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Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8 (2016)

Chapter: Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Appendix C

Table of Parenting Interventions

The committee used the National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP), the Blueprints for Youth Development registry, and the California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare (CEBC) to identify parenting programs with strong evidence of effectiveness for supporting parenting knowledge, attitudes, or practices1 for parents of children ages 0-8. The following table draws on those sources to present information on the parenting support interventions that are discussed in this report. Some of the programs the committee determined to be important to include in the table, such as Adult-Focused Family Behavior Therapy and Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention, are not included in the report text. See Appendix B for a description of the criteria used by the clearinghouses for reviewing programs.

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1 This appendix was compiled from information on the National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) (http://nrepp.samhsa.gov/AllPrograms.aspx), Blueprints for Youth Development registry (http://www.blueprintsprograms.com/programs), and the California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare (CEBC) (http://www.cebc4cw.org/home/). Some of the information provided in the table is used verbatim from the above Websites.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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TABLE C-1 Evidence-Based Interventions That Support Parenting

Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
1-2-3 Magic: Effective Discipline for Children 2-12 Parents, grandparents, teachers, babysitters, and other caretakers working with children approximately ages 2-12 with behavior problems involving compliance and oppositional issues Group-format discipline program that divides parenting responsibilities into three straightforward tasks: controlling negative behavior, encouraging good behavior, and strengthening the child-parent relationship. The program seeks to encourage gentle, but firm, discipline without arguing, yelling, or spanking. By effectively addressing behavior problems, the program also attempts to improve the adult-child relationship.

One or two sessions per week for 4-8 weeks, each 1.5 hours
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
The program defines two basic kinds of problems that children present to adults—Stop Behavior and Start Behavior. When adults are frustrated with their children, the children are either (1) doing something the adults want them to Stop or (2) not doing something the adults want them to Start. Start behavior tactics (behavioral management techniques) include using positive verbal feedback, a kitchen timer method, a docking system, natural consequences, and charting.

Three simple steps:
(1) Control Obnoxious Behavior—Parents learn a simple technique for getting their children to Stop doing what they do not want them to do (whining, arguing, tantrums, sibling rivalry, etc.). (2) Encourage Good Behavior—Parents learn several effective methods for getting their children to start doing what they do want them to do (cleaning their room, going to bed, homework, etc.). (3) Strengthen Relationships—Parents learn powerful techniques that reinforce their bond with their children.

1-2-3 Magic utilizes a counting technique that is clearly understood by children so they know the consequences of their actions. The secret is not just in the counting, however. The real secret or “magic” comes from parents learning when to keep quiet.

The “Little Adult Assumption” explores the notion that children are not little adults and do not have the same reasoning capacity as an adult.

Parents also learn about managing the Six Kinds of Testing and Manipulation: badgering, intimidation, threats, martyrdom, butter-up, and physical.
Mental health professionals or teachers None noted CEBC: 3 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Adolescent Parenting Program (APP) First-time pregnant and parenting youth ages 12-19 who must be enrolled in school or a GED completion program, and their children ages 0-5 Support to first-time pregnant and parenting teens through intensive home visiting and peer group education

Monthly home visits, along with 24 hours of group education
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
The program supports adolescent parents to prevent a repeat pregnancy, complete their high school education, acquire job skills, and improve their parenting skills, helping them become self-sufficient and better able to support themselves and their families. It also establishes a strong, stable foundation upon which their children will be raised.

The program is designed to increase the self-sufficiency outcomes for participants by increasing the time to a subsequent pregnancy; increasing rates of graduation from high school with a diploma or completion of GED; increasing successful transition to adulthood, including enrollment in postsecondary education, vocational training, or employment at a livable wage; and living in safe and stable housing after graduation from the program. The program also aims to improve developmental outcomes for the children of participants by increasing healthy births; increasing the incidence of appropriate discipline, of nurturing behavior, and of children who are well cared for; and increasing age-appropriate physical, emotional, cognitive, and social development, including readiness for school success.
Staff must have a history of working with at-risk youth and must be trained in either the Partners for a Healthy Baby or Parents as Teachers home visiting curriculum. Staff must also complete at least 18 hours of professional development training annually, aimed at improving program outcomes. Not provided CEBC: 3 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Adult-Focused Family Behavior Therapy (Adult-Focused FBT)* Adults with drug abuse and dependence, as well as other coexisting problems, such as depression, family dysfunction, trauma, child maltreatment, noncompliance, employment, HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk behavior, and poor communication skills More than a dozen treatments, including management of emergencies, treatment planning, home safety tours, behavioral goals and rewards, contingency management skills training, communication skills training, child management skills training, job-getting skills training, financial management, self-control, environmental control, home safety and aesthetics tours, and teletherapy to improve session attendance

Starts with 1- to 2-hour initial outpatient or home-based sessions once or twice in the first week, then declines in frequency depending on multiple factors that are determined among the client, the client’s family, and the treatment provider (e.g., population, setting, intensity of treatment plan, effort)

Typically lasts 6 months to 1 year. The length varies depending on multiple factors (e.g., population, setting, intensity of treatment plan, effort) that are determined by the client, client’s family, and treatment provider
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Goals are to decrease alcohol and drug use, depression, conduct problems, family dysfunction, and days absent from work/school.

Treatment components: program orientation; behavioral goals and rewards through establishing family support systems; treatment planning; communication skills training; child management skills training, where parents learn to discipline their children by catching them being good, engaging in positive practice learning exercises, and when necessary, providing firm directives and undesired consequences; training in job-getting skills, financial management; self-control intervention; assurance of basic necessities, home safety and aesthetics tour, environmental control.

Addresses the following: alcohol and drug misuse, depression, school/work attendance problems, parenting stress, poor child management and communication skills, family dysfunction, HIV prevention, child abuse and neglect, home hazards, management of emergencies, and conduct problems in children.
Supervisors must be state-licensed mental health professionals with an interest in supervising the intervention. They should ideally have experience in conducting evidence-based therapies, particularly cognitive-behavioral therapies, and should have professional therapeutic experience serving the population that is being targeted for treatment.

