STUDIES UNDERTAKEN BEFORE 1980
A number of books and articles in Chinese and foreign languages published before 1949 describe the history, geography, anthropology, and general social background of China's grassland areas. These publications cover such topics as political and institutional history, culture and societies of native minority groups, relations between the Chinese government and local authorities, in-migration of Han farmers, and geographic and climatic characteristics. During the 1960s and 1970s, Chinese social scientists did little new research related to grassland areas. A list of pre-1980 social science publications related to China's northern grasslands appears in the first section of the references.
STUDIES UNDERTAKEN SINCE 1980
As a result of the program of reform at home and opening to the world outside, which began in 1979, Chinese scholars have taken a greater interest in research on the grassland areas. At the same time, the Chinese government organized five series of studies, describing the society, economy, culture, lan-
Dr. Ma Rong, research associate in the Institute of Sociology of National Peking University, describes studies carried out during the past decade on societies and human behavior in China's grassland areas. Dr. Ma, a member of the new generation of Chinese sociologists, spent five years during the Cultural Revolution working in the countryside in Inner Mongolia and later helped conduct some of the surveys he describes in this chapter.
guage, and geography of ethnic minority groups, including those who live in the grassland areas; these series include (1) an introduction to the minority nationalities of China; (2) introductions to each of the autonomous areas (regions, prefectures, and counties); (3) histories of each minority group; (4) introductions to the language of each minority group; and (5) social science research carried out in the 1950s, but not previously released. Material from the first series has been condensed and translated into English (Ma Yin, 1989). Items from the second, third, and fifth series, which have provided many valuable historical records, research reports, and current statistics related to the grasslands, appear in the second section of the references.
During this period, Chinese scholars and experts in four fields or disciplines have contributed to the study of grasslands:
Natural scientists, working in institutes under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, local academies and universities, especially in the fields of agriculture, animal husbandry, geography, and grassland construction, have published research in university and academic journals. (Scholarship in the natural sciences is reviewed in Chapters 2–7.)
Officials and staff in government offices—for example, the Ministry of Agriculture; the Agricultural Study Center of the State Council; and provincial, prefectural, and county governments—and in Communist Party organizations, such as the Central Committee Office of Agricultural Policies and offices of policy studies under local Party committees, have published reports in newspapers, academic journals, and books.
Economists in universities, institutes under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), and local academies of social sciences, have published studies related to grassland areas that have appeared in university and academic journals. During the first three decades of the People's Republic (1949–1979), economists in China adhered to Marxist economic theories and focused on problems posed by Soviet-style central planning. They studied issues such as the efficient allocation and distribution of resources or ways to organize a command economy, while ignoring questions raised by Western economics, such as household production strategies, risk management, allocation of labor, and the role of competitive markets and prices. Around 1980, this situation began to change. During the past 10 years, Western economic theories and methodologies have been introduced into China and applied to the study of the Chinese economy. Because this period has been brief, however, publications of this type remain limited in both quantity and quality.
Most studies by scholars in groups 2 and 3 have focused on two questions, both of which are directly related to the goal of economic development and the reform policies designed to achieve this result. The first question is, What is the best strategy for developing western China? One school has favored the "step development theory," in which central government investment and sub-
sidies should be allocated first to the coastal areas, then to the central regions of the country, and finally to the western frontier. Advocates of this approach point out that coastal areas offer a better environment for investment (higher-quality labor, better transportation, an established industrial base, etc.), which would bring higher and quicker profits.
Another group has argued for the "western development theory," whereby the coastal and western regions of China would receive equal treatment. In this view, economic development of the coastal areas cannot be sustained without the coal, oil, minerals, and other raw materials that are supplied by the west, whereas production in the more developed east will ultimately depend on inland markets. Meanwhile, narrowing the economic and social inequities between coastal and hinterland regions would reduce tensions between these regions and between the Han majority and the ethnic minorities concentrated in the west. Both economic and political problems can be alleviated by the rapid development of western China.
