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Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary (2016)

Chapter: Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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F

Forum on Microbial Threats
Member Biographies

David A. Relman, M.D. (Chair), is the Thomas C. and Joan M. Merigan Professor in the Departments of Medicine, and of Microbiology and Immunology at Stanford University, and Chief of Infectious Diseases at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Palo Alto Health Care System in Palo Alto, California. He received an S.B. (biology) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1977) and M.D. (magna cum laude) from Harvard Medical School (1982), completed his clinical training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, served as a postdoctoral fellow in microbiology at Stanford University, and joined the faculty at Stanford in 1994.

Dr. Relman’s current research focus is the human indigenous microbiota (microbiome), and in particular, the nature and mechanisms of variation in patterns of microbial diversity within the human body as a function of time (microbial succession), space (biogeography within the host landscape), and in response to perturbation, e.g., antibiotics (community robustness and resilience). One of the goals of this work is to define the role of the human microbiome in health and disease. This research integrates theory and methods from ecology, population biology, environmental microbiology, genomics, and clinical medicine. During the past few decades, his research directions have also included pathogen discovery and the development of new strategies for identifying previously unrecognized microbial agents of disease. This work helped to spearhead the application of molecular methods to the diagnosis of infectious diseases in the 1990s. His research has emphasized the use of genomic approaches for exploring host-microbe relationships. Past scientific achievements include the description of a novel approach for identifying previously unknown pathogens, the identification

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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of a number of new human microbial pathogens, including the agent of Whipple’s disease, and some of the first broad, molecular analyses of the composition of the human indigenous microbiota.

Dr. Relman advises the U.S. government, as well as nongovernmental organizations, in matters pertaining to microbiology, emerging infectious diseases, and biosecurity. He is a member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, is a member of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Synthetic Biology Panel, and advises several U.S. government departments and agencies on matters related to pathogen diversity, the future life sciences landscape, and the nature of present and future biological threats. He has served as Chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and as President of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) (2012-2013). Dr. Relman was vice-chair of a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) committee that studied the science underlying the FBI investigation of the 2001 anthrax mailings, and co-chaired a 3-year NAS study that produced a widely cited report titled “Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences” (2006). He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and a member of the Association of American Physicians. Dr. Relman received the Squibb Award from the IDSA in 2001, and was the recipient of both the NIH Director’s Pioneer Award and the Distinguished Clinical Scientist Award from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation in 2006, and a Trans-formative R01 Award from NIH in 2013. He was elected a member of the National Academy of Medicine in 2011.

James M. Hughes, M.D. (Vice-Chair), is professor of medicine (infectious diseases) and public health (global health) at Emory University’s School of Medicine and Rollins School of Public Health, and serves as senior advisor to the Emory Center for Global Safe Water. Prior to joining Emory in June 2005, Dr. Hughes served as director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID) at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Dr. Hughes received his B.A. and M.D. degrees from Stanford University and completed postgraduate training in internal medicine at the University of Washington, infectious diseases at the University of Virginia, and preventive medicine at CDC. After joining CDC as an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer in 1973, Dr. Hughes worked initially on foodborne and water-related diseases and subsequently on infection control in health care settings. He served as director of CDC’s Hospital Infections Program from 1983 to 1988, as deputy director of NCID from 1988 to 1992, and as director of NCID from 1992 to 2005. A major focus of Dr. Hughes’ career is on building partnerships among the clinical, research, public health,

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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and veterinary communities to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious diseases and improve health at the local, national, and global levels. His research interests include emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, foodborne diseases, health care–associated infections, vectorborne and zoonotic diseases, rapid detection of and response to infectious diseases and bioterrorism, strengthening public health capacity at the local, national, and global levels, improving immunization coverage, and preventing water-related diseases in the developing world. Dr. Hughes is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology (AAM), the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American College of Physicians, the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, and the IDSA, a past president of IDSA, and a member of the International Board and the Communications Committee of the American Society for Microbiology, the Board of Governors of the AAM, the Board of Directors of the EcoHealth Alliance, and the Board of Directors of the One Health Commission. He is a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Lonnie J. King, D.V.M. (Vice-Chair), is the 10th dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine at the Ohio State University (OSU). In addition to leading this college, Dr. King is also a professor of preventive medicine and holds the Ruth Stanton Endowed Chair in Veterinary Medicine. He also serves as the Executive Dean for the seven Health Science Colleges at OSU. Before becoming dean at OSU, he was the director of CDC’s new National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED). In this new position, Dr. King leads the Center’s activities for surveillance, diagnostics, disease investigations, epidemiology, research, public education, policy development, and disease prevention and control programs. NCZVED also focuses on waterborne, foodborne, vectorborne, and zoonotic diseases of public health concern, which also include most of CDC’s select and bioterrorism agents, neglected tropical diseases, and emerging zoonoses. Before serving as director, he was the first chief of the agency’s Office of Strategy and Innovation.

Dr. King served as dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, from 1996 to 2006. As at OSU, he served as the CEO for academic programs, research, the teaching hospital, the diagnostic center for population and animal health, basic and clinical science departments, and the outreach and continuing education programs. As dean and professor of large-animal clinical sciences, Dr. King was instrumental in obtaining funds for the construction of a $60 million Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health; he initiated the Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the college, he served as the campus leader in food safety, and he had oversight for the National Food Safety and Toxicology Center.

In 1992, Dr. King was appointed administrator for the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), U.S. Department of Agriculture

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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(USDA), in Washington, DC. In this role, he provided executive leadership and direction for ensuring the health and care of animals and plants, to improve agricultural productivity and competitiveness, and to contribute to the national economy and public health. Dr. King also served as the country’s chief veterinary officer for 5 years, worked extensively in global trade agreements within the North American Free Trade Agreement and the World Trade Organization (WTO), and worked extensively with the World Animal Health Association. During this time he was the Deputy Administrator for Veterinary Services of APHIS, USDA, where he led national efforts in disease eradication, imports and exports, and diagnostics in both Ames, Iowa, and Plum Island. He spent 5 years in Hyattsville, Maryland, in staff assignments in Emergency Programs, as well as Animal Health Information. While in Hyattsville, Dr. King directed the development of the agency’s National Animal Health Monitoring System. He left APHIS briefly to serve as the director of the Governmental Relations Division of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in Washington, DC, and served as the lobbyist for the AVMA on Capitol Hill.