Therapists should be state-licensed mental health professionals. They should ideally have experience serving the population that is being targeted for treatment, and must have an interest in conducting therapy utilizing the intervention.
None noted CEBC: 2 CEBC: High Child Welfare
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC)* Caregivers of infants ages 6 months to 2 years who have experienced early adversity Targets several key issues that have been identified as problematic among children who have experienced early maltreatment and/or disruptions in care. The first intervention component helps caregivers reinterpret children’s behavioral signals so that they provide nurturance even when it is not elicited. Second, many children who have experienced early adversity are dysregulated behaviorally and biologically. The second intervention component helps caregivers provide a responsive, predictable environment that enhances young children’s behavioral and regulatory capabilities. The third intervention component helps caregivers decrease behaviors that could be overwhelming or frightening to a young child.

10 weekly 1-hour sessions
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Goals: increase caregiver nurturance, sensitivity, and delight; decrease caregiver frightening behaviors; increase child attachment security and decrease disorganized attachment; increase child behavioral and biological regulation.

Targets several key issues: Child behaves in ways that push caregiver away—caregiver is helped to override tendencies to respond “in kind” and to provide nurturance regardless. Child is dysregulated at behavioral and biological levels—caregiver is helped to provide an environment that helps the child develop regulatory capabilities. This includes the parent following the child’s lead and showing delight in the child. Caregiver is helped to decrease behaviors that may be frightening or overwhelming to the child.

Provides services to parents/caregivers and addresses the following: Has child that pushes caregivers away or has difficulty being soothed; has child with behavioral and biological dysregulation; has difficulty in providing parental nurturance, following the lead, or delighting; has tendency to be frightening or overwhelming; has own history of care that may interfere with parenting.

The child is involved in the home visits to show the parents new skills, and the parents are expected to observe and note the child’s behavior and practice new skills between sessions.
There is no educational requirement for parent coaches. Potential parent coaches participate in a screening prior to training. If they pass the short screening, coaches attend a 2- to 3-day training and are subject to a year of supervision. None noted CEBC: 1 CEBC: High Child Welfare
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Behavioral Couples Therapy for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse* Substance-abusing patient together with the spouse or live-in partner seeking help for alcoholism or drug abuse Components include a recovery or sobriety contract between the partners and therapist

15-20 hour-long sessions over 5-6 months
Caring Dads: Helping Fathers Value Their Children Fathers (including biological, step, and common-law) who have physically abused, emotionally abused, or neglected their children, have exposed their children to domestic violence, or are deemed to be at high risk for these behaviors Combines elements of parenting, fathering, and child protection practice to address the needs of maltreating fathers

17 2-hour weekly sessions
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Activities and assignments are designed to increase positive feelings, shared activities, and constructive communication; relapse prevention planning. Providers must be therapists in outpatient facilities. Behavioral Couples Therapy for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse guidebook, $38 each

Average per-couple cost estimated in 1997 to be about $1,400; included clinician training, staff salaries, overhead, workbooks, etc.
NREPP: 3.54
Combination of motivation enhancement, parent education (including skills training and behavioral practice), and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Aims are to improve men’s recognition and prioritization of children’s needs; improve men’s understanding of developmental stages; improve men’s respect and support for children’s relationships with their mothers; improve men’s listening and using praise; improve men’s empathy for children’s experiences of maltreatment, and identify and counter the distortions underlying men’s past, and potentially ongoing, abuse of their children and/or children’s mothers. No specific formal qualifications needed, although as a group, the cofacilitation team needs training and experience in working with men (particularly men who are resistant to intervention), a firm understanding of the dynamics of abuse against women, knowledge of child development, and experience in cognitive-behavioral therapy. None provided CEBC: NR CEBC: High Child Welfare
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Chicago Parent Program (CPP) Parents of children ages 2-5 originally for low-income African American and Latino parents in urban communities Parenting-skills training program designed to improve parenting self-efficacy and promote positive parenting behavior and child discipline strategies. Uses video vignettes to depict parent-child interactions at home and in various community settings

Eleven 2-hour group sessions, followed by a booster session 4-8 weeks later
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
The vignettes present challenging situations parents typically face with their children and stimulate discussion and problem solving related to child behavior and parenting skills. Sessions focus on building positive relationships with children (e.g., having child-centered time, maintaining family routines and traditions, using praise and encouragement), child behavior management skills (e.g., following through with consequences, using effective forms of discipline), stress management, and problem-solving skills. Sessions are facilitated by two trained group leaders who must have a minimum of a high school degree or equivalent and must successfully complete a 2-day CPP group leader training. Group leader set costs $699 each; 2-day, onsite group leader training in the Chicago metropolitan area costs $2,500 for up to 20 participants, plus travel expenses; in other cities, $3,000 for up to 20 participants, plus travel expenses NREPP: 3.43
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI)* Families with children ages 7-18 who have either recently experienced a potentially traumatic event or recently disclosed the trauma of physical or sexual abuse Aims to reduce early posttraumatic stress symptoms, to decrease the likelihood of traumatized children developing long-term posttraumatic psychiatric disorders, and to assess children’s need for longer-term treatment. The intervention focuses on increasing communication between the caregiver and child about the child’s traumatic stress reactions and on providing skills to the family to help cope with traumatic stress reactions

