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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Index

A

Absorption

in calcium metabolism, 50

high level dietary fat and, 12

of vitamin K, 52

of xanthophylls, 17

Acid-base balance, 14

Aflatoxins, 78-79

Age

broiler nutrient requirements and, 27

fat metabolism and, 12

metabolizable energy assessment and, 6

Alfalfa

amino acid composition of, 66, 71

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

fatty acid composition of, 75

nutrient composition of, 72-63

xanthophylls in, 17

Aluminum, toxicity of, 59

Amaranth, 53

Amino acids

biochemical role of, 9

in broiler breeder diet, 32-33, 34

in broiler chicken diet, 27-29

conversion to vitamins, 11

crystalline form, 28, 80

deficiencies in chickens and turkeys, 46-50

digestibility, 71, 73-74

documentation of nutrient requirements, 85

duck requirements, 43

egg weight and, 25

in feeds, 61, 66-68, 69, 71-74

geese requirements, 40-41

interactions, 10-11

metabolizable energy of, 75

in nutritional requirement models, 1

in phase-feeding program, 24

requirements, 9-10

supplements, 74

total sulfur amino acids, 28, 38, 41, 43, 45

toxicity, 11

turkey requirements, 36, 37-38

Animal products

as dietary fat source, 11, 12

nutrient composition of meat, 72-63, 67

as protein source, 70

Antibiotic additives, 18

Antimicrobial additives, 3, 18, 52

Antioxidants, 50, 51

Arginine, 11

broiler chicken requirements, 29

deficiency, 46

documentation of nutrient requirements, 90, 99, 107, 110

duck requirements, 43

in feeds, 66-68, 71-73

turkey requirements, 37-38

Arsenic, toxicity of, 59

B

Bakery waste products

amino acid composition, 66, 72

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

metabolizable energy in, 6, 113

nutrient composition of, 72-63

Barium, toxicity of, 59

Barley, 8, 9

amino acid composition of, 71, 73

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

fatty acid composition of, 75

metabolizable energy in, 113

nutrient composition of, 72-63

Bicarbonate, 14

in egg production, 25

Bioassay techniques for measurement of energy values, 4-6

Biotin, 15

biochemical role of, 53

broiler breeder chicken requirements, 33

broiler chicken requirements, 31

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

 

deficiency, 47, 48, 53-54

documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 95, 98, 105

in feeds, 63, 65

in wheat diet, 69

Blood meal

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66

Bobwhite quail, 45, 112

Bone development

in Leghorn-type pullet, 21

mineral requirements, 14

nutrient deficiencies and, 49, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57

vitamin D in, 50-51

Bone meal

amino acid composition of, 72

element concentrations in, 78

Boron, 15

Breeding diets

biotin in, 54

broiler chickens, 32-34

iodine in, 57

Japanese quail, 45

Leghorn-type laying chickens, 26

turkeys, 38, 39

zinc in, 57

Brewer's grains, nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66, 113

Broadbeans, nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66

Broiler breeder chickens

amino acid/protein requirements, 32-33, 34

documentation of nutrient requirements, 97-98

energy consumption, 33, 34

feed intake, 32

hens, 32-33

males, 33-34

mineral requirements, 33, 34

nutrient requirements, 32

vitamin requirements, 33

Broiler chickens

age of, and nutrient requirements, 27

amino acid requirements, 27-29

documentation of nutrient requirements, 90-96

energy intake, 8

fat utilization, 7

fatty acid requirements, 32

feed intake, 26

feed utilization vs. weight gain, 26-27

gender differences, 27

market weights, 26

mineral requirements, 27, 29-31

nutrient interactions in, 27

nutritional modeling for, 1

protein requirements, 27

vitamin requirements, 27, 31-32

water intake, 16

Buckwheat, nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66

Bushel weights of grains, 61, 68

C

Cadmium, toxicity of, 59

Calcium

biochemical role of, 14

Bobwhite quail requirements, 45

broiler breeder chicken requirements, 33, 34

broiler chicken requirements, 29, 30

deficiency, 47, 56

documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 88, 93, 98, 102-103, 105, 106, 107, 109, 111, 112

