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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2125.
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Index

A

Acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), 30-31, 62

Acceptable risk, 3, 31, 180

Activity patterns, 5, 47, 53, 53-54, 114, 118, 119, 139

variability, 196, 199-200, 217

Age-dependent effects, 54-55, 141, 191, 219

Age-related differences, 200, 220, 511

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 10, 157

Aggregation, 6, 12-13, 79, 224-225, 240-242

chemical agents, 13, 89, 224-225, 226-229, 240

dose-response thresholds, 224-225, 228-229

exposure routes, 13, 41, 51-52, 119, 225-226, 240, 252

nonthreshold end points, 13, 225, 229-234, 240-241, 516-528

risk characterization, 234-240, 530-534

uncertainty, 165-166, 235-237

and variability, 13, 234, 237-240, 242, 530-534

Air-quality models, 50, 51-52, 86, 112, 114-119, 454-560, 544-545

complex terrain, 9, 115, 139, 199, 247, 249, 264, 378

Gaussian-plume models, 8, 9, 51, 52, 115, 116, 118, 119, 138-139, 140, 247, 249, 264, 376-378

industrial-source complex (ISC), 249, 377, 378, 482-483, 489, 565-566, 570-572

photochemical, 115, 118, 138

stochastic, 9, 52, 55, 116, 138-139

Ambient concentrations, 45, 86, 114, 150-151, 158

Animal studies, 26, 32, 58-60

cadmium, 100-101

carcinogens, 1, 2, 16, 59, 92-94, 92-100, 102, 229-231, 393, 395, 406-409

dioxins, 102-103

extrapolation from, 2, 5, 32, 58-59, 88-89, 119-120, 142, 210, 220, 449-451

carcinogenicity, 86, 88, 92-104, 120-126, 134, 140-142, 397, 435-436

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2125.
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formaldehyde, 96-99, 133

methylene chloride, 94-96

nickel compounds, 101-102

trichloroethylene (TCE), 99-100

Area sources, 3, 37, 38-39, 322, 545-546

Armitage-Doll model, 123, 202-203

Asbestos, 42n, 227, 228, 317

Atmospheric processes, see Air-quality models; Transport and fate

Average values, 173, 192-193, 194, 195-196

B

Bayesian models, 170, 187n

Benchmark dose (BD), 64

Benign tumors, 88, 121

Benzene, 32, 33, 42n, 198, 199, 317-321

Beryllium, 42n, 317

Bias, 162, 164, 165

Bioaccumulation, 37, 40, 51, 52

Biological markers, 45, 151-152

Butadiene, 479

C

Cadmium, 100-101

California, 35, 114, 152

Cancer and carcinogens, 1, 2, 16-17

animal studies, 92-100, 102, 229-231

extrapolation from, 86, 88, 92-104, 120-126, 134, 140-142, 397, 435-436

classification, 10-11, 58, 59, 60, 126-131, 142, 252, 421-427

dose-response relationship, 65-67, 85, 94-103, 236-237, 427-438

epidemiological studies, 1, 2, 16, 58, 88, 120, 207, 395, 398-404

individual species of suspect classes, 101-102

lifetime risk, 3, 19, 36, 250, 543, 552-553

mechanisms, 2-3, 9, 31, 98-99, 103, 104, 120-121, 123-126, 390-394

cell proliferation, 66-67, 99, 123, 228-229, 391-392, 415

multiple tumor risk, 13, 229-231, 240-241

regulatory approaches, 3, 17, 19, 31-33, 35, 36, 396

risk estimation, 69-70, 488-501, 552-553, 560-561, 567-568

guidelines, 34-35, 56, 87-88, 102, 236-237, 388-440, 600, 629

low-dose, 32, 85, 87, 228-229, 412-417

potency, 10, 102-103, 122-124, 126, 143, 265

unit risk estimate (URE), 10, 94, 103, 122, 124, 143, 314, 323, 543

sites of tumor formation, 121, 141

susceptibility, 200, 201-203, 207, 218-219, 505-512

synergistic interactions, 227-228, 511, 512

threshold doses, 29, 31, 65-66

Carbon monoxide, 198

Cell proliferation, 66-67, 99, 123, 228-229, 391-392, 415

Censuses of population, 113, 114

Central-tendency estimates (CTEs), 172-173, 618-621, 622, 635

Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA), 111

Chemicals inducing alpha-2-image93-94, 621

Children, 11, 210-211, 220, 252, 511

Cigarette smoke, 227-228

Clean Air Act, 3, 21, 36, 89, 91. See also Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA-90)

