Drinking Water and Health, Volume 3. This book contains an assessment of processes and chemicals for the disinfection of drinking water, iden- tification of the by-products resulting from their use, and an evaluation of granular activated carbon for removal of organic and other contami- nants from drinking water. Volume 3 contains evaluations of several epidemiological studies relating to drinking water and a chapter elaborating on the previous study of risk estimation (National Academy of Sciences, 1977~. Another part is a toxicological evaluation of drinking water contaminants selected because they are by-products of disinfection or because of their potential involvement in spills. The final chapter examines the contribution of drinking water to mineral nutrition in humans. Particular attention is paid to differences between the amounts required for proper nutrition and the amount that results in toxic symptoms. ix
x Preface The general aproach to the study, and considerations that enter into evaluation of health effects and the reasons for selection of subjects, are discussed in the following paragraphs. The findings of the study are summarized at the end of each chapter and briefly in the Executive Summary. Economic considerations are not a part of this study. The goal of disinfecting water supplies is the elimination of the pathogens that are responsible for waterborne diseases. Chlorination is the most widely used method for disinfecting water supplies in the United States. It has been so successful that freedom from epidemics of waterborne diseases is now virtually taken for granted. However, the discovery that chlorination can result in the formation of trihalomethanes (THM's) and other halogenated hydrocarbons has prompted a reexamination of available disinfection methodology to determine alternate agents or procedures. Methods of disinfection are examined individually and their major characteristics and biocidal efficacy are compared by means of summary tables and the c . t (concentration, mg/liter, times contact time, min) values required for similar inactivations under identical conditions. The conclusions of the study are made on the basis of this evidence. A major objective of the review of disinfectant chemistry is the identification of likely by-products that might be formed through the use of specific disinfectants. The prediction of possible products is intended to be a guide to those contaminants that might require removal or toxicological evaluation. The benefits of removing chemicals such as cyanides, phenols, and possibly other compounds by disinfectants and the use of combinations of disinfectants sequentially were not examined. The chapter on granular activated carbon (GAC) identifies the compounds that may be removed or added to drinking water by the adsorption process with its attendant chemical and microbial processes. Some attention is given to an examination of potential health effects related to the use of adsorbants, but detailed toxicological and epidemiological implications resulting from the presence in drinking water of organic compounds are considered in separate chapters of this volume and Volume 3. The development of standards for GAC and the economic aspects of its use were not a part of this study. It is a pleasure to express, on behalf of the committee and the subcommittees, a special note of thanks to the stab: Dr. Riley D. Housewright, Dr. Robert Golden, Dr. Roy Widdus, and Ms. Frances M. Peter whose informed and tireless efforts aided the committee in planning, conducting, and editing the study. We are grateful to Mr.
Preface xi David Goff, Ms. Virginia White, and Ms; Edna Paulson who assisted in an extensive search of the scientific literature. We also acknowledge the assistance of members of the staff of the Environmental Protection Agency, especially Dr. Joseph Cotruvo and Dr. William Marcus. Organization of the meetings and preparation of the manuscripts were made easier by the dedicated secretarial services of Mrs. Delores Banks, Ms. Helen Harvin, and Ms. Merle Morgan. JOHN DOULL, Chairman Safe Drinking Water Committee REFERENCE National Academy of Sciences. 1977. Drinking Water and Health. Safe Drinlcing Water Committee, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. 939 pp.