duck requirements, 43

excesses of, 14

in feeds, 72, 64, 78

geese requirements, 41

in laying hen diet, 25

in Leghorn-type pullet growth, 22

in phase-feeding program, 24

toxicity to pheasant chicks, 44

turkey requirements, 38

vitamin D and, 50, 51

Calcium carbonate, 78

Calcium phosphate, 78

Calcium sulfate, 78

Calorie, definition of, 3

Canola

amino acid composition of, 71

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66, 70

Carbohydrates

metabolizable energy values of, 75, 76-77

sources of, 8-9

ß-Carotene

as pigmenting agent, 17

as vitamin A, 15, 50

Carotenoids

for pigmentation, 17, 50

Casein

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66

Cereal grains

bushel weight ranges, 61, 68

as carbohydrate source, 8-9

metabolizable energy of, 61, 72, 64, 113

nutrient composition of, 61-69

Chickens

standard reference diets for, 80-81

See also Broiler chickens;

Broiler breeder chickens;

Leghorn-type

chickens;

Symptoms of nutrient deficiency

Chloride

biochemical role of, 14

in egg production, 25

toxicity, 59

Chlorine

broiler breeder chicken requirements, 33

deficiency, 47, 57

documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 88, 94, 98, 103

in feeds, 72, 64, 78

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

 

Choline, 11

broiler chicken requirements, 30, 31

chloride, 15

deficiency, 10, 47, 56

documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 95, 104, 105, 106, 109, 111, 112

in egg production, 25

in feeds, 63, 65

geese requirements, 41

in methionine-cystine requirements, 28

role of, 55

turkey requirements, 39

Chromium, toxicity of, 59

Cobalt, 14

toxicity, 59

Coconut

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66

Copper, 14

biochemical role of, 57

broiler chicken requirements, 30

deficiency, 47, 48, 57

documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 89, 94, 111

in feeds, 63, 65, 78

toxicity, 58, 59

Coprophagy, 52, 54

Corn

amino acid composition of, 71, 73

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

fatty acid composition of, 75

metabolizable energy in, 113

nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66

xanthophylls in, 17

Cost factors

in egg weight gain, 25

protein sources, 10

in setting dietary energy levels, 7

Cotton/cottonseed meal

amino acid composition of, 71

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

fatty acid composition of, 75

gossypol in, 69

metabolizable energy in, 113

nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66

as protein supplement, 69

Cystine

in broiler chicken diet, 27-28

documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 88, 91-92, 101, 106, 107, 109, 110, 112

in feeds, 66-68, 71-73

methionine interaction, 10, 27-28

D

Deficiency, nutrient, 2

amino acid/protein, 10-11, 46-50

assessment of, 46, 47

embryo development and, 46

fatty acid, 13

feed consumption and, 7-8

to induce molt, 26

minerals, 47, 48, 56-57

trace element, 14

vitamins, 47, 48, 50-56

water deprivation, 16

See also Symptoms of nutrient deficiency

Dextrose, 80

Diagnosis of nutrient deficiency, 46

biochemical and physiological measurement in, 47

in embryo development, 46

Digestibility

of amino acids, 71, 73-74

measurement techniques, 73-74

of phosphorus, 14

of sorghums, 6

Digestible energy, 4

Drunken syndrome, 16

Ducks

documentation of nutrient requirements, 107-108

growing systems for, 42

nutrient requirements, 42-43

E

Egg production

in broiler breeder chickens, 32-33

calcium metabolism in, 56

carotenoid pigments in, 17

chloride/chlorine in, 25, 33

dietary fat in, 12-13

dietary minerals in, 14, 25

documentation of Leghorn-type chicken requirements, 88-89

linoleic acid in, 13

manganese in, 56

in pheasants, 44

phosphorus in, 33

potassium in, 56-57

pyridoxine in, 55

rapeseed meal diets and, 70

seasonal variation, 24

shell strength, 25, 33, 56, 57

sodium in, 33, 57

specific gravity of egg in, 33

in turkeys, 37, 38

vitamin D deficiency in, 51

yolk discoloration, gossypol in, 69

See also Embryo development;

Laying hens;

Leghorn-type chickens

Egg white, as protein source, 30

Eicosanoids, 13

Electrolytes, 14

Embryo development

biotin in, 54

choline in, 56

chorioallantois development in, 46

folic acid in, 55

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

 

iodine in, 57

manganese in, 56

pantothenic acid in, 54

riboflavin in, 53

symptoms of nutrient deficiency in, 46

thiamin deficiency in, 53

vitamin B12 in, 55

vitamin D in, 51

vitamin K in, 52

Encephalomalacia, 31

Energy.