The second question that has preoccupied economists who have focused on problems of the hinterland is, Should large numbers of ethnic Han migrate to the northwest? Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Inner Mongolia, and other regions of the north and west are considered "frontier areas," because they (1) lie at a great distance from China proper; (2) support climate, soils, vegetation, and economic activities distinct from those in China proper; and (3) contain large numbers of ethnic minorities. Some scholars, such as Hu Huanyong, favor the organized movement of Han settlers into these areas on the grounds that the population density of the southeast is too high and the natural resources of the sparsely populated northwest can support more people. Others point out that natural limitations in the west—vast deserts, shortage of water, and poor soil—make it impossible to support a larger population there, and that the excessive cultivation and overstocking of grasslands have already damaged the environment of this region. The latter group concludes that the movement of Chinese farmers to the northwest is economically unfeasible and would contribute to tensions between Han and native minority groups. A list of post-1980 publications on the economics and public policy aspects of the grasslands appears in section 3 of the references.
Chinese sociologists and demographers have recently revived their disciplines and produced work related to the grasslands. The formal study of sociology, which was abolished in Chinese research academies and universities in 1952, was resurrected in 1979. Since 1980, five Chinese universities have established new departments of sociology, and three institutions—Peking University, People's University, and the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences—have set up institutes for sociological research. Among these, only Peking University has an organized program of sociological research that focuses on grasslands. In addition, there are more than 20 institutes for population studies within Chinese universities, several of which have received financial
support from the United Nations. Scholars in some of these institutes, located in minority areas such as Xinjiang and Gansu, have studied migration and fertility patterns in these regions, but few have carried out formal sample surveys. Publications from these institutes have appeared in university and academic journals.
Only two Chinese universities—Xiamen University in Fujian Province and Zhongshan University in Guangdong—have departments of anthropology. Both are located in southeastern coastal areas and have produced no research related to the grasslands.
RESEARCH ON GRASSLAND AREAS BY THE INSTITUTE OF SOCIOLOGY, PEKING UNIVERSITY
In 1984, the former director of the Peking University Institute of Sociology, Professor Fei Xiaotong, began a program to study the peoples of the Chinese grasslands. In an article entitled "Chifeng," Professor Fei described the contradiction between traditional agriculture and animal husbandry, both of which require large tracts of land; the environmental problems brought by the expansion of cultivation; and ways to improve the situation.
During 1985–1990, Fei's institute carried out a research project entitled "Studies of Socioeconomic Development in the Chinese Frontier Areas," one of the "National Research Projects in the Social Sciences" included in the Seventh Five-Year Plan. This project was supported by government agencies at the national, regional, and local levels and by scholars from local academies. The major components of the project included the following:
Chifeng, Inner Mongolia (Map 1-3) survey of rural migration and ethnic relations, 2100 households (1985): This survey covers the history of Han in-migration into this region and the effects of this in-migration on relations between natives and immigrants; changes in social organization, economic behavior, culture, and environment; and aspects of ethnic integration within and between both major groups, including language use, neighborhood and social network formation, and intermarriage. Results of the survey are contained in Ma (1987).
Baotou, Inner Mongolia survey of local industrial development (1985): This study focuses on the role of large state-owned enterprises, which have been established by the central government and employ mainly Han Chinese, in a frontier minority area. Enterprises of this type have often given rise to Han communities insulated from the surrounding ethnic minorities. This study was designed to help such enterprises communicate more effectively with neighboring peoples and use their technology, personnel, and other resources to promote economic development in the surrounding county.
Six-town survey of migration and local markets in Wengniute Banner,
Inner Mongolia, 1300 households (1987): This study is similar to the 1985 Chifeng survey, except that it focuses on towns instead of villages and on the problem of migration and ethnic integration between rural areas and townships. The later survey also covers the movement of rural surplus labor into and the development of free markets in these towns.
Survey of circular migration and local economic development in Linxia Prefecture, Gansu Province (Map 1-4), 4000 households (1987): This survey traces the circular migration of Hui merchants between Gansu and markets in the pastoral areas of Qinghai and Tibet. These trading patterns, which had been followed for centuries and disappeared after the collectivization of agriculture in the 1950s, have recently been revived. Because Gansu is too poor to support its large population, long-distance trade helps supplement local incomes and relieves pressure on the land.
Survey of migration and ethnic relations, Xinjiang, 2500 households (1987): This survey investigates the pattern of Han in-migration into China's largest autonomous region. Special attention is paid to the production-construction corps, composed of demobilized Han soldiers and volunteer high school students, mainly from Shanghai. These corps established specialized administrative and production units that were separate from and often caused conflict with surrounding minority communities. Results of this survey appear in Ji (1989).