Dr. King was in private veterinary practice for 7 years in Dayton, Ohio, and Atlanta, Georgia. As a native of Wooster, Ohio, Dr. King received his bachelor of science and doctor of veterinary medicine degrees from OSU in 1966 and 1970, respectively. He earned his master of science degree in epidemiology from the University of Minnesota and received his master’s degree in public administration from American University in Washington, DC, in 1991. Dr. King is a board-certified member of the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine and has completed the Senior Executive Fellowship program at Harvard University. He served as president of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges from 1999 to 2000 and was the vice-chair for the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues from 2000 to 2004. He has served on six NAS committees, including chairing the National Academies’ Committee on Assessing the Nation’s Framework for Addressing Animal Diseases. He was also Chair of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Lyme Disease and Other Tick-Borne Diseases and for State of the Science, and he has chaired the AVMA’s Commission for AVMA Vision 2020. In addition, he now serves as Chair for the IOM’s Committee on Identifying and Prioritizing New Preventive vaccines and served on CDC’s National Bio-surveillance Advisory Committee. Dr. King is currently Vice-Chair of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Committee on Microbial Threats to Health, is a past member of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) Board of Scientific Advisors, and is past president of the American Veterinary Epidemiology Society. He served as the chair for the national One Medicine Task Force for the AVMA, which helped start the country’s One Health Initiative. Dr. King was elected as a member of the National Academy of Medicine in 2004.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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Kevin Anderson, Ph.D., serves as a Senior Program Manager in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) Science and Technology Directorate, providing oversight and requirements for biodetection and biodiagnostics systems development for government-wide customers and stakeholders. Since joining DHS in 2003, Dr. Anderson has provided leadership for science program development, laboratory design, and strategic planning; served as a subject-matter expert and advisor to the Bioterrorism Risk Assessment and Biological Threat Characterization programs; and has participated in interagency working groups and assessments which provide guidance to medical countermeasure development, a key component of the nation’s biodefense strategy. Prior to joining DHS, Dr. Anderson was a Principal Investigator at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, leading research focused on understanding basic mechanisms of viral diseases causing hemorrhagic fever and development of medical countermeasures. He received postdoctoral training in molecular virology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, performing basic research on human respiratory syncytial viruses, and earned Ph.D. and B.S. degrees in microbiology from Montana State University and the University of Maryland, College Park, respectively.

COL Michael Bell, M.D., joined the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center as the director in April 2015. Prior to joining the agency, COL Bell served as the Global Health Engagement Officer for the U.S. Army Assistant Surgeon General for Force Projection, where he was a public health subject-matter expert on multiple working groups to develop Army policy for personal protective equipment, medical evacuation, training, force protection, and post-deployment monitoring and reintegration for the response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. He also coordinated a memorandum of agreement between the U.S. Army Medical Command and the World Health Organization (WHO) to establish a framework for their respective roles for joint cooperation on global health issues. As the commander of the U.S. Army Public Health Region–North from August 2012 to July 2014, COL Bell managed more than 500 military and civilian scientists, veterinarians, engineers, and administrative support personnel in a region that comprised 20 states and Azores. He was the U.S. Army Surgeon General’s Consultant for Occupational Health and Environmental Medicine from July 2012 to February 2015. He managed the strategies for Occupational Medicine, and ensured that all critical positions were filled. As an associate director, COL Bell managed the National Capital Consortium Occupational and Environmental Medicine Residency at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences from July 2010 to July 2012. As the manager of the U.S. Army Behavioral and Social Health Outcomes Program, COL Bell established a multidisciplinary team of 28

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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public health physicians, epidemiologists, psychologists, social workers, and medical operations professionals from July 2008 to July 2010. COL Bell graduated from the F. Edward Herbert School of Medicine at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) in 1997, and completed an internship in Internal Medicine at the Madigan Army Medical Center. He followed that up with residency in occupational and environmental medicine at USUHS. He also earned a master’s in public health from USHUS. He received two undergraduate degrees: a bachelor of arts in biology from Syracuse University and a bachelor of general management at the University of Alabama.

Enriqueta C. Bond, Ph.D., retired in August 2008 as President of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund (BWF), a private foundation whose mission is to advance the medical sciences through the support of research and education. Dr. Bond is a founding partner of QE Philanthropic Advisors and now consults with philanthropic and nonprofit organizations on program development and governance. Previously Dr. Bond served for nearly 20 years as staff officer and division director at the Institute of Medicine, serving as executive officer from 1989 to 1994.

Dr. Bond serves on numerous board and advisory groups such as the Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Board on Life Sciences and Committee on Developing a Framework for an International Faculty Development Project on Education About Research in the Life Sciences with Dual Use; the Burroughs Wellcome Fund Career Award for Science and Mathematics Advisory Committee; the Board of the Health Effects Institute; and the James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership.

Dr. Bond currently chairs an Academies Board on Developing the Capacity of African Academies of Science, serves as a member of the Academies Forum on Microbial Threats to Health, and serves as a frequent reviewer of Academy reports. Dr. Bond is a member of the National Academy of Medicine and is a fellow of the Association for the Advancement of Science. She was educated at Wellesley College (A.B.), the University of Virginia (M.A.), and Georgetown University (Ph.D. in genetics and molecular biology).

Luciana Borio, M.D., serves as the Assistant Commissioner for Counterterrorism Policy and Director of the Office of Counterterrorism and Emerging Threats in the Office of the Chief Scientist, FDA. In this capacity, Dr. Borio is responsible for providing leadership, coordination, and oversight for FDA’s national and global health security, counterterrorism, and emerging threat portfolios. She serves as FDA’s point of entry on policy and planning

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
×

matters concerning counterterrorism and emerging threats, including Ebola, and collaborates across the U.S. government and internationally on actions to advance global health security and U.S. national security. She also serves as FDA’s Acting Deputy Chief Scientist, responsible for providing leadership and coordination for FDA’s crosscutting scientific and public health efforts. Prior to joining FDA as a medical reviewer in 2008, Dr. Borio served as a Senior Associate at the UPMC Center for Biosecurity, Assistant Professor of Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh, and Advisor on Biodefense Programs for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dr. Borio received her M.D. from the George Washington University and continues to practice medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital.

Roger G. Breeze, BVMS, Ph.D., MRCVS, is currently Bio-Security Deputy Program Director, Global Security Directorate, Office of Strategic Outcomes, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and serves on the senior management team of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Chemical and Biological Defense Directorate. He received his veterinary degree in 1968 and his Ph.D. in veterinary pathology in 1973, both from the University of Glasgow, Scotland. He was engaged in teaching, diagnostic pathology, and research on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases at the University of Glasgow Veterinary School from 1968 to 1977 and at Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine from 1977 to 1987, where he was professor and chair of the Department of Microbiology and Pathology. From 1984 to 1987 he was deputy director of the Washington Technology Center, the state’s high-technology sciences initiative, based in the College of Engineering at the University of Washington. In 1987, he was appointed director of the USDA’s Plum Island Animal Disease Center, a Biosafety Level 3 facility for research and diagnosis of the world’s most dangerous livestock diseases. In that role he initiated research into the genomic and functional genomic basis of disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, and control of livestock RNA and DNA virus infections. This work became the basis of U.S. defense against natural and deliberate infection with these agents and led to his involvement in the early 1990s in biological weapons defense and proliferation prevention. From 1995 to 1998, he was South Atlantic Area Director for USDA’s Agricultural Research Service before going to Washington, DC, to establish biological weapons defense programs for USDA. He received the Distinguished Executive Award from President Clinton in 1998 for his work at Plum Island and in biodefense. Since 2004 he has been CEO of Centaur Science Group where his main commitment is to the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Global Bioengagement Program.