Section 112

charge to NRC study committee, 4, 17-20, 82, 599-600

on environmental effects, 39-40

on individual risk calculation, 208, 217, 219

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2125.
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listed substances, 3, 36, 38, 84, 92, 145, 146, 148-149, 226, 250-251, 252, 541-542

margin-of-safety approach, 31, 37, 89, 609

on offsetting emissions, 38, 324

on role of risk- and technology-based standards, 3, 21, 28, 36-37, 38, 245, 294, 318-319, 321

Section 303

Risk Assessment and Management Commission, 19, 82, 600

Coke-oven emissions, 36, 42n

Communication, see Risk characterization and communication

Comparison of risk estimates, 12, 166, 183, 185-186, 260-261, 268. See also Hazard ranking; Risk ranking

Complex terrain, 9, 115, 139, 199, 247, 249, 264, 378

Concentration models, see Air-quality models

Continuous emission monitors (CEMs), 109

Convolution model, 380

Criticisms of risk assessment, 5-6, 40-42, 256, 258

Cumulative distribution function (CDF), 167-168

Cytochrome P450, 505-508, 510

D

Data availability and quality, 9, 106, 137-138, 333-434

emissions, 9, 110, 138, 147-149

exposure, 152, 328

pollutant transport and fate, 150

population data, 112-114

toxicity assessment, 154

Data bases

activity patterns, 114

emissions, 147-148, 347-348

literature reviews, 10, 253, 265

management, 156-157, 159, 266

validation, 106, 107, 254, 255

see also Integrated Risk Information System; Toxic Release Inventory

Data collection priorities, 10-11, 145-146, 154-158, 344-348

emissions, 147, 155, 156

exposure, 145, 150-152, 155, 156

pollutant transport and fate, 149-150, 155, 156

toxicity assessment, 145, 153-154, 155, 156

Data needs, 6, 10-11, 79, 115, 144-145, 157-159

activity patterns, 114

emissions, 147-149, 158, 253, 591, 592

exposure, 150-152, 158, 594-596, 635

toxicity assessment, 152-154, 253, 265, 596-597

transport and fate, 149-150, 591, 593-594

see also Data availability and quality; Data collection priorities

Database on Toxic Interactions, 227

Default options, 5, 7, 28-29, 32, 80-81, 85-87, 137-138

articulation of, 7, 8, 81, 87, 88-89, 104, 252, 254-255

criteria and principles, 6, 7, 8, 34, 79, 81-83, 87-90, 195

plausible conservatism, 7, 82, 83, 89, 601-626, 632-634

policy bases, 8, 81, 82, 87, 89, 104

scientific bases, 7, 8, 28-29, 82, 83, 87, 104, 610, 629-640

criticisms of, 6, 40-41, 254

departures from, 6, 7, 8, 28-29, 34, 79, 90-91, 105

criteria, 7, 8, 81, 90-91, 105, 254-255, 615-617, 629, 632-633

examples of, 92-104

petitioning, 267

scientific consensus for, 7, 8, 91, 105

and uncertainty analysis, 183-184, 185-186

extrapolation issues, 88, 90

animals to humans, 5, 88-89, 92-104

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2125.
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in iterative risk assessment, 243-244, 246-247