Survey of local community and family formation, Hailar, Inner Mongolia, four towns (1988): This survey, a cooperative project with Professors Burton Pasternak of Hunter College and Janet Salaff of the University of Toronto, focuses on family formation, migration patterns, community education, division of household labor, ethnic relations, and economic development strategies.
Survey of migration, income, consumption, and family formation, Tibet, 1400 households (1988): This sample survey, the first ever taken in Tibet, includes data on migration, community occupational structure, levels of income and consumption, and marriage patterns.
Survey of reservoir migration, Gansu, three sites (1988): Because of discussions about plans to build a dam at the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River, which will create an estimated one million migrants, the Institute of Sociology considered it timely to investigate the experience of migration resulting from previous construction projects. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Chinese government organized migrant labor teams to construct water reservoirs on the Yellow River. These migrant laborers were often underpaid during the period of reservoir construction and, lacking other means of survival, went on relief after construction was complete. Today, migrant communities that remain on government relief have no incentive to develop other means of production and pose a heavy burden on the government and the surrounding communities.
Community study of semiagricultural and semipastoral areas of Wengniute Banner, Inner Mongolia, one village (1989): This study focuses on migration and ethnicity, although ecological issues are also covered in the context of local economic development. It shows that the in-migration of farmers increased population density, shifted the focus of the local economy from animal husbandry to agriculture, and caused serious environmental deterioration.
Three-village survey of social networks, Hailar, Inner Mongolia, (1990): This second survey of Hailar examines the basic patterns and process of formation of social networks among local residents.
Survey of local migration and economy, Alashan, Inner Mongolia, one town (1988): Alashan, a desert region of western Inner Mongolia, is very sparsely populated. This survey examines the migration patterns of a salt-producing town and compares them with migration in other regions.
Survey of local community and division of labor, Hailar, Inner Mongolia, four sites (1990): The third Hailar survey, also conducted in cooperation with Professors Pasternak and Salaff, explores factors affecting community development and daily life in four communities.
Community studies of four villages, Tibet (1990): This survey applies anthropological methods to study local economic organization, social networks, neighborhood formation, income and consumption, daily life, and religious activities in Tibetan agricultural, pastoral, and small-town communities.
Survey of local economic development and ethnic relations in Linxia, Gansu (1990): This study focuses on ethnic relations and economic exchanges between different areas of Gansu Province.
These surveys have made use of sociological, demographic, and anthropological approaches, quantitative and qualitative analyses, and a combination of large-scale sampling and community studies. The Institute of Sociology has been supported in this effort by the Department of Sociology of Peking University, in large part through the cooperation of Professor Pan Naigu, who serves concurrently as associate director of the institute and chairperson of the department. Cooperation has also come from local authorities in Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, and Tibet. A list of publications produced under this project appears in section 4 of the references.
During the same period, 1985–1990, researchers from the Institute of Sociology visited Qinghai, Ningxia, Heilongjiang, and other regions that have large grassland areas to collect local statistics, studies, and reports, and to discuss the issues of local economic development, relations between ethnic groups, social changes, and related topics with local authorities and scholars.
These surveys have produced four major findings that continue to guide social science research in the grassland areas. First, the in-migration of Han peoples has reshaped society in areas that were previously dominated by mi-
nority groups. The Han population of Inner Mongolia increased from 1.2 million in 1912 to 17.2 million in 1989, and in Xinjiang from 300,000 in 1949 to 5.5 million in 1982. Han in-migration has increased population density, altered the ethnic structure of the local population, changed the economic activities of the local communities, and increased communications and economic exchanges between local communities and the Han regions of China proper.
Second, the increase in Han population has affected Han-minority relations and hence local political stability. Han immigrants and native minority groups differ sharply in language, religion, traditional economic activities, folk culture, customs, and life-styles. In areas where migrants have arrived in large numbers within a short period of time, the competition for scarce jobs and resources (land, vegetation, water, etc.) has increased tensions between natives and newcomers. This competition, reinforced by ethnic differences, has posed a threat to local political stability.
Third, the rapid growth of population, due to both the in-migration of Han and the natural increase of local minority groups (who have been exempted from family planning programs), has increased the pressure on natural resources and caused severe environmental degradation. As a result of factors such as the decrease in rainfall, impoverishment of the soil, and expansion of the desert, the ecology of most semiagricultural and semipastoral areas has become very fragile. In this context, the key questions are how to enforce the transformation from traditional extensive agriculture and animal husbandry to modern production (grass planting, shed feeding, etc.), which uses less land and relies more on grassland construction and environmental protection, and how to find employment for laborers released from agricultural production in the areas affected by environmental degradation. One alternative has been to develop small towns, local industries, and other nonagricultural trades such as handicraft workshops, services, transportation, and trade.
