Committee and Staff Biographies
JOSHUA LEDERBERG (Co-chair), Ph.D., is University Professor and Sackler Foundation Scholar at Rockefeller University, New York. After receiving his Ph.D. at Yale, he served as professor of genetics at the University of Wisconsin, then at Stanford University, before coming to Rockefeller in 1978. His lifelong research, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1958, has been in the genetic structure and function of microorganisms. Dr. Lederberg has also been actively involved in artificial intelligence research (in the computer sciences) and in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration experimental programs seeking life on Mars. He has been a consultant for the biotechnology industry (especially Cetus and Affymax Corporations) as well as for government and the international community. (For example, he has long had a keen interest in international health and has served for six years on the World Health Organization's Advisory Health Research Council.) Dr. Lederberg received the National Medal of Science in 1989, at which time his consultative role was specifically cited. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1957, and a charter member of the Institute of Medicine; he has also served as chairman of the President's Cancer Panel and now chairs the Congress's Technology Assessment Advisory Council. From 1978 to 1990, Dr. Lederberg served as president of Rockefeller University. As University Professor, he continues his research activities there in the field of transcriptional specificities of bacterial mutagenesis.
ROBERT E. SHOPE (Co-chair), M.D., is professor of epidemiology at the Yale University School of Medicine. Internationally known for his expertise
in discovering and identifying newly emerged microbes, he was a member of the teams that found and characterized Lassa virus, the rabies-related viruses, Lyme disease, and, most recently, the virus that causes Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever. The Yale Arbovirus research unit, which he directs, is the World Health Organization Centre for Arbovirus Research and Reference. This center is responsible for supplying diagnostic reference reagents internationally. Dr. Shope is past president of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology.
BARRY R. BLOOM, Ph.D., is an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Weinstock Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York. He received his B.A. degree and an honorary Sc.D. degree from Amherst College, and his Ph.D. from Rockefeller University. He has served as a consultant to the White House on international health, as president of the American Association of Experimental Biology. Dr. Bloom is chairman of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee to the United Nations Development Program/World Bank/World Health Organization (WHO) Special Program for Vaccine Development. Dr. Bloom also serves on the Board on Science and Technology for International Development of the National Research Council and on the National Vaccine Advisory Board. He is a member of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine.
ROBERT L. BUCHANAN, Ph.D., is research leader of the Microbial Food Safety Research Unit at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service's Eastern Regional Research Center, where he conducts and coordinates research on controlling the transmission of human diseases in foods. He received his Ph.D. in food science from Rutgers University, which was followed by postdoctoral studies in mycotoxicology at the University of Georgia. Prior to joining USDA, he was an associate professor at Drexel University. Dr. Buchanan has served on the National Advisory Committee for Microbiological Criteria for Foods and the International Commission for Microbiological Specifications for Foods. He is a member of the American Academy of Microbiology.
JOHN R. DAVID, M.D. is professor and chairman of the Department of Tropical Public Health at Harvard School of Public Health and professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. Dr. David received his M.D. from the University of Chicago and is board certified in internal medicine. His research focuses on cellular immunology, especially on the function of migration inhibitory factor (MIF), the first lymphokine, which he co-discovered;
and on infectious diseases, primarily leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, and tuberculosis. He is past president of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and a longtime consultant for the World Health Organization and the Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases of the World Bank/United Nations Development Fund/World Health Organization.
CIRO A. DE QUADROS, M.D., M.P.H., is the immunization advisor for the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the World Health Organization (WHO)'s Regional Office for the Americas. Dr. De Quadros received his M.D. and M.P.H. degrees is his native Brazil, where he began his career in epidemiology and public health. Before joining the WHO in 1970, he worked as a medical officer in health centers in the rural Northeast and Amazon regions of Brazil and taught epidemiology and public health in the National School of Public Health of the Osvaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro. Since 1970, Dr. De Quadros has been active in disease surveillance and control. He was the WHO's chief epidemiologist for the smallpox eradication program in Ethiopia from 1970 to 1977, when he transferred to PAHO in Washington, D.C., to head its Immunization Program. Dr. De Quadros is also adjunct associate professor in the Department of International Health of the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health and has published several papers on the control of vaccine-preventable diseases. He was the recipient of the 1988 Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health Dean's Medal and the 1989 Child Survival Award, presented by the U.S. Committee for UNICEF and the Task Force for Child Survival.