Arturo Casadevall, M.D., Ph.D., is professor and chair of the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at the Johns Hopkins

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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Bloomberg School of Public Health. Previously he served as director of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Montefiore Medical Center, the University Hospital and Academic Medical Center for Einstein, from 2000 to 2006 and as chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology from 2006 to 2014. Dr. Casadevall received both his M.D. and Ph.D. (biochemistry) degrees from New York University. Subsequently, he completed his internship and residency in internal medicine at Bellevue Hospital in New York. He then completed subspecialty training in infectious diseases at Montefiore and Einstein. The author of more than 620 scientific papers, Dr. Casadevall’s major research interests are in fungal pathogenesis and the mechanism of antibody action. In the area of biodefense, he has an active research program to understand the mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralization of Bacillus anthracis toxins. In recent years Dr. Casadevall has become interested in problems with the scientific enterprise and with his collaborators has shown that misconduct accounts for the majority of retracted publications. Dr. Casadevall has suggested a variety of reforms to the way science is done. Dr. Casadevall is the editor-in-chief of mBio, the first open-access general journal of the American Society of Microbiology, and is on the editorial board of the Journal of Clinical Investigation and the Journal of Experimental Medicine. He has also served on numerous NIH committees, including those that drafted the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Strategic Plan and the Blue Ribbon Panel on Biodefense Research. He is currently a member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity and co-chairs the NIAID Board of Scientific Counselors. In 2008, he was recognized by the American Society of Microbiology with the William Hinton Award for mentoring scientists from underrepresented groups. He has been elected to AAAS Fellowship, the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the American Academy of Microbiology, the American Association of Physicians, and the National Academy of Medicine.

Andrew Clements, Ph.D., is the Deputy Director of the Pandemic Influenza and Other Emerging Threats Unit in the U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID’s) Bureau for Global Health. He received his doctorate in anaerobic microbiology from Virginia Tech and completed his post-doctoral training in biochemistry at the National Institutes of Health’s National Cancer Institute. Including his Diplomacy Fellowship through the American Association for the Advancement of Science, he has served as an infectious disease advisor at USAID for the past 17 years focusing on the development, management, and monitoring of programs to address tuberculosis, malaria, avian influenza, antimicrobial resistance, and disease surveillance. He is currently the manager of a grant with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to monitor influenzas in animals and the

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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PREDICT project, part of USAID’s Emerging Pandemic Threats program, which monitors wildlife for new zoonotic threats, characterizes the spillover risk associated with specific interfaces between wild animals and humans, and improves models for predicting geographic “hot spots” for emergence of new public health threats. He also analyzes trends for avian influenza and other emerging public health threats and serves as a liaison to USAID missions in the Asia and Near East regions for programs related to avian influenza and emerging pandemic threats.

Peter Daszak, Ph.D., is President of EcoHealth Alliance, a U.S.-based organization which conducts research and outreach programs on global health, conservation, and international development. Dr. Daszak’s research has been instrumental in identifying and predicting the impact of emerging diseases across the globe. His achievements include identifying the bat origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), identifying the causes of Nipah and Hendra virus emergence, producing the first ever global emerging disease “hot spots” map, identifying the first case of a species extinction due to disease, coining the term “pathogen pollution,” and the discovery of the disease chytridiomycosis as the cause global amphibian declines. Dr. Daszak is a member of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Forum on Microbial Threats and served on the IOM Committee on Global Surveillance for Emerging Zoonoses, the NRC Committee on the Future of Veterinary Research, and the International Standing Advisory Board of the Australian Biosecurity CRC, and he has advised the Director for Medical Preparedness Policy on the White House National Security Staff on global health issues. Dr. Daszak won the 2000 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation medal for collaborative research on the discovery of amphibian chytridiomycosis and is Editor-in-Chief of the journal Ecohealth. He has authored more than 200 scientific papers, and his work has been the focus of extensive media coverage, ranging from popular press articles to television appearances.

Jeffrey Scott Duchin, M.D., is Chief of the Communicable Disease Epidemiology & Immunization Section for Public Health–Seattle & King County, Washington, and Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and adjunct professor in the School of Public Health at the University of Washington. Dr. Duchin trained in internal medicine at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital. He completed a fellowship in general internal medicine and emergency medicine at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and infectious disease subspecialty training at the University of Washington. After several years on the faculty at the University of Pennsylvania, he joined the CDC’s Epidemic Intelligence Service program where he was assigned to the National Center for Infectious Diseases, and the CDC’s

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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Preventive Medicine Residency program. He worked for CDC as a medical epidemiologist in the Divisions of Tuberculosis Elimination and HIV/AIDS Special Studies Branch before assuming his current position.

Dr. Duchin is a member of the CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). He is a Fellow of the IDSA and is current Chair of the IDSA’s Public Health Committee and past-Chair of the IDSA’s Bio-emergencies Task Force. Dr. Duchin serves on the Editorial Board and Technical Advisory Group for Communicable Disease Alert and Response to Mass Gatherings for the World Health Organization and previously served as a member of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) 2004 Tiger Team consulting with the government of Greece on health preparations for the 2004 Olympics, in Athens, Greece. Dr. Duchin’s peer-review publications and research interests focus on communicable diseases of public health significance, and he has authored textbook chapters on outbreak investigations, bioterrorism, and the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS.

Mark B. Feinberg, M.D., Ph.D., is Vice President and Chief Public Health and Science Officer, Merck Vaccines at Merck & Co., Inc. In this role, he is responsible for developing initiatives and partnerships that accelerate the development and global availability of Merck’s vaccines, and that maximize their public health impact. In addition, he has led a number of significant initiatives to enable Merck’s research and development (R&D) expertise to help address public health challenges impacting resource-poor countries—including the creation of the MSD-Wellcome Trust Hilleman Laboratories and, most recently, coordinating Merck’s multisector collaborative Ebola vaccine development effort. Prior to joining Merck in 2004, Dr. Feinberg worked for more than 20 years in both academia and government where he was actively engaged in basic and clinical research, patient care, and health care policy—with a primary focus on HIV/AIDS pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention research and on the biology of emerging infectious diseases.

Dr. Feinberg received his undergraduate degrees in biology and anthropology from the University of Pennsylvania and his M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University School of Medicine. He pursued a post-graduate medical training in internal medicine at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital and postdoctoral fellowship training in the laboratory of Dr. David Baltimore at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. Dr. Feinberg has served on the faculty of the University of California, San Francisco, and the Emory University School of Medicine, and as a Medical Officer in the Office of AIDS Research at the National Institutes of Health. He was a Fellow in the Advanced Leadership Initiative at Harvard University in 2012, and a Senior Fellow in this program in 2013. Dr. Feinberg is a Fellow of the American College of Physicians, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Association of

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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American Physicians, and the recipient of an Elizabeth Glaser Scientist Award from the Pediatric AIDS Foundation.

Aaron M. Firoved, Ph.D., serves as the Senior Biodefense Advisor to the Assistant Secretary for Health Affairs and Chief Medical Officer of DHS. In this position, Dr. Firoved provides scientific and technical expertise to the department’s biodefense and pandemic preparedness activities.

Prior to joining the Office of Health Affairs (OHA) in April 2012, Dr. Firoved worked for the U.S. Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, where he was responsible for a biodefense, disaster medical response, and medical countermeasure portfolio as well as the Committee’s programmatic and budgetary oversight of OHA and the department’s Science and Technology Directorate.

He served his first year with the Committee as the 2007 American Society for Microbiology Congressional Science Policy Fellow. Previously, Dr. Firoved conducted post-doctoral research studying anthrax pathology at the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Firoved received his Ph.D. in microbiology and immunology from the University of Michigan and his B.S. in microbiology from the University of Washington.

Jacqueline Fletcher, Ph.D., Regents Professor of Plant Pathology at Oklahoma State University, received a B.S. in biology from Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, an M.S. in botany from the University of Montana, and a Ph.D. in plant pathology from Texas A&M University. She served as a postdoctoral associate at the University of Illinois before joining OSU in 1984, where she was appointed Sarkeys Distinguished Professor in 2001 and Regents Professor in 2008. She was named a Fellow of the American Phytopathological Society (APS) in 2005 and a Fellow of AAAS in 2007.