missing, 81, 105, 195, 207

recommendations, 8, 14, 104-105, 263, 613-617

susceptibility, 11, 207-209, 219-220, 222n, 252

see also Linearized multistage model; Maximally exposed individual

Delaney clause, 17, 31

Demographics, 118, 139, 219

Detoxifying enzymes, 227, 508, 510

Developmental toxicity, 8, 234, 241

assessment guidelines, 35, 56-57, 63-64

Dibenzofurans, 103

Dioxins, 102-103

Disaggregation, 191-192, 194

Discrete variability, 503

Distribution of exposure, 5, 9, 53, 77, 204-205, 355

Dose-response assessment, 4-5, 26, 60, 152-153, 363-364

aggregation, 224-225, 228-229

carcinogens, 65-67, 85, 94-103, 236-237, 427-438

modeling, 26, 31, 103-104, 122-126, 133, 134

variability issues, 192-193, 221-222n

noncancer endpoints, 60-64, 76

uncertainty issues, 62-63, 71, 163, 236-237, 241-242

see also Linearized multistage model; Potency estimates

Dosimeters, 49

E

Early-reduction program, 38

Elderly persons, 511

Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 116

Emission characterization, 5, 9, 23, 27, 47-48, 138

data availability and quality, 9, 110, 138, 147-149

data needs, 147-149, 155, 156, 158, 253, 591, 592

estimation methods, 5, 8, 48-49, 107-112

uncertainty analysis, 8, 9, 110, 112, 138, 453

itemization by chemical constituent, 111, 148

measurement methods, 5, 48-50, 109, 110-111

plant operation and disruptions, 48, 110-111, 197-198

variability, 189, 197-199

Emission factors, 48, 107, 109, 110, 111-112

Emission standards and limits, 3, 19, 20, 36

for area sources, 3, 37, 38-39, 322

for major sources, 3, 37

reporting requirements, 109, 110, 112, 148

technology-based, 3, 21, 28, 36-37, 38, 245, 294, 318-319, 321

see also Residual risk evaluation

Environmental Defense Fund v. EPA, 89

Environmental effects, 38, 39-40, 226

Epidemiological studies, 26, 30, 32, 57-58, 104, 113-114, 136-137, 143, 153-154, 212, 220

cadmium, 100-101

carcinogens, 1, 2, 16, 58, 88, 120, 207, 395, 398-404

multiplicative interactions, 227-228

noncancer risks, 58, 61

susceptibility, 210

Ethyl Corp. v. EPA, 38, 89, 609

Ethylene oxide (ETO), 233, 233-234

Exponential models, 107-109, 110

Exposure, see Aggregation; Dose-response assessment; Exposure assessment; Routes of Exposure; Threshold dose hypotheses; Toxicity assessment; Variability, in exposure

Exposure assessment, 3, 5, 26-27, 43-45, 48-49, 329-331, 364

calculation, 44, 375-376

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2125.
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maximally exposed individual (MEI), 9, 45, 46-47, 203-206, 217

criticisms of, 41

data needs, 145, 150-152, 155, 156, 158, 328, 594-596, 635

estimation methods, 44-45

biological markers, 45, 151-152

environmental monitoring, 26, 44-45, 150-151, 152, 158

guidelines, 44, 45, 68, 69-70, 76, 308-310

modeling, 5, 9, 44, 45, 50-55, 117-119, 139, 252, 330, 332, 376-381

activity patterns, 5, 47, 53, 53-54, 114, 118, 119, 139

Human-Exposure Model (HEM), 9, 117-119, 139, 140, 247, 319, 378-379

long-term, 54-55, 544, 547, 549-554, 558-561, 564-569

population data, 112-114, 117, 118, 139-140, 379

short-term, 55, 380-381, 544, 547, 554-557, 562-563, 569-574

uncertainty issues, 71, 163

and variability, 6, 11, 20, 79, 189, 196-200, 203-206, 216, 217-218

see also Air-quality models; Emission characterization; Routes of exposure; Transport and fate