See also Metabolizable energy

carbohydrate sources, 8-9

digestible, 4

disposition of, 4

fat as source of, 11

gross, 4

net, 4

in setting dietary levels, 7-8

terminology, 3-4

Energy requirements

broiler breeder chickens, 33, 34

broiler chickens, 8

geese, 40

Leghorn-type laying hens, 22, 24

Leghorn-type pullets, 21

modeling of, 1

turkeys, 37

Established requirements, 1

Estimated requirements, 1

Ether extract, in feeds, 72, 64, 75

F

Fats

blending of, 12

depot fat, 13

dietary role of, 11

in egg weight, 25

energy values of, 6-7, 12-13, 114

in net energy of production, 12-13

saturated:unsaturated ratio, 7

sources of, 11-12

Fatty acids

broiler chicken requirements, 27, 32

composition in fats, 13

deficiencies, 13

dietary irregularities, symptoms of, 54

dietary synergism, 5

essential, 13

in feeds, 75-77

polyunsaturated, 13, 51-52

Feathers

in feeds, 72-63, 70, 74

growth in pheasants, 44

nutrient deficiencies in abnormalities of, 44, 46, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57

Feces

in measuring energy, 4

phosphorus levels, 25

Feed manufacture/processing

amino acid availability and, 73

animal products in, 70

heat treatment of soybean meal, 70

mycotoxin formation, 78

pelleted feeds, 15-16, 35, 42, 53

Feedstuffs

amino acid composition of, 66-68, 71-74

analysis of, 2

antimicrobials in, 18

assessing energy in, 3-8

energy values of, prediction equations for, 113-114

fatty acid composition of, 75, 76-77

intake as factor in nutrient concentration in, 22-24

mineral concentrations in, 75-78

mycotoxins in, 78-79

nutrient composition of, 61-65, 68-70

pigmenting agents in, 17, 50

pyridoxine in, 54

thiamin in, 52-53

vitamin D in, 51

water:feed ratio, 15-16

Fermentation by-products, 18

Field beans

amino acid composition of, 71

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

Fish products, 53

amino acid composition of, 71, 73

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

metabolizable energy in, 114

nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66-67

as protein source, 70

Fluorine

in feeds, 78

toxicity, 59

Folacin/folic acid

antagonists, 55

broiler chicken requirements, 31

deficiency, 47, 48, 55

documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 95-96, 104, 105, 106, 111

in feeds, 63, 65

maximum tolerance, 15

metabolism, 55

Food and Drug Administration, 18

Formula diets, standard reference, 80-81

Fungi in feeds, 78-79

G

Geese

documentation of nutrient requirements, 106

force-feeding, 40

nutrient requirements, 40-41

protein requirements, 40

Gelatin

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

nutrient composition of, 72-63, 67

Gizzerosine, 70

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

 

Glucose

deficiency, 54

energy value, 4-5

Glycine

broiler chicken requirements, 29

documentation of nutrient requirements, 90, 99, 110

in feeds, 66-68

serine interaction, 10

Gossypol, 69

Gross energy, 4

Growth factors, unidentified, 3, 18

Growth/weight gain

amino acids and, 11

antimicrobials and, 18

in broiler breeder chickens, 32, 34

egg size and, 32-33

egg weight and, 24

in Leghorn-type chickens, 24

in Leghorn-type pullets, 19-21, 22

in market broilers, 26-27

in measuring metabolizable energy, 6

mineral deficiency and, 56-57

mineral toxicity and, 58

in turkey breeders, 39

in turkeys, 35

H

High-energy diets, 8

Histidine, 11

broiler chicken requirements, 29

deficiency, 47

documentation of nutrient requirements, 90, 97, 99, 110

in feeds, 66-68

Hominy, nutrient composition of, 72-63, 67

I

Iodine, 14

biochemical role of, 57

broiler chicken requirements, 31

deficiency, 47, 48, 57

documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 89, 94, 111

to induce molt, 26

toxicity, 59

Iron, 14

broiler chicken requirements, 29, 30

deficiency, 47, 48, 57

documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 88, 94, 111

in feeds, 63, 65, 78

pigmentation and, 57

toxicity, 59

Isoleucine, 11

broiler chicken requirements, 29

deficiency, 46, 50

documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 88, 90, 100, 110

duck requirements, 43

in feeds, 66-68

leucine antagonism, 11

turkey requirements, 38

J

Japanese quail, 45, 110-111

Joule, definition of, 3-4

K

Kilocalorie, definition of, 3

L

Laying hens

added dietary fat for, 12-13

disposition of energy in, 4

energy intake, 8

nutritional modeling for, 1

vitamin D deficiency in, 51

water intake, 16

See also Egg production;