Dr. Fletcher is Director of the National Institute for Microbial Forensics and Food and Agricultural Biosecurity (NIMFFAB), a multidisciplinary OSU initiative that addresses high-priority national issues in research, teaching/ education, and outreach with emphases in microbial forensics applications in plant pathology and produce safety. The NIMFFAB serves as a spoke laboratory for the DHS-affiliated National Bioforensic Analysis Center, in the area of plant pathogen forensics. Dr. Fletcher’s research focuses on mechanisms of virulence and insect transmission of plant pathogenic bacteria; on the relationships between human pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli, and plants; and on the emerging disciplines of microbial forensics and agricultural biosecurity.

Dr. Fletcher served on the APS Council for 10 years, including the 4-year APS presidential sequence. In the months following September 11, 2001, Dr. Fletcher led APS responses and input to new national biosecurity initiatives. She served for 9 years on the APS Public Policy Board (4 years

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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as chair) and is currently on the APS Threatening Pathogens Advisory Committee. She is currently the Chair of the Gordon Research Conference on Chemical and Biological Terrorism Defense for 2015, and serves on several federal biosecurity advisory panels.

Claire Fraser, Ph.D., is Director of the Institute for Genome Sciences at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland. She has joint faculty appointments at the University of Maryland, School of Medicine, in the Department of Medicine and Microbiology/Immunology. Until 2007, she was President and Director of The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) in Rockville, Maryland, and led the teams that sequenced the genomes of several microbial organisms, including important human and animal pathogens. She helped launch the new field of microbial genomics and revolutionized the way microbiology has been studied. In a 1995 landmark publication, a group of TIGR investigators reported on the first complete genome sequence of a free-living organism, Haemophilus influenzae. This new approach has, to date, produced DNA sequence data from nearly 1,000 different species across the phylogenetic tree.

Her work on the Amerithrax investigation led to the identification of four genetic mutations in the anthrax spores that allowed the FBI to trace the material back to its original source. She is one of the world’s experts in microbial forensics and the growing concern about dual uses—research that can provide knowledge and technologies that could be misapplied.

Dr. Fraser has authored more than 200 publications, edited 3 books, and served on the editorial boards of 9 scientific journals. For the past 10 years, she has been the most highly cited investigator in the field of microbiology. Her list of awards includes the E.O. Lawrence Award, the highest honor bestowed on research scientists by the Department of Energy; the Promega Biotechnology Award from the American Society of Microbiology; and the Charles Thom Award from the Society for Industrial Microbiology. She has been selected as one of Maryland’s Top 100 Women Circle of Excellence, and in 2010, was named to the Maryland Women’s Hall of Fame.

She has served on many advisory panels for all of the major federal funding agencies, the National Research Council, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the intelligence community. In addition, she has contributed her time as a board member for universities, research institutes, and other nonprofit groups because of her commitment to the education of our next generation of scientists.

Jesse L. Goodman, M.D., M.P.H., is Professor of Medicine at Georgetown University, where he directs a new Center on Medical Product Access, Safety and Stewardship (COMPASS), which focuses on informing science-based policy to address emerging public health needs, including product

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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development and access, the supply chain, and antimicrobial resistance. He is also Attending Physician in Infectious Diseases at the Georgetown University and Washington, DC, VA Hospitals and the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. Until February 2014 he was the Chief Scientist of FDA, a position he assumed in 2009 along with Deputy Commissioner for Science and Public Health (2009-2012). As Chief Scientist he had broad responsibility for strategic leadership of FDA’s crosscutting scientific and public health efforts, including public health preparedness and medical countermeasures. In that role, he led the 2009 H1N1 pandemic response and medical countermeasure review for FDA, also serving as a member of the HHS Senior Leadership team. From 2003 to 2009 Dr. Goodman was director of FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), overseeing activities critical to U.S. and global preparedness and the development, evaluation, safety, quality, and availability of blood, vaccines, cell and gene therapies, and other biologics. As Senior Advisor to the Commissioner in 1998-1999, he initiated and co-chaired the United States Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance, which produced the first Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance. He has served on numerous CDC, NIH, U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and WHO Advisory and Review Committees, and was a member of the Decade of Vaccines Research and Development Group. Prior to his service at FDA, he was Professor of Medicine and Chief of Infectious Diseases at the University of Minnesota, where his NIH-funded laboratory first isolated and characterized the biology of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an emerging tick-borne infection. A graduate of Harvard, Dr. Goodman received his M.D. from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and did residency and fellowship training at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he was also Chief Medical Resident. Dr. Goodman is board certified in medicine, infectious diseases, and oncology and has authored numerous scientific papers and edited the book Tick Borne Diseases of Humans (ASM Press). He has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation and to the National Academy of Medicine.

Eduardo Gotuzzo, M.D., is principal professor of the Department of Medicine and Director of the “Alexander von Humboldt” Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Peruvian University Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru, and head of the Department of Transmissible Diseases at the Cayetano Heredia Hospital. He is also an adjunct professor of medicine at the University of Alabama, Birmingham, School of Public Health. He is Director of the International Gorgas Course in Clinical Tropical Medicine, Peruvian University Cayetano Heredia, taught jointly with the University of Alabama at Birmingham. He is an adjunct faculty member of the William

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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J. Harrington Training Programs for Latin America, University of Miami School of Medicine (since 1983); is associate to the International Health Department of the Johns Hopkins University (1986-2005); and was a Fellow of the Center for the Americas at Vanderbilt, Vanderbilt University. Dr. Gotuzzo is an active member in numerous international societies and has been a member of the IDSA Scientific Program (2000-2003) and the International Organizing Committee of the International Congress of Infectious Diseases (1994), and president of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (1998-2000), the Pan American Infectious Diseases Association, the International Federation for Tropical Medicine (2005-2008), and the Peruvian Society of Internal Medicine (1991-1992). He works on several research areas and teaches on subjects including emerging diseases, TB, HTLV-1, free-living amoebas, brucellosis, typhoid fever, cholera, and parasites. He has published more than 400 articles and 50 chapters as well as 6 manuals and 2 books. Recent honors and awards include being named an honorary member of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in 2002; an honorary member of the Peruvian Society of Internal Medicine in 2000; and a distinguished visitor at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Cordoba, Argentina (1999). In 1998 Dr. Gotuzzo received the Golden Medal for Outstanding Contribution in the Field of Infectious Diseases awarded by Trnava University, Slovakia. In 2007, Dr. Gotuzzo received the Society Citation Award from the IDSA. He is an honorary member of the Australian Society for Infectious Diseases (2008), the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (2002), Sociedad Venezolana de Infectología (1997), Sociedad Paraguaya de Infectología (2009), and the National Academy of Medicine of Mexico (2010). He is also member of the Steering Committee of Zoonosis Diseases of WHO (2009-2011), member of the Strategic and Technical Advisory Group on Neglected Diseases of WHO (2010-2015), and international member of Texas Medical Branch’s Center for Tropical Diseases (2012).