Exposure Factors Handbook, 195

Exposure-response relationship, see Dose-response assessment

Extensive-hydroxylator phenotype, 200, 508

Extrapolation of data, 88, 90, 113, 220

among exposure routes, 134, 141, 450

animal to human, 2, 5, 32, 58-59, 88-89, 119-120, 142, 210, 220, 449-451

carcinogens, 86, 88, 92-104, 120-126, 134, 140-142, 397, 435-436

see also Linearized multistage model

F

Food Additive Amendments of 1958, Delaney clause, 17, 31

Food additives and contaminants, 30, 32

Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 32

Food chain accumulation, see Bioaccumulation

Formaldehyde, 96-99, 133, 198, 199

Fugitive emissions, 47, 108-109, 111, 545-546

G

Gaussian-plume models, 8, 9, 51, 52, 115, 116, 118, 119, 138-139, 140, 247, 249, 264, 376-378

Genetic mutation, 231-234, 241

Genetic susceptibility, 11, 201-203, 219, 505-511

Geographic information systems (GIS), 140, 330

Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), 95-96, 508, 510

Great Waters Study, 322-323

Guidance on Risk Characterization for Risk Managers and Risk Assessors, 20

Guidelines for risk assessment, 87, 90, 637

California, 35

carcinogens, 34-35, 56, 87-88, 102, 236-237, 388-440, 600, 629

developmental toxicity, 35, 56-57, 63-64

of EPA, 5, 34-35, 68, 104, 306-307

exposures, 44, 45, 68, 69-70, 76, 308-310

Interagency Regulatory Liason Group (IRLG), 32

Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), 34, 35

Superfund sites, 35, 68, 70, 72, 73-74, 161, 226

toxicity, 56-57

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2125.
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uncertainty analysis, 12, 70, 72-75, 175-179, 185, 255-256, 257-258

see also Default options; Red Book

H

Habicht memorandum, 68, 76-78, 351-374

Harmonization of risk assessments, 183-184, 186

Hazard assessment, see Hazard identification; Toxicity assessment

Hazard Assessment Documents (HADs), 251, 307-308, 314

Hazard identification, 4, 26, 27, 57, 152, 362-363

animal studies, 26, 32, 58-60

carcinogens, 1, 2, 16, 59, 92-94, 393, 395, 406-409

and carcinogen classification, 58, 59, 60, 126-127, 128, 421-427

epidemiological studies, 26, 32, 57-58

carcinogens, 1, 2, 16, 58, 88, 120, 395, 398-404

noncancer risks, 58, 59, 61

uncertainty issues, 71, 163

Hazard index, 69, 70, 250, 544, 557, 561, 563, 569, 572-574

Hazard ranking, 27, 37, 295, 315, 324-325

Heterogeneity dynamics, 202-203

High-end exposure estimate (HEEE), 9, 46, 47, 204-206, 217, 218, 369-370

Homeostasis, 131-132

Human-Exposure Model (HEM), 9, 117-119, 139, 140, 247, 319, 378-379

I

Identifiability, 196, 213, 216-217, 503

Individual risk, 11, 69-70, 207-209, 218, 368-371

uncertainty and variability, 237-239, 532-534

Indoor sources, 9, 10, 49, 199-200, 262, 268, 379

Industrial-source complex (ISC) models, 249, 377, 378, 482-483, 489, 565-566, 570-572

Industrial Union Department, AFL-CIO v. American Petroleum Institute (Benzene decision), 33, 36

Inference guidelines, see Default options

Ingestion, 226

Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), 250-251, 261-262, 265, 323, 363-364, 583-590

Interagency Regulatory Liason Group (IRLG), 32

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 32, 58, 59, 126, 129

Iterative risk assessments, 14, 84, 89, 146, 154, 155, 157-158, 253-254, 634

emissions characterization, 147, 247, 249-250

environmental fate and transport, 149-150

exposure, 150-152, 247-250, 540-576

recommendations, 14-15, 263, 264, 266, 267

toxicity, 153-154, 250-251

L

Lagrangian models, 52, 118, 138

Lead, 8

Lesser quantity emission rates (LQERs), 325-326

Lifetime cancer risk, 3, 19, 36, 250, 543, 552-553

Linearized multistage model (LMS), 9, 28, 65, 90, 103, 123, 124-125, 141-142, 613-614

departure from, 10, 28-29, 87-88, 98, 102, 142

and uncertainty analysis, 176-177

Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL), 30, 61-62, 63

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2125.
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M