Four to eight weekly sessions lasting 45-60 minutes each
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
In session 1, the clinician provides education about trauma and children’s typical reactions to traumatic exposure and explains the protective role of communication and family support. In session 2, the clinician first meets with the child alone to provide education about trauma and children’s typical reactions to traumatic exposure and to use standardized assessment instruments to obtain the child’s assessment of his or her traumatic stress reactions. Next, the clinician meets with the caregiver and the child together. In this session, the clinician uses the child’s and caregiver’s responses to the standardized assessment instruments as a basis for discussion. The discussion focuses on ways of improving communication, including encouraging greater awareness of when traumatic stress reactions are occurring; helping the child to better communicate with and inform his or her caregiver about feelings, symptoms, and behaviors; and helping the caregiver to be more aware, receptive, and supportive of the child. The clinician works with the child and caregiver collaboratively to identify specific traumatic stress reactions as the areas of focus, which are based on symptom clusters identified by the child and caregiver as being the most problematic (e.g., anxiety, sleep disturbance, depressive withdrawal, intrusive thoughts, oppositionality, tantrums, aggressive behaviors). The clinician then introduces skills, techniques, and behavioral interventions for the child and caregiver to practice to help the child cope with and master traumatic stress reactions. Sessions 3 and 4 are held with the child and caregiver together, and the clinician focuses on continuing to improve communication between the child and caregiver and on practicing the skills introduced in session 2. Sessions 5-8 are provided on an as-needed basis and may be used for additional meetings with the child and caregiver together or with the caregiver or child alone. Providers must be trained clinicians (master’s, Ph.D., or M.D. level). CFTSI implementation guide for providers: free electronic copy or $15 for hard copy; 2-day training costs $3,000 per day for up to 30 participants, plus travel expenses; 6 months of biweekly consultation calls: $200 per hour for up to 15 participants per call CEBC: 3 CEBC: High Child Welfare

NREPP: 3.0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP) Children ages 0-5 who have experienced at least one traumatic event and are experiencing behavior, attachment, and/or mental health problems Aims to support and strengthen the relationship between a child and his or her parent (or caregiver) as a vehicle for restoring the child’s sense of safety, attachment, and appropriate affect and improving the child’s cognitive, behavioral, and social functioning

Weekly 1- to 1.5-hour sessions for approximately a year
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
(1) Focus on safety: focus on safety issues in the environment as needed; promote safe behavior; legitimize feelings while highlighting the need for safe/appropriate behavior; foster appropriate limit setting; help establish appropriate parent-child roles. (2) Affect regulation: provide developmental guidance regarding how children regulate affect and emotional reactions; support and label affective experiences; foster parent’s ability to respond in helpful, soothing ways when child is upset; foster child’s ability to use parent as a secure base; develop/foster strategies for regulating affect. (3) Reciprocity in relationships: highlight parent’s and child’s love and understanding for each other; support expression of positive and negative feelings for important people; foster ability to understand the other’s perspective; talk about ways that parent and child are different and autonomous; develop interventions to change maladaptive patterns of interactions. (4) Focus on the traumatic event: help parent acknowledge what child has witnessed and remembered; help parent and child understand each other’s reality with regard to the trauma; provide developmental guidance acknowledging response to trauma; make linkages between past experiences and current thoughts, feelings, and behaviors; help parent understand link between her own experiences and current feelings and parenting practices; highlight the difference between past and present circumstances; support parent and child in creating a joint narrative; reinforce behaviors that help parent and child master the trauma and gain a new perspective. (5) Continuity of daily living: foster prosocial, adaptive behavior; foster efforts to engage in appropriate activities; foster development of a daily predictable routine. (6) Reflective supervision. The therapist must be a master’s- or doctoral-level psychologist, a master’s-level social worker or counselor, or a supervised trainee. Psychotherapy with Infants and Young Children: Repairing the Effects of Stress and Trauma on Early Attachment (manual) costs $35.79 for hardcover, $28 for paperback, or $21.95 for Kindle version; Don’t Hit My Mommy!: A Manual for Child-Parent Psychotherapy with Young Witnesses of Family Violence costs $24.95 each. One training option is required: free 1-year full-time internship at specialized National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) sites, or free (except travel) 1.5-year training through the NCTSN Learning Collaborative Model, or 1.5-year training for a learning community or an individual agency at a cost of $1,500-$3,000 per day of training for up to 30 participants, plus travel expenses CEBC: 2 CEBC: High Child Welfare
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Clinician-Based Cognitive Psychoeducational Intervention for Families (Family Talk) Families with parents with significant mood disorders Based on public health models. Core elements of the intervention are (1) an assessment of all family members, (2) teaching information about affective disorders and risks and resilience in children, (3) linking information to the family’s life experience, (4) decreasing feelings of guilt and blame in children, and (5) helping children to develop relationships within and outside the family to facilitate their independent functioning in school and in activities outside the home.

6-11 modules that include separate meetings with parents and children, family meetings, and telephone contacts or refresher meetings at 6- to 9-month intervals
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Provides services to children/adolescents and addresses exposure to trauma, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and/or symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Provides services to parents/caregivers to address negative attributions about the child, problems in the parent-child relationship, and maladaptive parenting strategies. In addition, when appropriate, the program targets parental symptoms of PTSD (avoidance, intrusion, and hyperarousal), depression, and anxiety.
Designed to provide information about mood disorders to parents, equip parents with skills they need to communicate this information to their children, and open dialogue in families about the effects of parental depression. Sessions are conducted by trained psychologists, social workers, and nurses. Implementation manual: free; online training: free; 2-day initial training: $500 per day; ongoing biweekly supervision and consultation: $100 per hour

Delivery of the intervention requires 7-10 hours of clinician time per family, including parent, child, and family sessions
NREPP: 3.5
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS)* Primarily children in grades 3 through 8 who screened positive for exposure to a traumatic event and symptoms of PTSD related to that event School-based group and individual intervention designed to reduce symptoms of PTSD, depression, and behavioral problems; improve peer and parent support; and enhance coping skills among students exposed to traumatic life events, such as community and school violence, physical abuse, domestic violence, accidents, and natural disasters

10 45-minute group sessions and 1-3 30-minute individual sessions for students, 2 parent psychoeducational sessions, and a teacher educational session
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Relies on cognitive and behavioral theories of adjustment to traumatic events and uses cognitive-behavioral techniques such as psychoeducation, relaxation, social problem solving, cognitive restructuring, imaginal exposure, exposure to trauma reminders, and development of a trauma narrative. Uses a mixture of didactic presentation, examples, and games to solidify concepts. Components of the program include relaxation training, combating negative thoughts, reducing avoidance, developing a trauma narrative, and building social problem-solving skills.