Leghorn-type chickens

Lead, toxicity of, 59

Leghorn-type chickens

ambient temperature in feed intake of, 8, 22

brown-egg-laying, 21, 25-26, 70

documentation of nutrient requirements of, 85-90

egg-type breeders, 26

egg weight, factors in, 24-25

energy requirements, 19-21, 22, 24

feed intake levels, 22-24

maintenance needs, 22

mineral requirements, 20, 21, 22, 25

molting hens, 26

phase feeding, 24

prelay period, 21-22

production diet, 22-26

protein requirements, 19-21, 22-24

pullet nutrient requirements, 19-22

vitamin requirements, 20, 21, 22, 25

Leucine, 11

broiler chicken requirements, 29

deficiency, 46, 50

documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 90, 97, 100, 107, 110

duck requirements, 43

in feeds, 66-68

isoleucine antagonism, 11

Lighting, to induce molt, 26

Limestone, element concentrations in, 78

Linoleic acid, 13

broiler chicken requirements, 32

deficiency, 47

documentation of nutrient requirements, 93, 102, 105

egg weight and, 24

in feeds, 72, 64

Low-protein diets, 19-21

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

 

Lupine seeds

amino acid composition of, 71, 72

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

Lutein, 17

Lysine, 11

in broiler chicken diets, 26-27, 29

deficiency, 46, 47

documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 88, 90-91, 100, 106, 107, 110

duck requirements, 43

in feeds, 71-73

geese requirements, 40-41

Leghorn-type chicken requirements, 22-24

quail requirements, 45

turkey requirements, 37, 38

M

Magnesium

biochemical role of, 14

broiler chicken requirements, 29, 30

in calcium source, 14

deficiency, 47, 56

documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 88, 94, 103, 107, 111

in feeds, 63, 65, 78

toxicity, 59

turkey requirements, 38

Magnesium oxide, element concentrations in, 78

Manganese, 14

broiler chicken requirements, 29, 30

deficiency, 47, 48, 56

documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 88, 103, 105, 109, 111

in feeds, 63, 65, 78

toxicity, 59

turkey requirements, 38

Meat production

fish meal in feeds and, 70

See also Broiler chickens;

Broiler breeder chickens;

Ducks;

Geese;

Pheasants;

Quail;

Turkeys

Meat products as feed

amino acid composition of, 71, 72

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

element concentrations in, 78

fatty acid composition of, 75

fish products, 37, 53, 72-63, 66-67, 70, 71, 74

metabolizable energy in, 114

nutrient composition of, 72-63, 67

Megacalorie, definition of, 3

Menadione, 15

source of, 52

Menaquinone, 15

source of, 52

Mercury, toxicity of, 58, 59

Metabolizable energy

apparent, 4

carbohydrate values, 75, 76-77

of cereal grains, 68-69

definition of, 4

dietary requirements, 8

documentation of nutrient requirements, 98, 109, 112

in duck growth, 42

of fats, 12

of feed ingredients, 61, 72, 64

in geese, 40

measurement of, 4-6

prediction equations for estimating feed ingredient values, 113-114

proximate components in estimation of, 6-7

true, 4, 5, 6, 8

turkey feed intake and, 37

Methionine, 11

in broiler chicken diet, 27-28

cystine interaction, 10

deficiency, 50

documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 88, 91, 97, 100-101, 106, 107, 109, 110, 112

duck requirements, 43

egg weight and, 24, 25

in feeds, 66-68, 71-73

geese requirements, 41

toxicity, 11

turkey requirements, 38

Milk, nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66

Millet, nutrient composition of, 72-63, 67

Milo, amino acid composition of, 71, 72

Minerals, 13-14

biochemical role of, 14

broiler breeder chicken requirements, 33, 34

broiler chicken requirements, 27, 29-31

deficiencies, 47, 48, 56-57

documentation of nutrient requirements, 85-86, 88-89, 93-94, 97, 98, 102-103, 105, 107, 109, 111, 112