Dr. Gotuzzo also received the “XI Annual Esteban Campodónico Figallo Prize” (2005) and the Award Southern Peru Medal “Cristóbal de Losada y Puga” by Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (2010), and he is Doctor Honoris Causa, Universidad “San Luis Gonzaga” (Ica-Perú) (2011). The Peruvian talent award in recognition of the research performed, given by the Committee on Science and Technology of Peruvian Congress (2013), the “Carlos Slim” award in 2013 for his performance on the investigation, México, and finally the “Abraham Valdelomar” medal given by Ica Region, Peru.

Jennifer Grady, Ph.D., is both a scientist and a science communicator. As an assistant professor in the School of Population and Public Health at the University of British Columbia (UBC), Dr. Grady holds a Tier 2

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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Canada Research Chair in Public Health Genomics. Situated at the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), her laboratory uses microbial genomics, phylogenetics, and bioinformatics to understand the transmission and epidemiology of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, influenza, and measles. Her group was the first to use genome sequencing to reconstruct a large outbreak of tuberculosis, and she is continuing to apply this novel technique to other outbreak scenarios. She is also involved in other genomics-related research, including metagenomic surveys of human and environmental samples. She completed a Ph.D. in microbial genomics and bioinformatics at Simon Fraser University in 2006 under Dr. Fiona Brinkman, as well as a post-doctoral fellowship in the systems biology of innate immunity with Dr. R. E. W. Hancock at UBC, before joining BCCDC in 2009.

Outside of academia, Dr. Grady works in science communication. She’s hosted an eight-part science series for CBC Television, multiple episodes of CBC’s long-running documentary series The Nature of Things, and is a regular guest host on Discovery Channel Canada’s flagship science newsmagazine, Daily Planet. She’s also blogged and written for Canadian newspaper The Globe & Mail, recently published a children’s book called It’s Catching! The Infectious World of Germs and Microbes, and runs a series of workshops for graduate students and postdoctorals on how to communicate science effectively.

Carole A. Heilman, Ph.D., serves as Director of the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) of NIAID, a component of NIH. DMID supports research to prevent and control diseases caused by virtually all human infectious agents (except HIV), including bacterial, viral, parasitic, and fungal diseases. The Division supports a wide variety of projects spanning the spectrum from basic biology of human pathogens and their interaction with human hosts, through translational and clinical research, toward the development of new and improved diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines for infectious diseases. As Director, Dr. Heilman provides scientific direction, oversight, and management for an extramural research portfolio that encompasses approximately 300 different organisms.

DMID supports the nation’s biodefense as well as a solid research infrastructure that readily responds to public health challenges, such as emerging diseases. These resources were mobilized to respond to the emergence of 2009 H1N1 influenza by providing the first in-depth characterization of the H1N1 pandemic virus and conducting nine clinical trials that provided safety and efficacy data to inform public health practice.

Dr. Heilman has a Ph.D. in microbiology from Rutgers University. She did her post-doctoral work in molecular virology at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and continued at the NCI as a senior staff fellow in molecu-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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lar oncology. She later moved into health science administration, where she focused on respiratory pathogens, particularly vaccine development. Dr. Heilman has received numerous awards for scientific management and leadership, including three HHS Secretary’s Awards for Distinguished Service recognizing her efforts on development of acellular pertussis vaccines, AIDS vaccines, and on accelerating R&D in biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. In 2010, she received the Distinguished Alumni Award from the Boston University College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and in 2011 she received the Distinguished Alumni Award from the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.

Dr. Heilman serves as an infectious disease expert on the Board of Scientific Counselors for CDC. She also serves on the scientific board of the Fondation Mérieux’s annual Advanced Course of Vaccinology. Throughout her career, Dr. Heilman has been a pioneer supporting the advancement of women in biomedical careers and serves as a mentor to a number of women within and outside of NIAID.

David Heymann, M.D., CBE, is currently Head of the Centre on Global Health Security at Chatham House, London, Professor of Infectious Disease Epidemiology at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, and Chairman of Public Health England, United Kingdom. Previously he was the World Health Organization’s Assistant Director-General for Health Security and Environment and the representative of the Director-General for polio eradication. From 1998 to 2003 he was Executive Director of the WHO Communicable Diseases Cluster and from October 1995 to July 1998 he was Director of the WHO Programme on Emerging and other Communicable Diseases. Prior to that, he was the Chief of research activities in the WHO Global Programme on AIDS.

Before joining WHO, Dr. Heymann worked for 13 years as a medical epidemiologist in sub-Saharan Africa on assignment from CDC. In this capacity he supported ministries of health in designing and implementing programs in infectious disease prevention and control, with emphasis on childhood diseases, malaria, and the African hemorrhagic fevers. Prior to that, he worked in India for 2 years as a medical epidemiologist in the WHO Smallpox Eradication Programme.

He is a member of the National Academy of Medicine and Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences (UK); he has been awarded the 2004 Award for Excellence of American Public Health Association, the 2005 Donald Mackay Award from the American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, and the 2007 Heinz Award on the Human Condition. In 2009 he was appointed an honorary Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (CBE) for services to global public health. He

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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is currently the editor of the 19th edition of the Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, a joint publication of the American Public Health Association and WHO.

Stephen Albert Johnston, Ph.D., is currently co-director of the Center for Innovations in Medicine (CIM) in the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University. CIM focuses on inventing and implementing disruptive technologies for basic problems in health care. CIM currently has three major projects: developing a universal prophylactic cancer vaccine, creating a simple method for continuous health monitoring through immunosignatures, and improving synbody therapeutics for treatment of chronic diseases and infections. Dr. Johnston founded the Center for Biomedical Inventions (also known as the Center for Translation Research) at the University of Texas, Southwestern, the first center of its kind in the medical arena. He and his colleagues have developed numerous inventions and innovations, including the gene gun, genetic immunization, TEV protease system, organelle transformation, digital optical chemistry arrays, expression library immunization, linear expression elements, synbodies, immunosignature diagnosis, and others. He also was involved in transcription research for years, first cloning Gal4 and later discovering functional domains in transcription factors and the connection of the proteasome to transcription. He has been professor at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas and associate and assistant professor at Duke University. He has been involved in several capacities as an adviser on biosecurity since 1996 and is a founding member of BioChem 20/20.

Gerald T. Keusch, M.D., is Professor of Medicine and International Health at Boston University where he serves as an Associate Director of the National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratory. He is a graduate of Columbia College and Harvard Medical School, trained in internal medicine and infectious diseases. His research has focused on tropical infectious diseases and their impact in developing countries, ranging from molecular pathogenesis to field research on diarrheal disease, nutrition-infection interactions, and HIV/AIDS. He is the author of over 300 original publications, reviews, and book chapters, and the editor of eight scientific books. Dr. Keusch is the recipient of the Oswald Avery and Alexander Fleming Awards and delivered the Society’s Maxwell Finland Lecture from the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Distinguished Leadership in Global Health Award from the Consortium of Universities for Global Health. He is a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the Association of American Physicians, the National Academy of Medicine, and a Fellow of the American Society for Microbiology. Prior to his present appointments, he was Associate Director for International Research in the

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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Office of the Director, and Director of the Fogarty International Center, both at the National Institutes of Health (1998-2004); Chief of the Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases at Tufts Medical Center (1979-1998); and a faculty member at Mount Sinai School of Medicine (1970-1978).