This program involves the family or other support systems in the individual’s treatment. The program includes extensive outreach to parents and two parent sessions to keep them informed about what is happening in the groups, as well as to teach them some of the same skills the child is learning.
Delivered in the school setting by mental health professionals (with a master’s or doctoral degree in a clinical field) working in close collaboration with school personnel. Manual costs $40

One professional can screen students and select those with elevated symptoms, serving up to 30 CBITS groups per academic year (6-8 students per group, for about 210 students). Assuming an approximate staffing cost of $90,000 per year for a full-time social worker, the estimated cost per participant is $430.

Cost for implementation in 10 schools in year 1: $5,000 for training, $500 for manuals, $900,000 for 10 mental health professional salaries; so at a ratio of 30 groups serving 6-8 children per mental health professional, the above costs would support CBITS for 2,100 children and youth at a per youth cost of $431 for year 1.
Blueprints: Promising

CEBC: 3 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare

NREPP: 3.17
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Computer-Assisted Motivational Intervention (CAMI) Pregnant and/or parenting adolescents ages 18 and younger Aims to increase motivation among adolescent mothers to use condoms and contraception consistently, with the long-term goal of reducing rapid repeat births

60-minute sessions conducted in two parts
Early Head Start (EHS) Low-income families Federally funded early childhood development program providing comprehensive child development services in a center-based setting, supplemented with home visits

Weekly home visits and bimonthly group socialization experiences
Families and Schools Together (FAST)* Families with children transitioning into elementary school Multifamily group intervention designed to build relationships between and within families, schools, and communities (particularly in low-income areas) to increase all children’s well-being

8 weeks of multifamily group meetings, each about 2.5 hours long; and 2 years of monthly parent-led group meetings
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
During the first part of each session, participants use the computer-based CAMI program to answer questions about current sexual relationships and contraceptive use intentions and behaviors. Based on the responses generated, CAMI counselors conduct a stage-matched motivational interviewing session to enhance participants’ motivation to use condoms and contraception consistently in order to reduce the risk for a repeat pregnancy. It is recommended that agencies seek individuals who possess empathetic qualities, excellent communication skills, experience working with adolescents, and familiarity with the community. There is no set minimum educational requirement. Not specified CEBC: 3 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare
Also serves children through locally designed family child care options, in which certified child care providers care for children in their homes. Services include early education both in and out of the home, parenting education, comprehensive health and mental health services for mothers and children, nutrition education, and family support services. Teacher and other EHS staff Not specified CEBC: 3 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare
Objectives: (1) enhance parent-child bonding and family functioning while reducing family conflict and isolation and child neglect; (2) enhance school success through more parent involvement and family engagement at school, improved school climate, and reduced school mobility; (3) prevent substance use by both adults and children by building protective factors and referring appropriately for treatment; and (4) reduce the stress that children and parents experience in daily life situations in their communities by empowering parents, building social capital, and increasing social inclusion. Sessions are led by a trained team that includes at least one member of the school staff in addition to parents and professionals from local social service agencies in the community. FAST teams must be culturally representative of the families served. Licensing fee is $550 per site; training package costs $4,295 per site (serving approximately 1 to 10 families), plus travel expenses; ongoing technical assistance costs $200 per site; evaluation package costs $1,100 per site NREPP: 3.7
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Family Check-Up (FCU) for Children Families with children ages 2-17 Strengths-based, family-centered intervention that motivates parents to use parenting practices in support of child competence, mental health, and reduced risk for substance use; can be integrated into a variety of service settings, including schools, primary care, and community mental health

Phase 1 involves 3 1-hour sessions. Phase 2 can be limited to 1 to 3 Everyday Parenting sessions; as a treatment approach, Phase 2 can range from 3 to 15 Everyday Parenting sessions.
Family Check-Up (FCU) for Toddlers Families with children ages 17 months-2 Strengths-based, family-centered intervention that motivates parents to use parenting practices in support of child competence, mental health, and reduced risk for substance use; can be integrated into a variety of service settings, including schools, primary care, and community mental health

Phase 1 involves 3 1-hour sessions. Phase 2 can be limited to 1 to 3 Everyday Parenting sessions; as a treatment approach, Phase 2 can range from 3 to 15 Everyday Parenting sessions.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Two phases: (1) initial interview, assessment, and feedback; and (2) Everyday Parenting as a follow-up service that builds parents’ skills in positive behavior support, healthy limit setting, and relationship building. Providers with a master’s degree in education, social work, counseling, or related areas generally implement the program; however, bachelor’s- and paraprofessional/nonbachelor’slevel providers, with the appropriate consultation and supervisory support, may also implement the program. Manual costs $21; training manual costs $104.25 per provider; 2-day FCU training costs $4,194 + trainer travel costs for 1 trainer and up to approximately 8-10 trainees; 2-day Everyday Parenting training costs $4,194 + trainer travel costs for 1 trainer and up to approximately 8-10 trainees; additional costs incurred if the site wants providers to become certified. NREPP: 3.1
Two phases: (1) initial interview, assessment, and feedback; and (2) Everyday Parenting as a follow-up service that builds parents’ skills in positive behavior support, healthy limit setting, and relationship building. Providers must have a master’s degree in education, social work, counseling, or related areas. Example cost: For one community agency serving 400 families, the first-year expense would be $476 per family. The costs would decrease significantly in subsequent years as the initial readiness, training, and certification costs are start-up costs that would not be incurred beyond year 1. Blueprints: Promising
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Family Connections (FC) Families at risk for child maltreatment Multifaceted, community-based service program that works with families in their homes and in the context of their neighborhoods to help them meet the basic needs of their children and prevent child maltreatment

A minimum of 1 hour of face-to-face contact between the social worker and clients weekly for 3-4 months, with an optional 90-day extension if needed
Family Foundations* Adult couples expecting their first child Aims to help establish positive parenting skills and adjustment to the physical, social, and emotional challenges of parenthood. Program topics include coping with postpartum depression and stress, creating a caring environment, and developing the child’s social and emotional competence.