duck requirements, 43

electrolyte balance, 14

in experimental diets, 15

in feeds, 78

interactions, 14-15, 56, 58

Leghorn-type chickens, requirements for, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26

macromineral supplements, 75-78

pheasant requirements, 44

supplements, 14-15

toxicity, 58-60

trace elements, 14

turkey requirements, 38

in water, 16-17

Modeling techniques

for amino acid requirements, 1

for energy requirements, 1

Molasses, nutrient composition of, 72-63

Molting hens, 26

Molybdenum, toxicity of, 59

Mycotoxins, 17

in feeds, 78-79

in vitamin D metabolism, 51

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

N

Net energy, definition of, 4

Niacin

amino acids in synthesis of, 11

biochemical role of, 53

broiler chicken requirements, 31

deficiency, 47, 48, 53

documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 95, 104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 111, 112

in feeds, 63, 65

geese requirements, 41

maximum tolerance, 15

Nickel, toxicity of, 59-60

Nitrate, toxicity of, 60

Nitrogen

in amino acids, 75

in measurement of metabolizable energy, 4, 5-6

Nutrient requirements

amino acid, 9-10

of Bobwhite quail, 45

of broiler breeder chickens, 32-34

of broiler chickens, 26-32

carbohydrates, 8

of ducks, 42-43

energy levels, 7-8

fatty acids, 13

of geese, 40-41

of Japanese quail, 44-45

of Leghorn-type breeders, 26

of Leghorn-type chickens, documentation of, 85-89

of Leghorn-type hens in egg production, 22-26

of Leghorn-type molting hens, 26

of Leghorn-type pullets, 19-22

minerals, 13-15

of ring-necked pheasants, 44

of turkeys, 35-39

vitamins, 15

O

Oats

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

fatty acid composition of, 75

metabolizable energy in, 113

nutrient composition of, 64-65, 67

Ochratoxin A, 79

Osteocalcin, 50

Oyster shells, 78

P

Pantothenic acid

broiler chicken requirements, 31

deficiency, 47, 48, 54

documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 95, 104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 111, 112

egg-type breeder requirements, 26

in energy metabolism, 54

in feeds, 63, 65

geese requirements, 41

maximum tolerance, 15

turkey requirements, 39

Paralysis, in nutrient deficiency, 31

Peanuts

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

fatty acid composition of, 75

nutrient composition of, 64-65, 67

Peas

amino acid composition of, 71, 72

nutrient composition of, 64-65, 67

Pelleted feeds, 15-16

for ducks, 42

thiamin in, 53

for turkeys, 35, 37

Perosis, 41, 53, 54, 55, 56

Phase feeding of Leghorn-type chickens, 24

Pheasants, 54

nutrient requirements for, 44, 109

Phenylalanine, 11

broiler chicken requirements, 29

deficiency, 46, 50

documentation of nutrient requirements, 92, 97, 101-102, 110

in feeds, 66-68

tyrosine interaction, 10

Phosphoric acid, element concentrations in, 78

Phosphorus

Bobwhite quail requirements, 45

broiler breeder chicken requirements, 33, 34

broiler chicken requirements, 29, 30

deficiency, 47, 56

digestibility, 14

documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 88, 93-94, 97, 98, 103 , 105, 106, 107, 109, 111, 112

in egg production, 25

in feeds, 72, 64, 78

geese requirements, 41

in Leghorn-type pullet growth, 21

nutritional role of, 14

in phase-feeding program, 24

plant sources, 56

turkey requirements, 38

Phylloquinone, 15

source of, 52

Phytic acid, 38

Pigmentation

gossypol pigments in cottonseed oil, 69

mineral deficiency and, 57

nutrient deficiency in depigmentation, 46

pigments in feedstuffs, 17, 50

Potassium

broiler chicken requirements, 29, 30

deficiency, 47, 56-57

documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 88, 94, 103

in feeds, 72, 64, 78

nutritional role of, 14

Poultry by-products

amino acid composition of, 67, 72

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

 