Fourth, circular migration, such as that found in Linxia, is closely related to recent economic reforms. The Hui minority of Linxia, wedged between Han agriculturalists and Tibetan and Mongol pastoralists, has a long history of commercial activities. Under the household responsibility system, local inhabitants have been free to seek their own fortunes, and many have turned to trade with the pastoral communities of Qinghai and Tibet. These activities have increased the income of the Hui, relieved pressure on the land, and helped develop a market economy in the grassland areas.
In 1988, Peking University established a multidisciplinary research project for the northwestern region, including Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, and Inner Mongolia. The vice president of Peking University, Professor Wang Yiqiu, is in charge of this project, which has drawn on scholars in sociology, economics, history, geography, ecology, applied technology, and computer science.
GRASSLAND AND LIVESTOCK ECONOMICS
An important and convenient source of recent scholarship on this subject is the series ''Photocopies of Newspaper and Periodical Materials,'' published by People's University Press. One unit in this series, Agricultural Economy, which has appeared annually since 1979, covers two fields directly related to the grasslands: the development of animal husbandry and grassland reconstruction. Most of the articles are two to three pages long; provide a general introduction to a specific area or topic; or report on field research including observations, interviews, and statistics. A list of entries from the 1987 and 1988 volumes (see section 5 of references) includes articles on economics, sociology, history, demography, and ecology. The Harvard-Yenching Library has a complete collection of this series.
OTHER SOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF GRASSLANDS
In recent years, the Chinese Government has released statistics related to social, economic, demographic, and environmental development in all regions of China over several decades. Statistical yearbooks published by central and local statistical bureaus cover agricultural and industrial production, trade and transportation, population changes (including migration), income and consumption levels of urban and rural residents, regional ethnic structure, education and health care facilities, social welfare, and other topics. The series Population of China contains recent population data for each province and autonomous region. A list of statistical yearbooks and other serial publications related to the grassland areas appears in section 6 of the references. The last section of the references provides a list of English-language publications on Chinese minority groups and grassland areas.
1. Pre-1980 Publications
Fu Zuolin. 1935. Ningxiasheng kaochaji [Survey of Ningxia Province]. Nanjing: Zhengzhong Press.
He Jianmin. 1932. Menggu gaiguan [General Situation in Mongolia]. Shanghai: Minzhi Press.
Hong Dichen. 1935. Xinjiang shi di dagang [Outline of History and Geography of Xinjiang]. Chongqing: Zhengzhong Press.
Hong Zunyuan. 1961. Xinjiang [Xinjiang]. Taipei: Taishan Press.
Hu Ruli. 1968. Ningxia xinzhi [New Record of Ningxia]. Taipei: Chengwen Press.
Hua Leng, ed. 1916. Neimenggu jiyao [Summary of Inner Mongolia]. Beijing: Republic Press.
Kang Furong. 1968. Qinghai ji Record of Qinghai]; Qinghai di zhilue [Brief Record of the Geography of Qinghai]. Taipei: Chengwen Press.
Lin Pengxia. 1951. Xinjiang xing [Travels in Xinjiang]. Hong Kong: Trade Press.
Liu Huru. 1933. Qinghai, Xikang liang sheng [Two Provinces of Qinghai and Xikang]. Shanghai: Trade Press.
Liu Jingping and Zheng Guangzhi, eds. 1979. Neimenggu zizhiqu jingji fazhan gaikuang [Introduction to Economic Development of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region]. Hohhot: People's Press of Inner Mongolia.
Ma Hetian. 1947. Gan Qing Cang bianqu kaochaji [Survey of Border Regions of Gansu, Qinghai, and Tibet]. Shanghai: Trade Press.
Mu Shouqi. 1972. Gan Ning Qing shilue [Brief History of Gansu, Ningxia, and Qinghai]. Taipei: Guangwen Press.
Ni Chao. 1948. Xinjiang zhi shuili [Water Conservancy in Xinjiang]. Shanghai: Trade Press.
Taiwan sifaxingzhengbu [Taiwan Ministry of Justice], ed. 1961. Xinjiang xiankuang diaocha [Investigation into the Current Situation in Xinjiang]. Taipei: Ministry of Justice.