Delivered to groups of couples through four prenatal and four postnatal classes of 2 hours each. Prenatal classes are started during the fifth or sixth month of pregnancy, and postnatal classes end when children are 6 months old.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Nine practice principles guide FC interventions: ecological developmental framework, community outreach, individualized family assessment and tailored interventions, helping alliance, empowerment principles, strengths-based practice, cultural competence, outcome-driven service plans with SMART goals, and a focus on the competence of the practitioner. Individualized family intervention is geared to increase protective factors; decrease risk factors; and target child safety, well-being, and permanency outcomes.

Addresses the following: Poor household conditions, financial stress, inadequate social support, parenting stress and poor parenting attitudes, unsafe caregiver/child interactions, poor family functioning, poor adult functioning (e.g., mental health problems/substance abuse) that impacts parenting, poor family resources.
Master’s-level or bachelor’s-level workers are supervised by a staff member with a master’s degree or higher. None provided CEBC: 3 CEBC: High Child Welfare
Foster and enhance the coparenting relationship through conflict resolution strategies, information and communication exercises to help parents develop realistic and positive expectations about parenthood, and videos presenting couples discussing the family and personal stresses they have experienced as well as the successful strategies they have employed. Key aspects of parenting addressed include fostering child emotional security, attending to infant cues, and promoting infant sleep. Delivered in a community setting by childbirth educators who have received 3 days of training from Family Foundations staff. It is recommended, but not required, that classes be codelivered by a male and a female. The female leader is a childbirth educator, and male leaders are from various backgrounds, but experienced in working with families and leading groups. Facilitator manual (includes PowerPoint slides, facilitator DVDs, and participant feedback forms) costs $325 each; pre- and postnatal parent handbooks (include DVDs) cost $300 for materials for 10 couples NREPP: 3.65
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Family Spirit American Indian teenage mothers, who generally experience high rates of substance use, school dropout, and residential instability, receive services from pregnancy through 36 months postpartum Culturally tailored home visiting intervention with lessons designed to correspond to the changing developmental needs of the mother and child during this period, addressing such topics as prenatal care, infant care, child development, family planning, and healthy living

63 structured lessons delivered one on one by health educators in participants’ homes, starting at about 28 weeks of gestation and continuing to 36 months postpartum. Each home visit lasts about an hour and includes a warm-up conversation, lesson content, a question-and-answer period, and review of summary handouts. The 63 lessons can be delivered in 52 home visits, which occur weekly through 3 months postpartum and gradually become less frequent thereafter.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Designed to increase parenting competence (e.g., parenting knowledge and self-efficacy), reduce maternal psychosocial and behavioral risks that could interfere with effective parenting (e.g., drug and alcohol use, depression, externalizing problems), and promote healthy infant and toddler emotional and social adjustment (i.e., avoid internalizing and externalizing behaviors). The program also aims to prepare toddlers for early school success, promote parents’ coping and life skills, and link families to appropriate community services. Health educators are trained American Indian paraprofessionals 1-week, on- or off-site training in curriculum content and implementation costs $3,000 per person for up to 30 participants, plus travel expenses; tailored training development and implementation affiliation fee (includes access to all training resources; 3-year membership to the Web-based FS Connect; and consultation and technical assistance before training to establish needs and after training to support program implementation, sustainability, and data collection) is $9,600 per program, plus travel expenses. NREPP: 3.22
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Head Start REDI Enrichment intervention that can be integrated into the existing framework of Head Start programs that are already using the High/Scope or Creative Curriculum. The intervention is delivered by classroom teachers and integrated into their ongoing classroom programs.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Includes curriculum-based lessons, center-based extension activities, and training and weekly classroom coaching in “teaching strategies” to use throughout the day. It is focused primarily on social-emotional skill enrichment using the Preschool PATHS curriculum and language/emergent literacy skill enrichment. Parents also receive take-home materials describing the importance of positive support, emotion coaching, and interactive reading, with parenting tips and learning activities to use at home. Prerequisites: Attendance at a Preschool PATHS Workshop/REDI Workshop; high-quality performance for at least 2 years as a Preschool PATHS/REDI teacher or PATHS/REDI coach; master’s degree (or comparable credentials); classroom experience with students in a learner role (teaching, administration, and school counseling preferred); training experience with educators Example cost: With three classrooms of 17 students each, the REDI program would serve 51 students in the first year. The year 1 cost per student would be $599.55. Blueprints: Promising
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Healthy Families America (Home Visiting for Child Well-Being) (HFA) Overburdened families who are at risk for child abuse and neglect and other adverse childhood experiences. Families are determined eligible for services once they have been screened and/or assessed for the presence of factors that could contribute to increased risk for child maltreatment or other poor childhood outcomes (e.g., social isolation, substance abuse, mental illness, parental history of abuse in childhood). Home visiting services must be initiated either prenatally or within 3 months after the birth of the baby. Home visiting program model offering services voluntarily, intensively, and over the long term (3 to 5 years after the birth of the baby)

Families are to be offered weekly home visits for a minimum of 6 months after the birth of the baby. Home visits typically last 50-60 minutes. Once the defined criteria for family functioning have been met, visit frequency is reduced to biweekly, monthly, and quarterly, and services are tapered off over time. Typically, families receive two to four visits per month during pregnancy. During times of crisis, families may be seen two or more times per week. Services are offered prenatally or at birth until the child is at least age 3 and can be offered until he/she is age 5.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Goals: Build and sustain community partnerships to systematically engage overburdened families in home visiting services prenatally or at birth. Cultivate and strengthen nurturing parent-child relationships. Promote healthy childhood growth and development. Enhance family functioning by reducing risk and building protective factors.

Parent Survey (formerly Kempe Family Stress Checklist) is administered to identify the family strengths as well as family history and/or issues related to higher risk of child maltreatment and/or poor childhood outcomes. Services focus on supporting the parent as well as parent-child interaction and child development. All families are linked to a medical provider to ensure optimal health and development (e.g., timely immunizations, well-child care). Depending on the family’s needs, the program may also be linked to additional services, such as financial, food, and housing assistance programs; school readiness programs; child care; job training programs; family support centers; substance abuse treatment programs; and domestic violence shelters.