Rima F. Khabbaz, M.D., is Deputy Director for Infectious Diseases and Director of the Office of Infectious Diseases at CDC. Prior to her current position, she served as Director of CDC’s National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases and held other leadership positions across the agency’s infectious disease national centers. She is a graduate of the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, where she obtained both her bachelor’s degree in science and her medical doctorate degree. She trained in internal medicine and completed a fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of Maryland, Baltimore. She joined CDC in 1980 as an epidemic intelligence service officer, working in the Hospital Infections Program. During her CDC career, she has made major contributions to advance infectious disease prevention, including leadership in defining the epidemiology of non-HIV retroviruses (HTLV-I and II) in the United States and developing guidance for counseling HTLV-infected persons, establishing national surveillance for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome following the 1993 U.S. outbreak, and developing CDC’s blood safety and food safety programs related to viral diseases. She has also played key roles in CDC’s responses to outbreaks of new and/or reemerging viral infections, including Nipah, Ebola, West Nile, SARS, and monkey pox, as well as the 2001 anthrax attacks. She is a fellow of the IDSA and member of the American Epidemiologic Society, the ASM, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and the American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. She served on IDSA’s Annual Meeting Scientific Program Committee and currently serves on the society’s Public Health Committee. In addition to her CDC position, she serves as adjunct professor of medicine (infectious diseases) at Emory University. She is a graduate of the National Preparedness Leadership Initiative at Harvard University and of the Public Health Leadership Institute at the University of North Carolina.

COL Mark G. Kortepeter, M.D., M.P.H., is Associate Dean for Research at the School of Medicine, USUHS. He recently served as the Director of the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program (IDCRP) at USUHS from August 2010 to March 2014. The IDCRP conducts clinical research on militarily relevant infectious diseases at 10 medical treatment facilities across the country. An Associate Professor of Medicine and Preventive Medicine and Biodefense Consultant for the Army Surgeon General, Dr. Kortepeter is board certified in infectious diseases and preventive medicine. Dr. Kortepeter

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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received his B.A. from Harvard College, his M.D. from New Jersey Medical School, and his M.P.H. from Harvard School of Public Health. He spent seven and a half years at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, where he served in several roles, including Deputy Commander (equivalent to Chief Operations Officer), Deputy Chief of the Virology Division, and Chief of the Medical Division. His deployments include Chief of Preventive Medicine for the U.S. forces in Bosnia in 1997 and the Special Medical Augmentation/Response Team for Investigational New Drugs, Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom, Kuwait, in 2003. His other prior assignments include staff internist at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, and Chief of Preventive Medicine at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. COL Kortepeter has specific expertise and interest in the pathophysiology of Ebola virus infection and investigational vaccines and treatments as well as management of laboratory exposures to potential biological weapons threats.

Stanley M. Lemon, M.D., is Professor of Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology within the School of Medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,. He received his undergraduate A.B. degree in biochemical sciences from Princeton University summa cum laude and his M.D. with honors from the University of Rochester. He completed post-graduate training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and is board certified in both. From 1977 to 1983 he served with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, followed by a 14-year period on the faculty of the University of North Carolina where he was Chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases. He moved to the University of Texas Medical Branch in 1997, serving first as chair of the Department of Microbiology & Immunology, then as dean of the School of Medicine from 1999 to 2004, returning to Chapel Hill in 2010. Dr. Lemon’s research interests focus on the molecular virology and pathogenesis of hepatitis viruses, particularly hepatitis C, and the role of innate immunity protection against viral hepatitis. He has had a longstanding interest in antiviral and vaccine development and has served as chair of both the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee and the Vaccines and Related Biologics Advisory Committee of the FDA. He is the past chair of the Steering Committee on Hepatitis and Poliomyelitis of the WHO Programme on Vaccine Development, and the NCID-CDC Board of Scientific Counselors and currently a member of the National Science Advisory Board on Biosecurity and the U.S. Delegation to the U.S.–Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program. He has served as chair of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats, was chair of the IOM study committee on a Strategy for Minimizing the Impact of Naturally Occurring Infectious Diseases of Military Importance: Vaccine Issues in the U.S. Military, co-chair of the

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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NAS Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of Their Application to Next Generation Biowarfare Threats, and is a past member of the Academies Board on the Health of Select Populations.

COL Emil P. Lesho, D.O., is originally from White Haven, Pennsylvania. He is a 1990 graduate of the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine and is board certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases. He has been an active-duty Army physician for over 20 years and is currently assigned to the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Silver Spring, Maryland, where he co-founded and is the Director of the Multidrugresistant Organism Repository and Surveillance Network (MRSN).

The MRSN is the DoD’s flagship agency for conducting epidemiologic surveillance and in-depth whole-genome characterization of multidrug-resistant organisms. Dr. Lesho also serves as an attending physician in both internal medicine and infectious diseases at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, and as a staff infectious diseases physician at the University of Maryland’s R. Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center in Baltimore, Maryland. While serving as the Director of the MRSN, he won the 2010 and 2013 Military Health System’s Award for Healthcare Innovations in Infection Control.

Prior to this assignment, COL Lesho was the Brigade Surgeon 214th Fires Brigade, Forward Operating Base Delta, Iraq, and the Senior Medical Officer/Officer in Charge, U.S. Military Hospital, al-Kut, Iraq (2007-2008). While there, he led and published two separate studies in antibiotic resistance: one in newly constructed hospitals and one in evacuation vehicles involved in explosions. He currently holds appointment as an Associate Professor of Medicine at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, as a Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at the University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, and as an Adjunct Clinical Associate Professor in the Department of Clinical Medicine at Pacific Northwest University of Health Sciences College of Osteopathic Medicine, Yakima, Washington.

Dr. Lesho has been awarded the “A” Proficiency Designator in both internal medicine and in infectious diseases, the Army’s highest award for clinical excellence. He has 106 publications in peer-reviewed journals (57 as first author), including Lancet Infectious Diseases, Clinical Infectious Diseases, the Journal of Infectious Diseases, and Infections Control and Hospital Epidemiology, and he has lectured extensively both nationally and internationally on various internal medicine and infectious diseases topics, and most recently on the escalating crisis of antibiotic resistance.

Margaret McFall-Ngai, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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Her research program has combined her training experiences in both organismal and molecular biology, resulting in the development of two major focuses: (1) host-bacterial symbiosis; and (2) the “design” of tissues that interact with light. The experimental strategy for both areas of research relies on methods that have emerged from the study of the squid-vibrio symbiotic association over the past 20 years. In addition, she has had a longstanding interest in the history and development of the field of microbial symbiosis and its impact on biology. A focused effort in this area promises to drive an unprecedented integration across biology as a whole, and will revolutionize the way we think about all aspects of the biosphere.