PATRICIA N. FULTZ, Ph.D., is associate professor in the Department of Microbiology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, and holds the title of scientist in the university's Center for AIDS Research and Comprehensive Cancer Center. Dr. Fultz received her Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Dallas and previously held positions as a visiting scientist at the Centers for Disease Control, where she was head of the AIDS Animal Model Studies, and as research associate professor at Emory University. She has served on numerous National Institutes of Health ad hoc research review groups and committees related to animal models for AIDS, as a consultant to the World Health Organization on this same subject, and as a consultant to French and German organizations involved in human immunodeficiency virus vaccine development. Currently, Dr. Fultz is a member of the NIH AIDS Related Research Review Group ARR-A and is on the editorial board of AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses and the Journal of Medical Primatology. Her primary research interests are in the pathogenesis of retroviral infections and vaccine development.
JOHN J. HOLLAND, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Biology and Institute for Molecular Biology at the University of California at San Diego. He received his Ph.D. at the University of California at Los Angeles and did postdoctoral work at the University of Minnesota. Dr. Holland has been a member of the faculties of the University of Minnesota, University of Washington, and University of California at Irvine prior to assuming his present position. He and his colleagues have investigated cellular, molecular, and biochemical aspects of infection by RNA viruses. Their present research interests center on the extreme genetic variability of RNA virus genomes, their heterogenous population structure, and their capacity for considerable biological adaptability and rapid evolution.
DEAN T. JAMISON, Ph.D., is staff director for the World Bank's World Development Report, 1993, in the Office of the Chief Economist of the World Bank. He is there on leave from the University of California at Los Angeles where he is a professor in the Department of Community Health Sciences and in the Department of Education. Professor Jamison's research interests lie in the economics of health and education. In particular, his current focus is on cost-effectiveness assessment of health interventions in developing countries; he is co-editing a major reference volume in this area, Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries (forthcoming from Oxford University Press). Dr. Jamison serves as co-chair of the Institute of Medicine's Board on International Health and is a member of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee of the World Health Organization's Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases.
EDWIN D. KILBOURNE, M.D., is Distinguished Service Professor at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine. He is a physician-virologist who has held professorships in medicine, public health, and microbiology. His special research interest is influenza in all its aspects, and he has made important contributions to our knowledge of influenza virus genetics, epidemiology, and vaccine development. Dr. Kilbourne is the author or co-author of books on influenza, preventive medicine and human ecology, and public health. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and is currently chairman of the board of directors of the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center of the City of New York.
ADEL A. F. MAHMOUD, M.D., Ph.D., is John H. Hord Professor and chairman of the Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, and physician-in-chief of the University Hospitals of Cleveland. He received his M.D. from the University of Cairo and his Ph.D. from the University of London. Dr. Mahmoud's research focuses on the epidemiology and immunology of schistosomiasis and other major global helminthic infections,
as well as the biology and function of eosinophils. He serves on the World Health Organization's Advisory Board Panel on Parasitic Diseases as well as the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. Dr. Mahmoud is co-editor of Tropical and Geographic Medicine. He has been the recipient of many awards including the Bailey K. Ashford Medal of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and the Squibb Award of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. He currently serves as president of the International Society of Infectious Diseases.
GERALD L. MANDELL, M.D., is Owen R. Cheatham Professor of the Sciences, professor of medicine, and chief of infectious diseases at the University of Virginia. He received his M.D. from Cornell University Medical College. Dr. Mandell is co-editor of Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, as well as president-elect of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and former chairman of the American Board of Internal Medicine's Section on Infectious Diseases. His research, for which he holds a MERIT Award from the National Institutes of Health, has focused on the biology of phagocytic cells.
STEPHEN S. MORSE, Ph.D., is assistant professor at Rockefeller University in New York, where he has been on the faculty since 1985. Prior to that time, he was assistant professor of microbiology at Rutgers University. A virologist and immunologist, Dr. Morse received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and was a National Cancer Institute postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology of the Medical College of Virginia. Dr. Morse chaired the organizing committee and was chair of the Conference on Emerging Viruses, sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), in conjunction with Rockefeller University, which was held in Washington in May 1989; he was also a member of the organizing committee of the NIH Conference on Emerging Microbes and Microbial Diseases, Washington, November 1991, and a consultant to the Congress's Office of Technology Assessment in 1989–1990. He is the editor of Emerging Viruses (Oxford University Press, 1992) and of the forthcoming Evolutionary Biology of Viruses (Raven Press). Dr. Morse is a councillor of the Microbiology Section, New York Academy of Sciences, and a corporation member of the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole); professional society memberships include the American Association of Immunologists, American Society for Microbiology, American Society for Virology, American Association of Pathologists, and Sigma Xi. His research has addressed viral effects on T lymphocyte development and function, using mouse thymic virus as a model. (This is a naturally occurring mouse herpesvirus that causes the deletion of CD4+ cells in the developing
thymus.) He has also investigated methods for studying viral evolution.