Major point sources, 3, 37, 545

Margin of safety, 30, 36

and central-tendency estimates, 618-619

under Clean Air Act, 3, 31, 36, 37, 89, 609

Mass balances, 1-7, 48, 107, 111

Material balances, see Mass balances

Maximally exposed individual (MEI), 9, 37, 45, 46-47, 195, 203-206, 217

Maximum achievable control technology (MACT), 3, 37, 118, 321

Maximum tolerated dose (MTD), 120

Measurement methods, 5, 48-50, 107, 109, 110-111

Mercury, 42n, 317

Metabolic processes, 59, 94-96, 121, 122, 133-134, 411-412, 505-510

Meteorological variability, 198-199

Methylene chloride, 94-96

Microenvironments, 49, 53-54, 114, 199-200, 375-376

Missing defaults, 81, 105, 195, 207

Mixed-function oxidase (MFO) enzymes, 95-96

Mobile sources, 10, 20, 262, 268

Mobility and migration, 45, 54, 113, 118, 119, 139, 205, 217-218

Models and modeling, 9, 107-112, 137-138. See also Air-quality models; Animal studies; Default options; Dose-response assessment, modeling; Exposure assessment, modeling; Linearized multistage model; Model uncertainty; Parameter uncertainty; Pharmacokinetic models; Validation and evaluation

Model uncertainty, 7, 11-12, 80, 83, 86, 87, 90, 165-166, 171-175, 185, 239

Molecular toxicology, 11, 143, 207, 219

Monitoring programs and methods, 26, 44-45, 109, 110-111, 150-151, 152

personal dosimeters, 44, 49, 151, 158

Monte Carlo models, 52, 177, 206, 330, 500

Moolgavkar-Venzon-Knudson model, 123, 195, 211

Multimedia risk assessment model, 453-461

Multiple exposure, see Aggregation

Multiplicative models, 107, 109, 111

Mutagenesis, 231-234, 241

N

N-acetylation polymorphism, 200, 508

National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) Exposure Model (NEM), 117, 118, 247, 379

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS), 42n, 72, 74-75, 166, 233

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 143

National Institutes of Health (NIH), 34, 207, 219

National Research Council (NRC), see Red Book

National Toxicology Program (NTP), 10, 122, 141, 157, 231-232, 251, 521, 522-523

Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) v. EPA, 3, 36, 37, 89, 317, 320, 609

New York, 137

Nickel, 101-102

Noncancer risks, 10, 39-40, 41, 58, 59, 61, 69-70, 76, 131-132, 142

dose-response assessment, 60-64, 76

nonthreshold, 231-234, 241

Noninhalation exposures, 10, 44, 119, 140, 226

Nonthreshold end points, 225, 229-234, 240-241, 516-528

No-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), 30, 39, 61-64, 132, 142, 323

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2125.
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No-observed-effect level (NOEL), 30, 41, 61

Numerical integration, 177

O

Occupational exposure and regulation, 30, 32, 33, 143

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 32, 33

Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), EPA, 261, 268, 307-308, 309, 311, 329-330, 579

Office of Research and Development (ORD), EPA, 261, 268, 307

Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), 34, 35

Offsetting emissions, 38, 260, 324

Ozone, 198, 200

P

Parameter uncertainty, 74-75, 86, 165, 172, 173-175, 185, 187n, 238-239, 256, 454, 457-459, 614