Tan Tiwu. 1935. Neimeng zhi jinhou [The Present and Future of Inner Mongolia]. Shanghai: Trade Press.
Wang Zhiwen. 1942. Gansusheng xinanbu bianqu kaochaji [Survey of the Southwestern Border Region of Gansu Province]. Lanzhou: Bank of Gansu Province.
Wu Aichen. 1935. Xinjiang jiyou [Xinjiang Travel Diary]. Shanghai: Zhonghai Press.
Wu Shangquan. 1943. Rehe xinzhi [New Record of Jehol]. Chongqing: Culture Construction Press.
Wu Shaolin. 1933. Xinjiang gaiguan [General Situation in Xinjiang]. Shanghai: Zhonghua Press.
Xu Gongwu. 1943. Qinghai zhilue [Brief Record of Qinghai]. Chongqing: Trade Press.
Yang Zengzhi. 1934. Suiyuansheng fenxian diaocha gaiyao [Summary of County-Level Investigation of Suiyuan Province]. Hohhot: Mass Educational Bureau.
Yu Yuanan. 1958. Neimenggu shilue [Brief History of Inner Mongolia]. Shanghai: People's Press of Shanghai.
Zhongyang yinhang jingji yanjiuchu [Economic Research Section of the Central Bank]. 1935. Gan Qing Ning jingji jilue [Brief Record of the Economy of Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia]. Shanghai, Central Bank.
Zhou Zhenhe. 1938. Qinghai [Qinghai]. Changsha: Trade Press.
2. Series on Minority Studies Published in the 1980s
Minzu jianshi [Short History of Minority Nationalities]: Mengguzu jianshi (Short History of the Mongolian Nationality]. 1987.
Weiwuerzu jianshi [Short History of the Uighur Nationality]. 1988.
Minzu zizhi quyu shehui diaocha ziliao ji [Collection of Materials on Social Investigation in Autonomous Minority Regions]: Research Reports on Society and Economy of Southern Xinjiang. 1987.
Zizhiquyu gaikuang [Introduction to Autonomous Regions]: Neimenggu zizhiqu gaikuang [Introduction to the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region]. 1986.
Linxia Hui zizhiqu gaikuang [Introduction to Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture]. 1987.
3. Publications Since 1980
Chaolubagen. 1984. Wanshan muye dabaogan de kexi changshi [Successful attempt to perfect the responsibility system in animal husbandry]. Neimenggu zizhiqu jingji gaige wenji [Collected Works on Economic Reform in Inner Mongolia], vol. 2, Neimenggu jingji tizhi gaige hui [Inner Mongolian Association for Reform of Economic Structures], ed. Inner Hohhot: People's Press of Inner Mongolia.
He Changmao. 1985. Woguo xumuye de fazhan qianjing he dangqian xuyao jiejue de jige wenti [Perspectives on the development of animal husbandry in China and some unresolved problems]. Zhongguo nongcun fazhan zhanlue wenti [Strategy of Rural Development in China].
Guowuyuan nongcun fazhan yanjiu zhongxin [Study Center for Rural Development of the State Council], ed. Beijing: Agricultural Technology Press .
Hu Huanyong and Yan Zhengyuan. 1985. Zhongguo dongxibu renkou de bu junheng fenbu (The unbalanced distribution of population in eastern and western China]. Population 1:8–11.
Huhehaote shi Menggu huawen he lishi yanjiuhui [Hohhot City Research Society for Mongolian Language and History]. 1983. Menggu shi lunwenji [Collected Works on Mongolian History]. Hohhot: Mongolian Language and History Association.
Lu Minghui, ed. 1984. Zhongguo beifang minzu guanxi shi (History of Relations Among Nationalities in Northern China]. Hohhot: People's Press of Inner Mongolia.
Lu Minghui, ed. 1984. Menggu shi lunwenji [Collected Works on Mongolian History]. Beijing: Chinese Social Science Press.
Neimenggu shehui fazhan xuehui [Society for the Study of Social Development in Inner Mongolia]. 1984. Shehui jingji fazhan yanjiu cankao ziliao [Reference Materials for Research on Social and Economic Development]. Hohhot: People's Press of Inner Mongolia.
Tian Fang and Lin Fatang, eds. 1986. Zhongguo renkou qianyi [Population Migration in China]. Beijing: Knowledge Press.