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

fatty acid composition of, 75

metabolizable energy in, 6, 114

nutrient composition of, 64-65

Proline

documentation of nutrient requirements, 93

Proline, broiler chicken requirements, 29

Protein

deficiencies, 46

documentation of nutrient requirements, 97, 98, 99, 105, 106, 107, 109, 110, 112

egg weight and, 24

in feeds, 72, 64, 66-68, 69

in measuring metabolizable energy, 5, 6

in phase-feeding program, 24

supplements, 69-70

See also Amino acids;

Protein requirements

Protein requirements

of broiler breeder chickens, 32-33, 34

of ducks, 42

of geese, 40

of Leghorn-type laying hens, 22-24, 88

of Leghorn-type pullets, 19-21, 85

of pheasants, 44

of quail, 45

of turkeys, 36, 37

Proximate analysis, 6-7

Pullets

broiler breeder, 32-33

Leghorn-type, 19-22

Pyridoxine

broiler chicken requirements, 32

deficiency, 47, 48, 54-55

documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 96, 104, 108, 111

in feeds, 63, 65

maximum tolerance, 15

in nervous system functioning, 54

Q

Quail, 54

Bobwhite, 45, 56, 112

Japanese, 44-45, 110-111

R

Rapeseed

metabolizable energy in, 113

as protein supplement, 69-70

Riboflavin

biochemical role of, 53

broiler chicken requirements, 30, 31

deficiency, 47, 48, 53

documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 95, 104, 105, 108, 109, 111, 112

egg-type breeder requirements, 26

in feeds, 63, 65

geese requirements, 41

maximum tolerance, 15

turkey requirements, 39

Rice, 113

amino acid composition of, 71

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

nutrient composition of, 64-65, 67

Rye, 9

nutrient composition of, 64-65, 67

S

Safety margin in requirements values, 1, 2

Safflower, nutrient composition of, 64-65, 67

Salt, 14

water intake and, 16

Selenium, 14, 50

broiler chicken requirements, 31

deficiency, 47, 48, 51, 52, 57

documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 89, 94, 103, 107, 111

in feeds, 63, 65

sources of, 57

toxicity, 57, 58, 60

in vitamin E metabolism, 51

Serine

broiler chicken requirements, 29

documentation of nutrient requirements, 90, 110

in feeds, 66-68

glycine interaction, 10

Sesame

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

nutrient composition of, 64-65, 67-68

Silicon, 15

Silver, toxicity of, 60

Sodium

broiler breeder chicken requirements, 33

deficiency, 47, 57

documentation of nutrient requirements, 21, 86, 88, 94, 98, 103, 109

in egg production, 25

in feeds, 63, 65, 78

nutritional role of, 14

toxicity, 60

Sodium carbonate, element concentrations in, 78

Sodium chloride

documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 107

to induce molt, 26

toxicity, 60

Sodium chlorine

documentation of nutrient requirements, 111

Sodium phosphate, element concentrations in, 78

Sodium sulfate, element concentrations in, 78

Sorghum

fatty acid composition, 75

metabolizable energy of, 6, 113

nutrient composition of, 64-65, 68-69

tannin content of, 6, 61, 68-69

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

 

Soybeans/soybean meal

amino acid composition of, 71, 72

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

fatty acid composition of, 75

metabolizable energy in, 113

nutrient composition of, 64-65, 68

as protein supplement, 70

toxic elements in, 70

urease assays, 70

Standard reference diets, 80-81

Strontium, toxicity of, 60

Sulfaquinoxaline, 52

Sulfate

in broiler chicken diet, 28

toxicity of, 60

Sulfur amino acids, 63, 65, 78

in Bobwhite quail, 45

in broiler chickens, 28

in ducks, 43

in geese, 41

in quail, 45

in turkeys, 38

Sunflower

amino acid composition of, 71, 72

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

metabolizable energy in, 113

nutrient composition of, 64-65, 68

Supplementation

amino acids, 74

antibiotics, 18

antimicrobial additives, 18

of cereal grain diets, 9

choline, 55-56

fats, 6-7, 25

minerals, 14-15

protein, 69

selenium, 57

vitamin K, 52

vitamins, 15

of wheat diets, 69

Symptoms of nutrient deficiency

adrenal weight increase, 57

blood disorders, 49, 52, 53, 55, 57

bone abnormalities, 49, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57

cervical paralysis, 55

dermatitis, 53, 54

diarrhea, 49

encephalomalacia, 51, 52

feather abnormalities, 44, 46, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57