Pathways of exposure, see Routes of exposure

Peak-concentration sampling, 151

Peer review, 8, 91, 105, 261, 296-297, 617

Permissible exposure level (PEL), 62

Peroxisome proliferation, 100

Personal activity, see Activity patterns

Personal monitors, 44, 49, 151, 158

Pesticides, 30, 32, 35, 39

Pharmacokinetic models, 95, 125-126, 220-221

physiologically based (PBPK), 66, 95, 96, 122, 165, 211-212, 431, 449-451, 617

in toxicity assessment, 2-3, 9-10, 66, 132-136, 141-142

Pharmacodynamics, 66, 125, 141-142

Photochemical air-quality models, 115, 118, 138

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models (PBPK), 66, 95, 96, 122, 165, 211-212, 431, 449-451, 617

Plant operations and disruptions, 48, 110-111, 197-198

Plant Organization Software System (POSSEE), 111

Plausible conservatism, 7, 82, 83, 89, 237, 601-626, 632-634

Point estimates, 53, 110, 218

aggregation of, 235-236, 241-242

and risk management, 12, 41, 166-167, 179-181, 184-185

Pollutant transport and fate, see Airquality models; Transport and fate

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 506-507, 508

Polymorphic phenotypes, 200, 505-510

Population data and models, 112-114, 117, 118, 139-140, 379

mobility, 45, 54, 113, 118, 119, 139, 205, 217-218

Population risk, 70, 209-210, 218, 371-372

children, 11, 210-211, 220, 252, 511

subgroup exposure and susceptibility, 11, 114, 191, 205, 253, 372-373

uncertainty and variability, 239-240, 531-532

Potency estimates, 10, 27, 38, 102-103, 122-124, 126, 143, 265

uncertainty analysis, 10, 143, 162

unit cancer risk, 10, 103, 122, 124, 143

variability, 189, 193, 218-219

Probability density function (PDF), 167-168, 171-175, 184, 186

Probability distributions, 161, 167-178, 180, 184, 454

generation of, 175-177, 465-467

subjective, 83, 170-171, 177, 178

Process-vent emissions, 47, 109

Public criticisms, see Criticisms of risk assessment

R

Race and ethnicity, 7, 114, 219

Radiomimetic activity, 2, 9, 31, 103, 125

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2125.
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Radon, 227-228

Randomness, 162, 164, 165

Red Book (1983 NRC report), 25, 33-34, 160

on default options, 85, 86-87, 90-91

risk assessment framework, 4-5, 23-24, 26-27, 306, 396, 637

on risk management, 5, 34, 41, 260

Reference concentrations (RfCs), 39, 70, 250, 265, 323, 543

Reference dose (RfD), 62, 63, 70, 142, 311-312

Regulatory policy and decision-making, 2, 3, 5, 7, 17, 18, 28, 36-39, 258-259

and carcinogens, 17, 31-33, 35, 396

and public perception, 262-263

resource allocation, 2, 19, 28, 246, 631

see also Default options; Emission standards and limits; Risk management

Reproductive toxicity, 8, 63, 234, 241

Research activities and agendas, 27-28, 261-262, 268, 611-612, 617-618, 630, 638, 640

Residual risk evaluation, 3, 21, 37, 101, 118, 180, 245, 321, 327, 329, 540, 542

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 35

Risk Assessment and Management Commission, 19, 82, 600

Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process, see Red Book

Risk characterization and communication, 5, 23, 27, 68, 78, 80, 181, 183, 439-440, 630-631

and aggregation, 234-240, 530-534

EPA (Habicht) memorandum, 68, 76-78, 351-374

full disclosure, 77, 352-353, 355, 361-367

to managers, 13, 78, 80, 83-84, 310-312, 614-615, 630-632

presentation of estimates, 69-70, 76-78, 83-84, 351-374, 624-625

professional judgment, 77, 354

to public, 78, 144-145, 194, 252

recommendations, 13-14, 263

uncertainty analysis, 12, 15, 20, 27, 41, 70-75, 78, 83-84, 174, 180, 235-240, 263, 310-312, 362, 365-366