Wang Xiaoqiang and Bai Nanfeng. 1986. Fuqian de pinkun [Poverty of the Rich]. Chengdu: People's Press of Sichuan.
Zhang Zhihua. 1983. Qingdai zhi minkuo shiqi Neimengguzu renkou gaikuang [Mongolian population from the Qing Dynasty to the Republican period]. Studies on Modern History of Inner Mongolia, vol. 2. Hohhot: People's Press of Inner Mongolia.
Zhongguo nongcun fazhan wenti yanjiuzu [Chinese Agricultural Development Research Group], ed. 1985. Nongcun jingji shehui [Rural Areas, Economy, and Society). Beijing: Knowledge Press.
Zhou Xiwu. 1986. Yushu kaochaji [Survey of the Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai]. Xining: People's Press of Qinghai.
4. Publications of the Institute of Sociology, Peking University
Fei Xiaotong. 1986. Bianqu siti [Four Issues of Frontier Regions]. Nanjing: People's Press of Jiangsu.
Fei Xiaotong. 1988. Minzu yanjiu wenji [Collected Works on Research on Ethnicity]. Beijing: Nationalities Press.
Fei Xiaotong, ed. 1985. Bianqu kaifa yu sanli zhibian [Development of the Frontier Regions and Technical, Financial and Material Support for These Regions]. Hohhot: People's Press of Inner Mongolia.
Fei Xiaotong. 1989. Zhonghua minzu de duoyuan yiti gezhu [The pattern of pluralistic unity of the Chinese nation]. Journal of Peking University 4:1–19.
Ji Ping. 1989. Migration and assimilation in Xinjiang. Ph.D. thesis, Brown University, Providence, R.I.
Liu Yuanchao. 1988. Alashan meng pendi diqu de renkou qianyi he quyu fazhan [Population migration and regional development in the basin region of Alashan League]. Rural Economy and Society 3:12–23.
Ma Rong. 1987. Migrant and ethnic integration in rural Chifeng, Inner Mongolia. Ph.D. thesis, Brown University, Providence, R.I.
Ma Rong. 1988. Baidong renkou yu woguo nongcun laodongli de zhuanyi [Mobile population and movement of rural labor force in China]. Rural Economy and Society 4:33–38.
Ma Rong. 1989. Chifeng renkou qianyi de yuanyin yu tiaojian [The motives and conditions for population migration in Chifeng]. Population Science of China 2:24–36.
Ma Rong. 1989. Chongjian Zhonghua minzu duoyuan yiti gezhu de xin de lishi tiaojian [New historical conditions for rebuilding the pluralistic unity of the Chinese nation]. Journal of Peking University 4:20–25.
Ma Rong and Pan Naigu. 1988. Chifeng nongcun muqu Meng-Han tonghun de yanjiu [Research on Mongol-Han intermarriage patterns in the agriculture-animal husbandry region of Chifeng). Journal of Peking University 3:67–75.
Ma Rong and Pan Naigu. 1989. Juzhu xingshi shehui jiaowang yu Meng-Han minzu guanxi [Residential patterns, social communications, and Mongol-Han relations]. Social Sciences of China 3:179–192.
5. Articles from Nongye jingji [Agricultural Economy]
Nongye jingji [Agricultural Economy]. 1979– . Fuyin baokan ziliao [Photocopies of Newspaper and Periodical Materials]. Zhongguo renmin daxue shubao ziliao she [Chinese People's University, Society for Book and Newspaper Materials], ed.
A Long (Propaganda Department, Communist Party, Inner Mongolia). Mumin sixiang guannian de bianhua [Changes in thoughts and outlooks of herdsmen].
Muqu jingji ketizu [Group on Animal Husbandry Economics] (Institute of Agricultural Economy, CAAS). Caoyuan baohu jianshe de fazhan yu qianjing [Development of and perspectives on grassland protection and construction].
Qin Qiming et al. (Institute of Rural Development, CASS). Xinjiang Bayinbuleng Menggu zizhizhou kaocha [Survey of Bayinbluke Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang).
Teng Youzheng et al. (Inner Mongolia University). Caoyuan shengtai jingji fazhan zhanlue taolun [Discussion on strategy for development of grassland ecology and economy].
Wang Kangfu et al. (Lanzhou Institute of Desert Research, CAS). Neimenggu Keerqin caoyuan de shamohua [Desertification of Keerqin grassland, Inner Mongolia].