JUNE E. OSBORN, M.D., is dean and professor of epidemiology at the University of Michigan School of Public Health and professor of pediatrics and communicable diseases in the Medical School. She is trained as a virologist as well as a pediatric infectious disease specialist and has served in a number of advisory roles for the federal government, universities, and private foundations. Dr. Osborn was elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine in 1986 and was a member of the steering committee for the National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine study, Confronting AIDS. Currently, she is a member of the World Health Organization's Global Commission on AIDS and since 1989 has served as chair of the U.S. National Commission on AIDS.
WILLIAM C. REEVES, Ph.D., is professor emeritus of epidemiology in the School of Public Health at the University of California at Berkeley, where he has been a faculty member since 1946; he served as dean of the school from 1967 to 1971. He received the doctorate in medical entomology and parasitology in 1943 and the M.P.H. in epidemiology in 1949 from the University of California at Berkeley. He has served as a consultant to the surgeons general of the U.S. Army and the U.S. Public Health Service and to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, World Health Organization, and Pan American Health Organization. He is past president of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and has been the recipient of many awards including the Walter Reed Medal from the above society, the John Snow Award from the American Public Health Association, and the Medal for Distinguished Civilian Service to the U.S. Army. Dr. Reeve's research has focused on the epidemiology and control of vector-borne diseases.
PHILIP K. RUSSELL, M.D., is professor of international health at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. He received his M.D. from the University of Rochester in 1958 and, following an internship, began a 31-year career in the U.S. Army Medical Department. Dr. Russell served in various positions during his career with the Army, including director and commandant of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, assistant surgeon general for research and development, and commander of the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command. He received several awards for his work, including the Distinguished Service Medal, before retiring as a major general in 1990. Dr. Russell has served on numerous scientific committees and is presently a member of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases,
Centers for Disease Control, and chairman of the Management Committee of the Children's Vaccine Initiative Consultative Group. He is also scientific advisor to the National Vaccine Program and a consultant in infectious diseases to the surgeon general of the Army.
ALEXIS SHELOKOV, M.D., is director of medical affairs—and, until recently, director of vaccine research—at the Salk Institute, Government Services Division. Born and raised in China, he developed an early interest in epidemic infectious diseases; following graduation from Stanford University Medical School and a period of clinical training, he made a career commitment to study the etiology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of epidemic infectious diseases, as a basis for their control and prevention. Dr. Shelokov served as virology laboratory chief at the National Institutes of Health and has held professorships in microbiology at the University of Texas and in epidemiology at Johns Hopkins University. He has been a member of a number of advisory committees for the federal government, universities, and private foundations, as well as for the Pan American Health Organization and World Health Organization. Dr. Shelokov is board certified in preventive medicine.
P. FREDERICK SPARLING, M.D., is J. Herbert Bate Professor and chairman of the Department of Medicine and professor of microbiology and immunology at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine in Chapel Hill. He was formerly Chairman of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the same institution. Dr. Sparling is an infectious disease physician and has published extensively in the area of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and bacterial pathogenesis, including particularly Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the cause of gonorrhea. In recent years his interests, have also included the epidemiology, treatment, and prevention of STIs, and behaviors as risk factors for the acquisition of these infections. He now directs an STI Cooperative Research Center, one of five recently established in the United States. The focus of the center is the molecular basis of pathogenesis by multiple microorganisms that cause STIs and the epidemiological and behavioral factors that contribute to STIs in rural core transmitter populations. Dr. Sparling has been a member of numerous national organizations and has chaired a National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) study section. Among his honors he lists receipt of the Joseph Smadel Award from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
ANDREW SPIELMAN, Ph.D., is professor of tropical public health at the Harvard School of Public Health, where he explores the role of arthropods in human disease. His studies on Lyme disease have defined the manner in
which ticks, deer, and rodents perpetuate this zoonosis, and developed a now-standard method for malaria diagnosis. He also received the Medal of Honor from the American Mosquito Control Association for establishing the biological basis for the first insect growth regulator. Dr. Spielman holds a Merit Award from the National Institutes of Health and has advised, among others, the United States Agency for International Development, Centers for Disease Control, National Institutes of Health, Pan American Health Organization, and Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.
STANLEY C. OAKS, JR., Ph.D., is a study director in the Division of Health Sciences Policy at the Institute of Medicine (IOM). He received his Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Maryland, College Park. Following a 20-year career in the U.S. Army Medical Department, where he was involved in clinical and research microbiology and vaccine product management, he joined the IOM's Division of International Health in 1990. The report of his previous IOM study, Malaria: Obstacles and Opportunities, was published in October 1991. Dr. Oaks is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology. His professional interests include clinical microbiology, rickettsial diseases, and tropical infectious diseases.
ELIZABETH E. MEYER is a research associate in the Division of Health Sciences Policy at the Institute of Medicine. She received a B.A. degree in biopsychology from Cornell University. Previously, Ms. Meyer served as research associate for the Institute of Medicine study, Mapping the Brain and Its Functions.