use of multiple descriptors, 77, 353-354, 355, 367-374

of variability, 11, 194, 212-213, 214-215, 221

Risk management, 18, 19, 28, 32, 41-42, 349-350, 360-361, 630-632

communication of risk to, 13, 78, 80, 83-84, 310-312, 614-615, 630-632

risk-reduction strategies, 196, 262

safety-factor approach, 30-31

separation from risk assessment, 5, 34, 77, 259-260, 267-268, 355, 358-360, 623

and uncertainty analysis, 41, 166-167, 171-175, 179-183

Risk ranking, 27, 37, 171, 183, 186-187, 296, 315, 325-326, 617

Rodents, 122, 141, 143

Routes of exposure, 10, 26-27, 43-44, 119, 140

extrapolation among, 134, 141, 450

multiple, 13, 41, 51-52, 119, 225-226, 240, 252

noninhalation, 10, 44, 119, 140, 226

and site of tumor formation, 121

S

Safety-factor method, 30-31, 62-63, 224

Sampling, 109, 151

Science Advisory Board (SAB), EPA, 7, 8, 91, 105, 617

Screening assessments, 9, 14, 84, 156, 159, 217, 242, 245-246, 263, 326-327, 544, 549-563

Simulation of Human Air Pollution Exposure (SHAPE) Model, 117, 118, 379-380

Single point estimates, see Point estimates

Site-specific data, 10, 109, 147-149, 158

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2125.
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Source Category Ranking System (SCRS), 325

Sources of hazardous pollutants, 3, 37, 47-48, 54, 545

area sources, 3, 37, 38-39, 322, 545-546

indoor, 9, 10, 49, 199-200, 262, 268, 379

mobile, 10, 20, 262, 268

Spatial variability, 191-192, 197-198

State Activity Pattern Study, 114

State government, 10, 42, 152, 157

State implementation plans (SIPs), 147-148

Stochastic modeling, 9, 52, 55, 116, 138-139

Storage-tank emissions, 47-48, 111

Strength of evidence, 10, 126-127, 128, 129

Structured activity relationships (SARs), 410-411

Subjective probability distributions, 83, 170-171, 177, 178

Subpopulation exposures and risk, 11, 114, 191, 205, 253, 372-373

Superfund Amendments and Recovery Act (SARA), 147, 148, 158, 313

Superfund-site risk assessment, 35, 68, 70, 72, 73-74, 161, 226

Susceptibility, 11, 30, 207-209, 219-220, 222n, 252

age-related, 200, 220, 511

to cancer, 200, 201-203, 207, 218-219, 505-512

genetic, 11, 201-203, 219, 505-511

identification of high-risk individuals, 196, 213, 216-217, 503

variability in, 6, 11, 40, 79, 196, 206-210, 213, 216-217, 218-221

Synergistic interactions, 40, 227-228, 511, 512

Systematic bias, 165

T

Targeted fixed-point monitoring, 151

Technology-based regulation, 3, 21, 28, 31, 33, 36-37, 38, 245, 294, 318-319, 321

Temporal variability, 191, 197-198

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 102-103

Theoretical upper-bound exposure (TUBE), 9, 46-47, 204

Threshold dose hypotheses, 8, 29-31, 39, 62-64, 131-132

multiple chemical exposure, 224-225, 228-229

Threshold limit values (TLVs), 30

Tiered modeling approach, 243-244, 326-327, 329. See also Iterative risk assessments

Time-activity patterns, 47, 53, 114

Total Exposure and Assessment Methodology (TEAM), 49, 114, 117

Toxic-equivalency factor (TEF) method, 103

Toxicity assessment, 2-3, 23, 56-57, 295, 314, 323-324

carcinogen classification, 10-11, 126-131, 142, 252

carcinogens, 397-427

animal studies, 120-126, 140-142, 397

data needs, 145, 152-154, 155, 156, 253, 265, 596-597

extrapolation of animal studies, 119-120, 120-126, 140-142, 142

noncancer endpoints, 10, 131-132, 142

nonthreshold, 231-234, 241

pharmacokinetic models, 2-3, 9-10, 66, 132-136, 141-142

see also Dose-response assessment; Hazard identification; Potency estimates

Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 147-149, 158, 313

Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 35

Transfer emissions, 48

Transport and fate, 23, 145-146

data needs, 149-150, 155, 156, 591, 593-594

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2125.
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Page 651