foot pad dermatitis, 50

gizzard ulcerations, 70

hyperthyroidism, 50

hypocalcemia, 51

immune system function, 50, 55

leg disorders in pheasants, 44

liver function, 46

muscle abnormalities, 46, 51, 57

nervous system dysfunction, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54

pancreatic disorders, 57

pendulous crops, 54

pigmentation disorders, 46, 57

reproductive disorders, 50, 52, 54

rickets, 56

secretory membrane dysfunction, 50

skin lesions, 49, 50, 54

thyroid disorders, 57

tongue deformity, 50

T

Temperature, environmental

feed intake and, 8, 9, 22

phosphorus in tolerance to, 25

in requirements data, 2

turkey maintenance energy and, 37

water intake and, 16

Thiamin

broiler chicken requirements, 31-32

deficiency, 47, 48, 52-53

documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 96, 104, 111

in feeds, 63, 65

maximum tolerance, 15

Threonine, 11

broiler chicken requirements, 29

documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 88, 92, 97, 102, 110

in feeds, 66-68, 71-73

D/DL-a-Tocopheryl/Tocopheryl acetate, 15

Toxicity

amino acid, 11

calcium, 44

definition, 58

gossypol pigments in cottonseed oil, 69

of inorganic elements, 57, 58-60

methionine, 11

mycotoxin, 78-79

vitamin A, 50

vitamin D, 51

vitamin E, 52

Tricothecenes, 79

Triticale, 113

amino acid composition of, 71

nutrient composition of, 64-65, 68

Tryptophan

broiler breeder requirements

broiler chicken requirements, 29

deficiency, 46

documentation of nutrient requirements, 92-93, 102, 107, 110

duck requirements, 43

egg weight and, 25

in feeds, 66-68, 71-73

as niacin source, 11, 53

Tungsten, toxicity of, 60

Turkeys

amino acid requirements, 36, 37-38

breeding diets, 38, 39

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

 

documentation of nutrient requirements, 99-105

egg production, 37, 38

energy consumption, 37

magnesium requirements, 38

manganese requirements, 38

mineral requirements, 38

nutrient requirements, 35-36

nutrient-to-energy ratios in feeds, 8

nutritional modeling for, 1

pelleted feeds for, 35, 37

phosphorus requirements, 38

protein requirements, 36, 37

vitamin requirements, 38-39

water intake, 16

zinc requirements, 38

See also Symptoms of nutrient deficiency

Tyrosine, 11

broiler chicken requirements, 29

deficiency, 46

documentation of nutrient requirements, 92, 101, 110

in feeds, 66-68

phenylalanine interaction, 10

U

Urinary energy, 5

V

Valine, 11

broiler chicken requirements, 29

deficiency, 46

documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 88, 93, 97, 102, 107, 110

duck requirements, 43

in feeds, 66-68

Vanadium, toxicity of, 58, 60

Vegetable oils, 12, 13

Vitamin A, 15

broiler chicken requirements, 31

deficiency, 47, 48, 50

documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 89, 94, 103, 105, 111, 112

maximum tolerance, 15

toxicity, 50

turkey requirements, 38

Vitamin B12, 15

broiler chicken requirements, 31

deficiency, 47, 48, 55

documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 95, 104

egg-type breeder requirements, 26

in feeds, 63, 65

role of, 55

Vitamin C

bird stress and, 15

maximum tolerance, 15

Vitamin D, 15

broiler chicken requirements, 30, 31

in calcium metabolism, 50, 51

deficiency, 47, 48, 50-51, 51

documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 89, 94-95, 103, 105, 107, 109, 111

maximum tolerance, 15

metabolism, 50

nutritional role of, 50

sources of, 50

toxicity, 51

turkey requirements, 38-39

Vitamin E, 15

broiler chicken requirements, 30, 31

deficiency, 47, 48, 51-52

documentation of nutrient requirements, 95, 103, 105, 108

documentation of nutrient requirements, 89, 87

in feeds, 63, 65

maximum tolerance, 15

metabolism, 51

toxicity, 52

turkey requirements, 39

in vitamin A excess, 50

Vitamin K, 15

broiler chicken requirements, 31

deficiency, 47, 48, 52

documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 95, 103, 108

maximum tolerance, 15

nutritional role of, 52

sources of, 52

turkey requirements, 39

Vitamins, 15

amino acids in synthesis of, 11

antagonistic interactions, 50

broiler breeder chicken requirements, 33

broiler chicken requirements, 27, 30, 31-32

deficiencies, 47, 48, 50-56

documentation of nutrient requirements, 86-87, 89, 94-96, 103-104, 105, 107-108, 111

