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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 (1994)

Chapter: 6. Nutrient Requirements of Ring-Necked Pheasants, Japanese Quail, and Bobwhite Quail

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Suggested Citation:"6. Nutrient Requirements of Ring-Necked Pheasants, Japanese Quail, and Bobwhite Quail." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

6
Nutrient Requirements of Ring-Necked Pheasants, Japanese Quail, and Bobwhite Quail

As was true for geese and ducks, little information is available on the nutrient requirements of the game birds that are most frequently considered part of the poultry industry—Ring-necked pheasants, Japanese quail, and Bobwhite quail. Although these species do not constitute a major share of the poultry industry, there are an increasing number of specialized farms involved in their production.

RING-NECKED PHEASANTS

Information available on the nutrient requirements of the Ring-necked pheasant indicates that diets of relatively high nutrient concentrations are needed during the starting period (Table 6-1). Protein and amino acid needs, where documented (Appendix Table A-7), resemble those of turkeys. Also, pheasants are especially prone to leg disorders and abnormal feather growth when certain key nutrients such as niacin, riboflavin, choline, manganese, and zinc are inadequate (Sunde and Bird, 1957; Scott et al., 1959). Pheasant chicks are especially vulnerable to undefined dietary factors that impair leg development, and including extra zinc in diets has been shown to reduce the impact of these factors (Cook et al., 1984). A high level of calcium, as in a breeder ration, can cause leg problems and high mortality if fed to pheasant chicks (Woodard et al., 1979).

All nutrient requirements listed for female pheasants in egg production except for protein are tentative. Data presented by Monetti et al. (1982, 1985) indicate that dietary protein concentration should be maintained so that percentage of protein per megacalorie MEn/kg of diet does not exceed 5.6.

Often, pheasants are fed diets designed to produce birds for use on game-release farms. Diets relatively high in protein and low in energy may be used to encourage the development of lean pheasants suitable for release.

JAPANESE QUAIL

Japanese quail are used for commercial specialty meat and egg production and also are valued research animals. Consequently, the nutrient requirements of Japanese quail have been documented to a greater extent than have those of other game bird species. Few definitive data have been published since 1984, when the previous edition of this report was published and

TABLE 6-1 Nutrient Requirements of Ring-Necked Pheasants as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet (90 percent dry matter)

Nutrient

Unit

0 to 4 Weeks; 2,800a

4 to 8 Weeks; 2,800a

9 to 17 Weeks; 2,700a

Breeding; 2,800a

Protein and amino acids

Protein

%

28

24

18

15

Glycine + serine

%

1.8

1.55

1.0

0.50

Linoleic Acid

%

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Lysine

%

1.5

1.40

0.8

0.68

Methionine

%

0.50

0.47

0.30

0.30

Methionine + cystine

%

1.0

0.93

0.6

0.60

Protein

%

28

24

18

15

Macrominerals

Calcium

%

1.0

0.85

0.53

2.5

Chlorine

%

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

Nonphytate phosphorus

%

0.55

0.50

0.45

0.40

Sodium

%

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

Trace minerals

Manganese

mg

70

70

60

60

Zinc

mg

60

60

60

60

Water soluble vitamins

Choline

mg

1,430

1,300

1,000

1,000

Niacin

mg

70.0

70

40.0

30.0

Pantothenic acid

mg

10.0

10.0

10.0

16.0

Riboflavin

mg

3.4

3.4

3.0

4.0

NOTE: Where experimental data are lacking, values typeset in bold italics represent an estimate based on values obtained for other ages or species. For nutrients not listed or those for which no values are given, see requirements of turkeys (Table 3-1) as a guide.

a These are typical dietary energy concentrations, expressed in kcal MEn/kg diet.



Suggested Citation:"6. Nutrient Requirements of Ring-Necked Pheasants, Japanese Quail, and Bobwhite Quail." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE 6-2 Nutrient Requirements of Japanese Quail (Coturnix) as Percentages or Units Per Kilogram of Diet (90 percent dry matter)