Provides services to expectant or new parents screened and/or assessed as at moderate to high risk for child maltreatment and/or poor early childhood outcomes (e.g., mental health issues, domestic violence, substance abuse, poverty, housing, lack of education, lack of social support).
Direct service staff should have qualifications including, but not limited to, experience in working with or providing services to children and families, an ability to establish trusting relationships, acceptance of individual differences, experience and willingness to work with the culturally diverse populations that are present among the program’s target population; and knowledge of infant and child development.

Training is provided in person either in state or regionally: 4 days for direct service staff.
None noted CEBC: 1 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Involves the family or other support systems in the individual’s treatment. Given that children develop within the context of a relationship, relationship-based early intervention focuses on strengthening the parent (or caregiver)child relationship. HFA takes advantage of teachable moments to encourage the healthy parent-child relationship. Three key aspects of building a relationship must be present to grow a mentally and emotionally healthy child: parents or caregivers must touch the child, have eye contact, and give quality time to the child. Children must experience, regulate, and express emotions to form close and secure interpersonal relationships and to explore their environment and learn. The end result is formation of a strong attachment to the parent or caregiver. It is critical that early caregivers know how to promote healthy social and emotional well-being through nurturing and consistent relationships.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Highscope Preschool* Preschool students from disadvantaged families and at high risk of school problems Educational approach aims to promote active learning by providing many opportunities for children to initiate their own activities and take responsibility for completing them.

Classroom program meets for half-days (2.5 hours per day), 5 days a week for 7 months of the year, with 90-minute weekly home visits by preschool teachers.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Program aims to enhance children’s cognitive, social-emotional, and physical development, imparting skills that will help them succeed in school and be more productive and responsible throughout their lives. Delivered by preschool teachers. The staff-to-child ratio is one adult for every five or six children. Three steps, each with training options. Initial onsite training averages $1,930 per participant for groups of more than 30. Each of the implementation steps requires the purchase of materials for each classroom. The curriculum costs approximately $800 per classroom. Estimated cost for consumable is $500-$1,000 per classroom per year. Each student is evaluated using the HighScope Child Observation Record at an annual cost of $10.95-19.95 per student.

Program example: Cost for a preschool program with 10 teachers in five classrooms of 20 children would be $295.50 per student in year 1.
Blueprints: Promising

NREPP: 3.55
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) Parents with young children ages 3-5 and with limited formal education and resources Home-based and parent-involved school readiness program that helps parents prepare their children for success in school and beyond. The parent is provided with carefully developed curriculum, books, and materials designed to strengthen the child’s cognitive and early literacy skills, as well as social, emotional, and physical development.

Home visitors engage their assigned parents on a weekly basis. Service delivery is primarily through home visits. A home visit consists of a 1-hour, one-on-one interaction between the home visitor and the assigned parents. Parents then engage their children in educational activities for 5 days per week for 30 weeks. At least six times per year, one or more cohorts of parents meet in a group setting with the coordinator and their assigned home visitor(s). Group meetings feature enrichment activities for parents and their children and last approximately 2 hours.

A minimum of 30 weeks of interaction with the home visitor; curriculum available for up to 3 years of home visiting services
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
In the developmentally appropriate curriculum, role play is the method of instruction. Staff consisting of coordinators and home visitors engage parents through home visits and group meetings. Parent-child educational interactions are encouraged through the use of the HIPPY curriculum. The scripted curriculum serves as a lesson plan for parents and is designed to support parents with limited formal education. The curriculum is based on exposure to skills, rather than mastery.

Provides services to children/adolescents that address limited exposure to reading readiness skills.

Provides services to parents/caregivers that address low literacy level and limited English proficiency.
The home visitors live in the community they serve and work with the same group of parents for 3 years. They receive weekly comprehensive training to equip them to serve their assigned families effectively. The training also encourages them to seek further education. Many home visitors earn degrees in early childhood education. Educational requirements are established by the implementing agency and are usually a high school diploma or GED. Home visitors must be able to read in and speak the language of the families they serve.

The coordinator, who trains the home visitors and oversees the local program, is required to have a minimum of a bachelor’s degree.
None noted CEBC: 2 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Homebuilders Families with one or more children (up to age 18) who are at imminent risk of out-of-home placement or who have been placed out of the home and need intensive services to reunify with their family. Family is usually experiencing such problems as child abuse and neglect, other family violence, juvenile delinquency, mental illness, and/or substance abuse. Home-based intensive family preservation services program designed to improve family functioning and children’s behavior and to prevent out-of-home placement of children into foster or group care, psychiatric hospitals, or correctional facilities.

4 to 6 weeks; extensions are offered, and two booster sessions are offered in the 6 months after services end.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Drawing on social learning and crisis intervention theories, the program is structured to reduce barriers to family support services and maximize opportunities for family members to learn new personal and social skills. Services provided by therapists include social support (e.g., transportation, budgeting, household maintenance and home repair services), counseling, modeling of parenting skills, extensive interagency treatment planning, and family advocacy within the community context. Families are typically referred by protective services, foster care and adoption agencies, community mental health professionals, probate courts, or domestic violence shelters. Within 24 hours of referral, families begin receiving services from master’s-level therapists who meet with them in their homes and neighborhoods during sessions that are scheduled on a flexible basis. Each therapist serves two or three families at a time, typically spending 40 or more hours in face-to-face contact with family members. In addition, therapists are on call for families 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Site development and implementation readiness consultation for all training costs $1,250 (up to 15 participants) or $2,500 (up to 30 participants), plus travel expenses.