duck requirements, 43

geese requirements, 41

Leghorn-type chicken requirements, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26

maximum tolerances, 15

pheasant requirements, 44

as supplements, 15

turkey requirements, 38-39

W

Water

delivery systems, 16

deprivation of, 16

intake determinants, 15-16

intoxication, 16

medication in, 16

requirements, 15, 16

total dissolved solids in, 17

trace minerals in, 16-17

Wheat

amino acid composition of, 71

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

 

fatty acid composition of, 75

metabolizable energy of, 69, 113

nutrient composition of, 64-65, 68

Whey, nutrient composition of, 64-65, 68

X

Xanthophylls, 17

role of, 3

Y

Yeasts, nutrient composition of, 64-65, 68

Z

Zearalenone, 79

Zeaxanthin, 17

Zinc, 14

broiler chicken requirements, 29, 30

deficiency, 47, 48, 57

documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 88, 94, 103, 107, 109, 111

in feeds, 63, 65, 78

to induce molt, 26

pheasant requirements, 44

toxicity, 60

turkey requirements, 38

Other Titles in the Series

Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th Rev. Ed., 1994

0-309-04892-3

Nutrient Requirements of Fish, 1993

0-309-04891-5

Nutrient Requirements of Horses, 5th Rev. Ed., 1989

0-309-03989-4

Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 6th Rev. Ed., Update 1989

0-309-03826-X

Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 9th Rev. Ed., 1988

0-309-03779-4

Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Rev. Ed., 1986

0-309-03682-8

Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, 6th Rev. Ed., 1985

0-309-03596-1

Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Rev. Ed., 1985

0-309-03496-5

Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 6th Rev. Ed., 1984

0-309-03447-7

Nutrient Requirements of Warm Water Fishes and Shellfishes, Rev. Ed., 1983

0-309-03428-0

Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes, Rev. Ed., 1982

0-309-03325-X

Nutrient Requirements of Coldwater Fishes, 1981

0-309-03187-7

Nutrient Requirements of Goats, 1981

0-309-03185-0

Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates, 1978

0-309-02786-1

Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits, 2nd Rev. Ed., 1977

0-309-02607-5

Related Publications

Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals, 1987

0-309-03695-X

Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987

0-309-03728-X

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Page 157

Other Titles in the Series

Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th Rev. Ed., 1994

0-309-04892-3

Nutrient Requirements of Fish, 1993

0-309-04891-5

Nutrient Requirements of Horses, 5th Rev. Ed., 1989

0-309-03989-4

Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 6th Rev. Ed., Update 1989

0-309-03826-X

Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 9th Rev. Ed., 1988

0-309-03779-4

Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Rev. Ed., 1986

0-309-03682-8

Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, 6th Rev. Ed., 1985

0-309-03596-1

Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Rev. Ed., 1985

0-309-03496-5

Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 6th Rev. Ed., 1984

0-309-03447-7

Nutrient Requirements of Warm Water Fishes and Shellfishes, Rev. Ed., 1983

0-309-03428-0

Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes, Rev. Ed., 1982

0-309-03325-X

Nutrient Requirements of Coldwater Fishes, 1981

0-309-03187-7

Nutrient Requirements of Goats, 1981

0-309-03185-0

Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates, 1978

0-309-02786-1

Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits, 2nd Rev. Ed., 1977

0-309-02607-5

Related Publications

Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals, 1987

0-309-03695-X

Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987

0-309-03728-X

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Page 157
Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Get This Book
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This classic reference for poultry nutrition has been updated for the first time since 1984. The chapter on general considerations concerning individual nutrients and water has been greatly expanded and includes, for the first time, equations for predicting the energy value of individual feed ingredients from their proximate composition.

This volume includes the latest information on the nutrient requirements of meat- and egg-type chickens, incorporating data on brown-egg strains, turkeys, geese, ducks, pheasants, Japanese quail, and Bobwhite quail.

This publication also contains new appendix tables that document in detail the scientific information used to derive the nutrient requirements appearing in the summary tables for each species of bird.

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