Nutrient

Unit

Starting and Growing; 2,900a

Breeding; 2,900a

Protein and amino acids

Protein

%

24.0

20.0

Arginine

%

1.25

1.26

Glycine + serine

%

1.15

1.17

Histidine

%

0.36

0.42

Isoleucine

%

0.98

0.90

Leucine

%

1.69

1.42

Lysine

%

1.30

1.00

Methionine

%

0.50

0.45

Methionine + cystine

%

0.75

0.70

Phenylalanine

%

0.96

0.78

Phenylalanine + tyrosine

%

1.80

1.40

Threonine

%

1.02

0.74

Tryptophan

%

0.22

0.19

Valine

%

0.95

0.92

Fat

Linoleic acid

%

1.0

1.0

Macrominerals

Calcium

%

0.8

2.5

Chlorine

%

0.14

0.14

Magnesium

mg

300

500

Nonphytate phosphorus

%

0.30

0.35

Potassium

%

0.4

0.4

Sodium

%

0.15

0.15

Trace minerals

Copper

mg

5

5

Iodine

mg

0.3

0.3

Iron

mg

120

60

Manganese

mg

60

60

Selenium

mg

0.2

0.2

Zinc

mg

25

50

Fat soluble vitamins

A

IU

1,650

3,300

D3

ICU

750

900

E

IU

12

25

K

mg

1

1

Water soluble vitamins

B12

mg

0.003

0.003

Biotin

mg

0.3

0.15

Choline

mg

2,000

1,500

Folacin

mg

1

1

Niacin

mg

40

20

Pantothenic acid

mg

10

15

Pyridoxine

mg

3

3

Riboflavin

mg

4

4

Thiamin

mg

2

2

NOTE: Where experimental data are lacking, values typeset in bold italics represent an estimate based on values obtained for other ages or species. For values not listed for the starting-growing periods, see requirements for turkeys (Table 3-1) as a guide.

a These are typical dietary energy concentrations, expressed in kcal MEn/kg diet.

Shim and Vohra (1984) presented a comprehensive review. Data appearing since 1984 have supported the values listed in the 1984 edition for protein (Sinha and Verma, 1984; Steigner, 1990) and for total sulfur amino acids (TSAA; Shrivastav and Panda, 1987) for the starting and growing period. In the instance of protein, however,

TABLE 6-3 Nutrient Requirements of Bobwhite Quail as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet (90 percent dry matter)

Nutrient

Unit

0 to 6 Weeks; 2,800a

After 6 Weeks; 2,800a

Breeding; 2,800a

Protein and amino acids

Protein

%

26

20.0

24.0

Methionine + cystine

%

1.0

0.75

0.90

Fat

Linoleic acid

%

1.0

1.0

1.0

Macrominerals

Calcium

%

0.65

0.65

2.4

Nonphytate phosphorus

%

0.45

0.30

0.70

Sodium

%

0.15

0.15

0.15

Trace minerals

Chlorine

%

0.11

0.11

0.11

Iodine

mg

0.30

0.30

0.30

Water soluble vitamins

Choline

mg

1,500.0

1,500.0

1,000.0

Niacin

mg

30.0

30.0

20.0

Pantothenic acid

mg

12.0

9.0

15.0

Riboflavin

mg

3.8

3.0

4.0

NOTE: Where experimental data are lacking, values typeset in bold italics represent an estimate based on values obtained for other ages or species. For values not listed for the starting-growing periods, see requirements for turkeys as a guide.

a These are typical dietary energy concentrations, expressed in kcal MEn/kg diet.

Steigner (1990) reported that a strain of Japanese quail selected for rapid growth required a greater dietary protein concentration than did random-bred quail. Similarly, information provided by Shim and Lee (1984, 1988) and by Shim and Chen (1989) showed that the dietary requirements for lysine and TSAA for breeding quail in the 1984 edition were appropriate in relation to the stated metabolizable energy contents of the diet. The lack of data to further define requirements or to corroborate single sets of observations (Appendix Table A-8) on requirements of Japanese quail, especially breeding quail, necessitates the continued listing of a large number of tentative requirement values in Table 6-2.

BOBWHITE QUAIL

The committee has made few changes in the nutrient specifications for Bobwhite quail (Table 6-3). Its reevaluation of the data (Appendix Table A-9) used to establish the previous requirements resulted in some modifications in protein, TSAA, calcium, and phosphorus recommendations for starting-growing Bobwhite quail. As with other game birds reared commercially, Bobwhite quail grown for game-release farms should be fed diets of relatively low energy content during the growing period to prevent excessive fattening.

Suggested Citation:"6. Nutrient Requirements of Ring-Necked Pheasants, Japanese Quail, and Bobwhite Quail." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 44
Suggested Citation:"6. Nutrient Requirements of Ring-Necked Pheasants, Japanese Quail, and Bobwhite Quail." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 45
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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Get This Book
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This classic reference for poultry nutrition has been updated for the first time since 1984. The chapter on general considerations concerning individual nutrients and water has been greatly expanded and includes, for the first time, equations for predicting the energy value of individual feed ingredients from their proximate composition.

This volume includes the latest information on the nutrient requirements of meat- and egg-type chickens, incorporating data on brown-egg strains, turkeys, geese, ducks, pheasants, Japanese quail, and Bobwhite quail.

This publication also contains new appendix tables that document in detail the scientific information used to derive the nutrient requirements appearing in the summary tables for each species of bird.

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