Dr. McFall-Nagi received her Ph.D. degree from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), in 1983. In recognition of her contributions during her graduate career, she was named Graduate Woman of the Year at UCLA in 1983. Her postdoctoral work at Jules Stein Eye Institute (UCLA Medical Center) and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (UC San Diego) focused on protein biochemistry and biophysics. Combining the training from these experiences, she accepted a faculty position in Biological Sciences at the University of Southern California (USC), where she began studies on the role of beneficial bacteria in the promotion of health in animals using the squid-vibrio model. For these efforts and for excellence in teaching, she received the Albert S. Raubenheimer Award for Outstanding Junior Faculty at USC in 1994. After receiving tenure at USC, she was recruited to the Kewalo Marine Laboratory at the University of Hawaii (UH) in 1996. While at UH, she received a grant from the WM Keck Foundation to develop genomic tools for the study of her model, and from The Rockefeller Foundation to organize an international meeting on symbiosis at the Rockefeller Conference Center in Bellagio, Italy. For her contributions to the field of microbiology, she was elected to the American Academy of Microbiology in 2002. In the same year, she received the Regents’ Medal for Excellence in Research in recognition of her scholarship at UH. She was also involved in several leadership positions while in Hawaii, including serving as the Chair of the Rhodes Scholar Committee for the State of Hawaii. In 2004, Dr. McFall-Ngai accepted a position at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in the Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology. Dr. McFall-Ngai was awarded a Guggenheim fellowship for the academic year 2009-2010 to investigate the role of symbiosis in shaping evolutionary selection on the form and function of animal systems. In addition, she recently served as a member of the Board of Life Sciences of the National Academy of Sciences.

Dr. McFall-Nagi is currently serving as the Chair of the national meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. She also serves on the Scientific Advisory Board of the Global Health Institute (EPFL, Switzerland). In addition to her professorship at UW-Madison, she currently holds several

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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additional academic positions. The year 2010-present, she is an EU/Marie Curie ITN Professor of the Max Planck Institute. For the academic year of 2011-2012, she holds a Gordon and Betty Moore Visiting Professorship at California Institute of Technology. She also holds an A.D. White Professorship-at-Large (2011-2016) at Cornell University. She was elected as a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2012.

Edward McSweegan, Ph.D., is a program officer at NIAID. He graduated from Boston College in 1978 (B.S.) and has degrees in microbiology from the University of New Hampshire (M.S.) and the University of Rhode Island (Ph.D.). He was a National Research Council Associate (1984-1986) and did post-doctoral research at the Naval Medical Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. Dr. McSweegan then served as an AAAS Diplomacy Fellow in the U.S. State Department (1986-1988), helping to negotiate science and technology agreements with Poland, Hungary, and the former Soviet Union. After moving to the Office of Tropical Medicine and International Research at NIAID, he continued to work on international health and science projects in Egypt, India, Israel, and Russia. Dr. McSweegan also served as a guest scientist at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, helped write technical guidance for electronic versions of FDA drug applications at CBER, and assisted the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief under the CDC’s International Experience and Technical Assistance Program in Swaziland, Africa. Dr. McSweegan manages the Indo-U.S. Vaccine Action Program at NIAID, and represented NIAID in the HHS Biotechnology Engagement Program with Russia and related countries. He is a member of AAAS, the American Society for Microbiology, and the National Science Writers Association. He is the author of numerous journal articles and freelance science articles, and was a columnist for the Annapolis, Maryland newspaper, The Capital. He has won a number of local and national awards for his writing.

Paula J. Olsiewski, Ph.D., joined the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation as a Program Director in 2000 to spearhead the Foundation’s program to reduce the threat of bioterrorism. Dr. Olsiewski now directs the Microbiology of the Built Environment program and the Synthetic Biology Initiative. She oversees the Sloan Public Service Awards and the Sloan Awards for Excellence in Teaching Science and Mathematics. She is also developing a new program in chemistry.

Dr. Olsiewski serves on numerous advisory committees and boards. She was recently elected to the board of the Spondylitis Association of America. From 2005 to 2012 she was a member of the advisory board for the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, a Center of Excellence of the U.S. Department of Homeland

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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Security based at the University of Maryland. She served as a member of the MIT Corporation (2003-2009), was President of the MIT Alumni Association (2003-2004), and served on the MIT Initiative on Faculty Race and Diversity Advisory Committee (2008-2009). She was a member of the NRC/IOM Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of Their Application to Next Generation Biowarfare Threats, which produced the 2006 report Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of Life Sciences.

Prior to joining the Foundation, Dr. Olsiewski served in many capacities in the biotech and biomedical community. She directed the New York City Biotechnology Initiative, a state-funded program under the auspices of the New York Biotechnology Association, to improve the region’s ability to grow biotechnology companies by fostering relationships between academia and industry. She established and directed the technology licensing office at the Hospital for Special Surgery, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell University. Dr. Olsiewski has served as a consultant on numerous projects, providing technical analysis of biomedical companies and technologies for investment banking groups and state economic development agencies. She worked for 9 years at Enzo Biochem, Inc., a publicly traded biotechnology company, where she directed commercial development activities for a variety of in vitro diagnostic products.

Dr. Olsiewski received a bachelor of science in chemistry from Yale College in 1975 and a doctorate in biological chemistry from MIT in 1979.

Julie Pavlin, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., is the Deputy Director of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center and a retired Colonel in the U.S. Army. Prior to her current position, she was the director of the Epidemiology and Biostatistics Division at the Uniformed Services University. She also served as Chief of the Global Emerging Infections Department at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences in Bangkok, Thailand, where she developed surveillance programs for infectious diseases in Asia and the Chief of the Field Studies Department at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research where she played a pivotal role in developing the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE), the Department of Defense real-time surveillance system. Dr. Pavlin received her A.B. from Cornell University, her M.D. from Loyola University her M.P.H. from Harvard University, and her Ph.D. in Emerging Infectious Diseases at the Uniformed Services University. She completed her residency at Madigan Army Medical Center and is board certified in General Preventive Medicine and Public Health. Her current research interests include innovative disease surveillance methods and infectious disease epidemiology in developing countries.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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George Poste, Ph.D., D.V.M., is chief scientist, Complex Adaptive Systems Initiative, and Del E. Webb Professor of Health Innovation at Arizona State University (ASU). He assumed this post in 2009. From 2003 to 2009 he directed and built the Biodesign Institute at ASU. In addition to his academic post, he serves on the Board of Directors of Monsanto, Exelixis, Caris Life Sciences, LGC, and the Scientific Advisory Board of Synthetic Genomics. From 1992 to 1999 he was Chief Science and Technology Officer and President, R&D, of SmithKline Beecham (SB). During his tenure at SB he was associated with the successful registration of 31 drug, vaccine, and diagnostic products. In 2004 he was named “R&D Scientist of the Year” by R&D Magazine, in 2006 he received the Einstein award from the Global Business Leadership Council, and in 2009 he received the Scrip Lifetime Achievement award voted by the leadership of the global pharmaceutical industry.

He has published more than 350 research papers and edited 14 books on pharmaceutical technologies and oncology. He has received honorary degrees in science, law, and medicine for his research contributions and was honored in 1999 by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II as a Commander of the British Empire for his contributions to international security. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society, the Royal College of Pathologists, the UK Academy of Medicine; a member of the Council on Foreign Relations; and a former Distinguished Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University. He has served on numerous government panels related to biosecurity and national competitiveness.

David Rizzo, Ph.D., received his doctorate in plant pathology from the University of Minnesota and subsequently joined the faculty of the University of California Davis, Department of Plant Pathology and the Graduate Group in Ecology in 1995. In 2013, Dr. Rizzo became chair of the Department of Plant Pathology. Research in his laboratory focuses on the ecology and management of forest tree diseases, including diseases caused by both native and introduced pathogens. Research in the laboratory takes a multiscale approach ranging from experimental studies on the basic biology of organisms to field studies across forest landscapes. Active collaborations include projects with landscape ecologists, epidemiologists, molecular biologists, entomologists, and forest managers. The primary research effort in the laboratory is currently Phytophthora species in California coastal forests, with an emphasis on Sudden Oak Death. As part of his research on Sudden Oak Death, Dr. Rizzo also serves as the scientific advisor for the California Oak Mortality Task Force. In conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the laboratory studies a variety of diseases and their relationship to past and present forest management and conservation issues. In addition to research, Dr. Rizzo teaches undergraduate and

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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graduate courses in mycology as well as introductory biology. Since 2004, he has been director of the Science and Society program in the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Science and Society is an academic program designed to offer students the opportunity to discover the interdisciplinary connections that link the biological, physical, and social sciences with societal issues and cultural discourses.