Core Curriculum training costs $120 per participant for materials. Goal-Setting and Paperwork training costs $20 per participant. Motivational Interviewing training costs $40 per participant. Relapse Prevention training costs $20 per participant. Utilizing Behavioral Principles and Strategies with Families costs $20 per participant. Teaching Skills to Families costs $15 per participant. Improving Decision Making through Critical Thinking costs $25 per participant. Fundamentals of Supervising Homebuilders: Intensive Family Preservation costs $275 per participant.
NREPP: 3.05
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Program Consultation and Quality Assurance Skills for Homebuilders Supervisors costs $75 per participant. Online Data Manager training costs $15 per participant. Phone consultations (held weekly in the first 2 years of implementation, monthly in year 3, and quarterly thereafter) cost $100 per hour. 3- to 4-day onsite visits (twice per year) cost $1,250 per day, plus travel expenses. Access to the Online Data Manager: $4,900 activation fee (year 1 only); $350 monthly fee; $980 annual upgrade fee.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Incredible Years (IY) Young children and their parents and teachers

Programs for parents target key developmental stages: IY Babies Program (0-9 months); IY Toddlers Program (ages 1-3); IY Preschool Program (ages 3-5); IY School Age Program (ages 6-12)

There are two Social and Emotional Skills Programs for Children (Dinosaur School Program): IY Classroom Child Program (ages 3-8); IY Treatment Small Group Child Program (ages 4-8)

One Classroom Management Program for Teachers (early childhood and elementary school, ages 3-8)
Child, parent, and teacher developmentally based programs designed to promote emotional and social competence and to prevent, reduce, and treat behavioral and emotional problems in young children.

The Dinosaur School Program consists of more than 60 classroom lesson plans (approximately 45 minutes each) for three age levels, beginning in preschool through second grade (ages 3-8). Lesson plans are delivered by the teacher at least twice weekly over consecutive years. The small-group treatment program consists of 18-22 weekly sessions (2 hours each) offered in conjunction with the training programs for parents of preschoolers or school-age children.

Lengths of the parent and child programs vary from 12 to 20 weekly group sessions (2-3 hours each).

Teacher sessions can be completed in 5-6 full-day workshops or 18 to 21 2-hour sessions.

The Basic Parent Training Program is 14 weeks for prevention populations, and 18-20 weeks for treatment. The Child Training Program is 18-22 weeks. For the treatment version, the Advance Parent Program is recommended as a supplemental program. Basic plus Advance takes 26-30 weeks. The Child Prevention Program is 20-30 weeks and may be spaced over 2 years. The Teachers Program is 5-6 full-day workshops spaced over 6-8 months.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
The child program aims to strengthen children’s social and emotional competencies, such as understanding and communicating feelings, using effective problem-solving strategies, managing anger, practicing friendship and conversational skills, and behaving appropriately in the classroom.

The parent programs focus on strengthening parent-child interactions and relationships; reducing harsh discipline; and fostering parents’ ability to promote children’s social, emotional, and language development. In the programs for parents of preschoolers and school-age children, participants also learn how to promote school readiness skills; in addition, these parents are encouraged to partner with teachers and become involved in their children’s school experiences to promote children’s academic and social skills and emotional self-regulation and to reduce conduct problems. Each program includes protocols for use as a prevention program or as a treatment program for children with conduct problems and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

The teacher program focuses on strengthening teachers’ classroom management strategies; promoting children’s prosocial behavior, emotional self-regulation, and school readiness; and reducing children’s classroom aggression and noncooperation with peers and teachers. The training also helps teachers collaborate with parents to support parents’ school involvement and promote consistency between home and school.
Trained facilitators with a master’s degree (or equivalent) use videotaped vignettes to structure the content and stimulate group discussions, problem solving, and practices related to participants’ goals. Program materials cost $1,150-$1,895, depending on the series selected.

Ongoing costs include $476 for each parent in parent groups, $775 for each child in child treatment groups, $15 for each child receiving the Dinosaur curriculum in school, and $30 for each teacher receiving the teacher training. These costs vary by location.
CEBC: 1 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare

NREPP: 3.5
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Incredible Years (IY)-Child Treatment Families of children ages 4-8 with conduct problems, ADHD, and internalizing problems Small-group treatment program designed to enhance social competence, positive peer interactions, conflict management strategies, emotional literacy, and anger management.

18-22 weekly 2-hour sessions
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Emphasizes training children in such skills as emotional literacy, empathy or perspective taking, friendship skills, anger management, interpersonal problem solving, school rules, and how to be successful at school. The child program is organized to dovetail with the IY parent training programs. Trained facilitators use videotaped scenes to encourage group discussion, problem solving, and sharing of ideas. Initial workshop training costs typically include a 3-day training for approximately $1,100-$2,000. A set of program DVDs and materials costs $1,150 for the Small-Group Treatment version of the Dinosaur Child Program.

With 18 children participating, the initial cost of the program is approximately $2,150.60/child for the Small-Group Treatment version; however, after onetime up-front costs have been paid, subsequent groups in future years cost less: $1,117.95.
Blueprints: Promising
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
×
Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Incredible Years (IY)-Parent Families and teachers of children ages 2-8 with behavioral and emotional problems Three BASIC parent training programs target key developmental stages: Baby and Toddler Program, Preschool Program, and School Age Program.

Program length varies, but generally lasts between 3-5 months: Baby and Toddler Program (0-2.5 years; 9-13 sessions), Preschool Program (3-5 years; 18-20 sessions), and School Age Program (6-12 years; 12-16+ sessions).
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Programs emphasize developmentally appropriate parenting skills known to promote children’s social competence, emotional regulation, and academic skills and to reduce behavior problems. The BASIC parent program is the core of the parenting programs and must be implemented, as Blueprints recognition is based on evaluations of this program. This BASIC parent training component emphasizes such parenting skills as child-directed play with children; academic, persistence, social, and emotional coaching methods; use of effective praise and incentives; establishment of predictable routines and rules and effective limit setting; handling misbehavior with proactive discipline; and teaching children to problem solve. Trained facilitators use video scenes to encourage group discussion, self-reflection, modeling and practice rehearsals, problem solving, sharing of ideas, and support networks. Initial training and technical assistance costs typically include a 3-day training for group leaders for approximately $1,100-$2,000. A set of program DVDs costs $1,595 for Preschool BASIC ($1,895 for dual-language English/Spanish). With 108 parents participating, the initial cost of the program is approximately $643/parent; however, after onetime up-front costs have been paid, subsequent groups in future years cost less. Blueprints: Promising
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Kids’ Club & Moms’ Empowerment* Children ages 6-12 and their mothers exposed to intimate partner violence in the last year Preventive intervention program that targets children’s knowledge about family violence, their attitudes and beliefs about families and family violence, their emotional adjustment, and their social behavior in the small group. Later sessions address responsibility for violence, managing emotions, family relationship paradigms, and conflict and its resolution.