Yao Yanchen (Natural Resource Study Committee, Planning Committee of State Council and CAS). Neimenggu Ximeng tianran caoyuan diyu tezheng [Special characteristics of the natural grassland region of Xilingele League, Inner Mongolia].
Zhang Minghua and Zhou liang (Grassland Research Institute, CAAS). Neimenggu caoyuan xumuye de fazhan zhanlue yu duice [Development strategy and policies for animal husbandry in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia].
Zhu Tingcheng (Grassland Studies Section, Northeastern Normal University). Lun caoyuan tuihua yu xingban caoye [On grassland degradation and the restoration of grasslands].
Chen Wen (Inner Mongolia Academy of Social Sciences). Shilun woguo xumuye guanli tizhi de shenhua gaige [On deepening reform in China's animal husbandry management system].
Hao Tingzao. Ningxia Yanchixian zhisha zaolin fazhan xumuye [Developing animal husbandry by desert control and forest construction in Yanchi County, Ningxia].
He Yongqi (Economic Planning Office of Northeastern Region, State Council). Guanyu Hulunbeier dacaoyuan de kaifa yu jianshe [On development and construction of great grasslands of Hulunbeir, Inner Mongolia].
Lin Shaobo (Bureau of Animal Husbandry, Qinghai Province). Renzhen yanjiu fazhan caoyuan xumuye de zhanlue wenti [Carefully study the problem of strategy for developing grassland animal husbandry].
Zhang Xiaoren (Department of Rural Work, Communist Party Committee, Xinjiang). Wanshan shuangceng jingying tizhi cejin muqu shengchanli fazhan [Improving the two-level management system, promoting the development of animal husbandry production].
Zhang Xuanguo (Inner Mongolia Branch, Xinhua News Agency). Wushenqi jiating xiao muchang diaocha [Investigation of small farm households in Wushen Banner, Inner Mongolia].
6. Official Statistical and Serial Publications
Statistical Yearbooks for Each Province or Region, Edited by Local Bureau of Statistics: Neimenggu shehui tongji nianjian [Social Statistics of Inner Mongolia]. Annual.
Xinjiang tongji nianjian [Statistical Yearbook of Xinjiang]. Annual.
National Statistical Yearbooks: Zhongguo nongmuyuye tongji ziliao (Agricultural Statistics of China]. Ministry of Agriculture, ed.. Annual.
Zhongguo renkou [Population of China]. 1987. Neimenggu fence [Volume on Inner Mongolia]. Song Yougong, ed.. Beijing: Finance and Economy Press.
Zhongguo renkou nianjian [Population Yearbook of China]. 1982– . Institute of Population Studies, CASS, ed.
Zhongguo tongji nianjian [China Statistical Yearbook]. 1982– . Zhongguo tongjizhu [Chinese Bureau of Statistics), ed.
7. English-Language Publications
Alonso, M.E., ed. 1979. China's Inner Asian Frontier. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Banister, Judith. 1987. China's Changing Population. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Chen, Jack. 1977. The Sinkiang Story. New York: Macmillan.
Dreyer, June. 1976. China's Forty Millions: Minority Nationalities and National Integration in the PRC. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Fei Xiaotong. 1979. On the Social Transformation of Chinese Minority Nationalities. Japan: The United Nations University.
Israeli, R. 1981. Muslims in China: A Study in Cultural Confrontation . London: Curzon.
Jagchid, S., and P. Hyer. 1979. Mongolia's Culture and Society. Boulder: Westview Press.
Lattimore, Owen. 1951. Inner Asian Frontier of China. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lattimore, Owen. 1955. Nationalism and Revolution in Mongolia. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lattimore, Owen. 1962. Studies in Frontier History. London: Oxford University Press.
Ma Yin, ed. 1989. China's Minority Nationalities. Beijing: Foreign Language Press.
Miller, R. 1959. Monasteries and Cultural Change in Inner Mongolia . Wiesbaden: Otto Harranssowitz.
Myrdal, Jan. 1984. The Silkroad, A Journey from the High Pamirs and Ili Through Sinkiang and Gansu. New York: Pantheon Books.
Pye, Lucien. 1975. China: Ethnic minorities and national security. In Ethnicity, N. Glazer and D. Moynihan, eds. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Rupen, Robert. 1979. How Mongolia is Really Ruled. Stanford: Hoover Institution.