variability, 189, 197, 198-199

see also Air-quality models; Exposure assessment

Trichloroethylene (TCE), 99-100

Two-stage model, 123-124, 125

U

Uncertainty, 11-12, 27, 28, 70, 137, 160-166, 252

communication of, 12, 15, 20, 27, 41, 70-75, 78, 83-84, 174, 180, 235-240, 263, 310-312, 362, 365-366

in dose-response assessment, 62-63, 71, 163, 236-237, 241-242

in emissions estimation, 8, 9, 110, 112, 138, 453

EPA approach, 6, 70, 72-75, 79, 166-167

in exposure assessment, 71, 163

guidance on analysis, 12, 70, 72-75, 175-179, 185, 255-256, 257-258

in hazard identification, 71, 163

in population data, 113-114

probability distributions, 161, 167-178, 180, 184, 454

generation of, 175-177, 465-467

recommendations, 12, 167, 168, 184-187

in Superfund-site assessments, 70, 72, 73-74, 161

and variability, 11, 162, 164, 180-181, 187n, 213, 221, 237-240, 242

see also Default options; Model uncertainty; Parameter uncertainty

Uncertainty-factor approach, 39, 62-63, 142, 224

Unit risk estimate (URE), 10, 94, 103, 122, 124, 143, 314, 323, 543

Unleaded gasoline, 92

V

Validation and evaluation, 6, 8-10, 79, 106-107, 136-143, 254-255

air-quality models, 114-119, 138-139

data bases, 106, 107, 254, 255

exposure models, 49-50, 114, 139-140, 264

extrapolation of animal studies, 119-136, 140-142, 212

Variability, 11, 188-191, 189, 195, 196, 221n

in biological characteristics, 211-212, 220

communication of, 11, 194, 212-213, 214-215, 217-221

disaggregation, 191-192, 194

in emissions, 189, 197-199

in exposure, 6, 11, 20, 79, 189, 196-200, 203-206, 216, 217-218

activity patterns, 196, 199-200, 217

ignoring, 191, 194, 220

intraindividual, 11, 189

management strategies, 191-196

in potency, 189, 193, 218-219

spatial, 191-192, 197-198

in susceptibility, 6, 11, 40, 79, 206-210, 216-217, 218-221

to cancer, 200, 201-203, 207, 218-219, 505-512

defaults, 11, 207-209, 219-220, 222n, 252

distributions and dichotomies, 201-203, 206-210, 503

factors in, 200-201, 503-512

identifiable, 196, 213, 216-217, 503

temporal, 191, 197-198

and uncertainty, 11, 162, 164, 180-181, 187n, 213, 221, 237-240, 242

use of averages, 192-193, 194, 195-196

use of high end values, 193, 195-196, 217

Variance-component model, 380-381

Vinyl chloride, 42n, 133-134, 317, 320

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 111, 148, 149, 150

W

Weight of evidence (WOE), 76, 126, 128, 311-312

Workshops, 8, 91, 105, 617

Worst-case exposures, 195-196, 369

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2125.
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Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment Get This Book
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The public depends on competent risk assessment from the federal government and the scientific community to grapple with the threat of pollution. When risk reports turn out to be overblown--or when risks are overlooked--public skepticism abounds.

This comprehensive and readable book explores how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) can improve its risk assessment practices, with a focus on implementation of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.

With a wealth of detailed information, pertinent examples, and revealing analysis, the volume explores the "default option" and other basic concepts. It offers two views of EPA operations: The first examines how EPA currently assesses exposure to hazardous air pollutants, evaluates the toxicity of a substance, and characterizes the risk to the public.

The second, more holistic, view explores how EPA can improve in several critical areas of risk assessment by focusing on cross-cutting themes and incorporating more scientific judgment.

This comprehensive volume will be important to the EPA and other agencies, risk managers, environmental advocates, scientists, faculty, students, and concerned individuals.

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