Gary A. Roselle, M.D., FACP, is the Director of the National Infectious Diseases Service for VA Central Office in Washington, DC, as well as the Chief of the Medical Service at the Cincinnati VA Medical Center. He is a professor of medicine in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and Associate Chairman of the University of Cincinnati’s Department of Internal Medicine. Dr. Roselle serves on several national advisory groups including the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, the Federal TB Task Force, the Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance, the Health and Human Services Steering Committee to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections, the White House’s Sub-Interagency Policy Committee for Biosurveillance, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. He has received commendations from the Under Secretary for Health for VA and the Secretary of VA for his work in the Infectious Diseases Program for VA. He has been an invited speaker at national and international meetings and has published more than 100 papers and several book chapters, and is a reviewer for numerous scientific and medical journals. Dr. Roselle received his medical degree from The Ohio State University School of Medicine. He served his residency at the Northwestern University School of Medicine and his infectious diseases fellowship at the University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine.

Janet Shoemaker is Director of the ASM’s Public Affairs Office, a position she has held since 1989. She is responsible for managing the legislative and regulatory affairs of this 37,400-member organization, the largest single life science society in the world. Previously, she held positions as assistant director of public affairs for the ASM and as ASM coordinator of the U.S.–U.S.S.R. Exchange Program in Microbiology. She received her baccalaureate, cum laude, from the University of Massachusetts and graduate studies at the George Washington University programs in public policy and in editing and publications. She is a member of Women in Government Relations, the American Society of Association Executives, and AAAS. She has co-authored articles on research funding, biotechnology, biodefense, and public policy issues related to microbiology, and she has participated in advisory committees for the U.S. government on policy issues related to microbiology.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
×

Jay Siegel, M.D., is Chief Biotechnology Officer and Head of Scientific Strategy and Policy for Johnson & Johnson. In these roles, he is actively engaged in R&D leadership and in policy development at the national and international levels with regard to scientific and regulatory issues. He currently serves on the Executive Committees and the Boards of Directors of the Biotechnology Industry Organization and the Alliance for Regenerative Medicine. Dr. Siegel joined Johnson & Johnson in 2003 as President of Centocor Research & Development, Inc., and subsequently served as Group President of R&D with oversight of research and development in biotechnology, immunology and oncology. Dr. Siegel later served as Head of Global Regulatory Affairs for Janssen, the pharmaceutical companies of Johnson & Johnson, and led the company’s Biotechnology Center of Excellence. Before joining Johnson & Johnson, Dr. Siegel spent 20 years at the FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research in positions of increasing responsibility regulating the biotechnology industry. Dr. Siegel received a B.S. in biology from the California Institute of Technology and an M.D. from Stanford University. He trained in internal medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, and in infectious diseases and immunology at Stanford University. Dr. Siegel is recipient of numerous honors including the U.S. Public Health Service’s highest honor, the Distinguished Service Medal and, twice, the HHS Secretary’s Award for Distinguished Service. He has been elected to fellowship in the American College of Physicians and the Society for Clinical Trials and has authored numerous publications in the areas of clinical trial design, biotechnology, immunology, and drug development policy.

Mary E. Wilson, M.D., is Adjunct Professor of Global Health and Population at the Harvard School of Public Health. For 2014-2015 she is Visiting Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Her academic interests include the ecology of infections and emergence of microbial threats, travel medicine, tuberculosis, and vaccines. She received her M.D. from the University of Wisconsin and completed an internal medicine residency and infectious disease fellowship at the Beth Israel Hospital in Boston. She was Chief of Infectious Diseases at Mount Auburn Hospital, a Harvard-affiliated community teaching hospital in Cambridge, Massachusetts, for more than 20 years. She is a Fellow in the IDSA, the American College of Physicians, and the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. She has served on ACIP of CDC, the Academic Advisory Committee for the National Institute of Public Health in Mexico, and on five committees for the IOM of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. She has worked in Haiti at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital and led the Harvard-Brazil Collaborative Course on Infectious Diseases, taught in Brazil. In 1996 she was a resident

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
×

scholar at the Bellagio Study Center, Italy, and in 2002 she was a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in Stanford, California. She was a member of the Pew National Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production, whose report Putting Meat on the Table: Industrial Farm Animal Production in America was released in the spring of 2008. She serves as a Special Advisor to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network, a global network. She serves on several editorial boards, and is an associate editor for Journal Watch Infectious Diseases. She is the author of A World Guide to Infections: Diseases, Distribution, Diagnosis (Oxford University Press, New York, 1991); senior editor, with Richard Levins and Andrew Spielman, of Disease in Evolution: Global Changes and Emergence of Infectious Diseases (New York Academy of Sciences, 1994); and editor of the volume New and Emerging Infectious Diseases (Medical Clinics of North America) published in 2008. She joined the Board of Trustees for International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh in 2009 and is a member of the FXB-USA Board, and the APUA Board of Directors

Edward You is a Supervisory Special Agent in the FBI’s Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate, Biological Countermeasures Unit. Mr. You is responsible for creating programs and activities to coordinate and improve FBI and interagency efforts to identify, assess, and respond to potential intentional biological threats or incidents. These efforts include expanding FBI engagement with the life sciences community to address biosecurity. Before transferring to the Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate, Mr. You was a member of the FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force in Los Angeles for 4 years. Mr. You has also been directly involved in policy-making efforts with a focus on biosecurity. He holds ex officio positions on the NIH National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and the Synthetic Biology and Engineering Research Center Strategic Advisory Board. He also serves as an active Working Group member of the National Security Council Interagency Policy Committee on Countering Biological Threats; was the FBI representative on the Executive Order 13546 Select Agent Program Federal Experts Security Advisory Panel; and presented, on behalf of the FBI, to the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues regarding biosecurity and synthetic biology. Prior to joining the FBI, Mr. You worked for 5 years in graduate research on human gene therapy and retrovirology at the University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine. He subsequently worked for 3 years at the biotechnology firm Amgen Inc. developing cancer therapeutics.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Forum on Microbial Threats Member Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21854.
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Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health: Workshop Summary Get This Book
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Since the 2014 Ebola outbreak many public- and private-sector leaders have seen a need for improved management of global public health emergencies. The effects of the Ebola epidemic go well beyond the three hardest-hit countries and beyond the health sector. Education, child protection, commerce, transportation, and human rights have all suffered. The consequences and lethality of Ebola have increased interest in coordinated global response to infectious threats, many of which could disrupt global health and commerce far more than the recent outbreak.

In order to explore the potential for improving international management and response to outbreaks the National Academy of Medicine agreed to manage an international, independent, evidence-based, authoritative, multistakeholder expert commission. As part of this effort, the Institute of Medicine convened four workshops in summer of 2015 to inform the commission report. The presentations and discussions from the Governance for Global Health Workshop are summarized in this report.

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