10 weeks of 1-hour sessions where groups of mothers and children meet concurrently
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Provides support to mothers by empowering them to discuss the impact of the violence on their child’s development, building parenting competence, providing a safe place to discuss parenting fears and worries, and building connections for the mother in the context of a supportive group.

Goals of Kids’ Club are reducing children’s internalizing and externalizing behavioral adjustment problems, reducing children’s harmful attitudes and beliefs about the acceptability of violence, enhancing children’s ability to cope with violence by learning safety skills and additional conflict resolution skills, and enhancing children’s ability to identify and regulate emotions related to violence.

The goals of Moms’ Empowerment are reducing the level of mothers’ traumatic stress and violence exposure, enhancing mothers’ safety and ability to parent under stress, and providing support and resources in a group setting.
Therapists have a master’s in social work (MSW), are licensed clinical social workers, or have a master’s or Ph.D. in psychology. Therapists also can be in training to receive a professional degree, in which case they are subject to regular supervision by a licensed professional. None noted CEBC: 3 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) First-time, low-income mothers (no previous live births) Prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses beginning during pregnancy and continuing through the child’s second birthday. Designed to link families with needed health and human services, promote good decision making about personal development, assist families in making healthy choices during pregnancy and providing proper care to their children, and help women build supportive relationships with families and friends.

Weekly home visits for the first month after enrollment and then every other week until the baby is born. Visits are weekly for the first 6 weeks after the baby is born and then every other week until the baby is 20 months old. The last four visits are monthly until the child is 2 years old. Visits typically last 60-75 minutes.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Goals are to improve pregnancy outcomes by promoting health-related behaviors; to improve child health, development, and safety by promoting competent caregiving; and to enhance parent life-course development by promoting pregnancy planning, educational achievement, and employment. The program also has two secondary goals: to enhance families’ material support by providing links with needed health and social services, and to promote supportive relationships among family and friends.

Objectives include improving women’s diets; helping women monitor their weight gain and eliminate the use of cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs; teaching parents to identify the signs of pregnancy complication; encouraging regular rest, appropriate exercise, and good personal hygiene related to obstetric health; and preparing parents for labor, delivery, and early care of the newborn.
Nurse home visitors must be registered nurses with a bachelor’s degree in nursing, as a minimum qualification.

Nurse supervisors must be registered nurses with a bachelor’s degree in nursing as a minimum qualification, with a master’s degree in nursing preferred.

Implemented by teams of eight nurse home visitors with one supervisor.
The cost to prepare one team to begin offering the program is approximately $77,000.

Estimated annual salary and benefit costs for a team of eight nurses and one supervisor serving 200 families total $711,000 but costs vary based on local salary levels.

Travel is a significant expense, estimated at $21,000 for a nursing team annually. Ongoing training is estimated at $1,526 annually for a nursing team, and replacement training as a result of turnover is $7,750 per supervisor and $6,000 per nurse. Annual quality improvement and technical assistance services total $8,816 per nursing team.

With 8 nurses and a caseload of 25 families per nurse, 200 families would be served at a cost of $5,074 per family for 1 year of services.
CEBC: 1 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare

NREPP: 3.38

Blueprints: Model
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Nurturing Parenting Program (NPP) Families who have been identified by child welfare agencies for past child abuse and neglect or who are at high risk for child abuse and neglect; includes families of children ages 0-12 Instruction-based program for the prevention and treatment of child abuse and neglect is based on psychoeducational and cognitive-behavioral approaches to learning and focuses on “reparenting,” or helping parents learn new patterns of parenting to replace their existing, learned abusive patterns.

Participating families attend sessions either at home or in a group format with other families. Group sessions combine concurrent separate experiences for parents and children with shared “family nurturing time.” In home-based sessions, parents and children meet separately and jointly during a 90-minute lesson once per week for 15 weeks.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
NFP costs approximately $4,500 per family per year, with a range of $2,914 to $6,463 per family per year.
By completing questionnaires and participating in discussion, role play, and audiovisual exercises, participants learn how to nurture themselves and in turn build their nurturing family and parenting skills as dads, moms, sons, and daughters. Participants develop awareness, knowledge, and skills in five areas: age-appropriate expectations; empathy, bonding, and attachment; nonviolent nurturing discipline; self-awareness and self-worth; and empowerment, autonomy, and healthy independence. Multiple NPPs have been developed for various age groups and family circumstances. Two group facilitators are recommended for every seven adults participating in the program. Two additional group facilitators are recommended for every 10 children participating. NPP can be implemented by professionals or paraprofessionals in such fields as social work, education, recreation, and psychology who have undergone NPP facilitator training and have related experience. Materials set (includes all materials needed for implementation and quality assurance) costs $300-$2,000, depending on the program selected; 3-day, on- or off-site facilitator training costs $250-$325 per participant.

The cost of running a high-quality NPP varies based on the program format and number of sessions provided. The initial set of materials can be used to implement the program for approximately 15 families. The majority of program materials are reusable.
NREPP: 3.05
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMT-O)* Recently separated single mothers of children ages 2-18 with disruptive behaviors, such as conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and antisocial behaviors Group- or individual-based parent training program that teaches effective family management strategies and parenting skills, including skill encouragement, setting limits/positive discipline, monitoring, problem solving, and positive involvement, aimed at reducing antisocial and behavior problems in children.

Delivered in group and individual family formats, in diverse settings (e.g., clinics, homes, schools, community centers, homeless shelters), over varied lengths of time depending on families’ needs. Can be tailored for specific clinical problems, such as antisocial behavior, conduct problems, substance abuse, and child neglect and abuse.

1.5- to 2-hour weekly parent group sessions and 60-minute weekly individual/family sessions; 14 group sessions and 20-25 individual/family sessions, depending on severity; individual family treatment is not typically provided together with group treatment. The time frame can be 5-6 months or longer, depending on circumstances.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Teach and coach parents in the use of effective parenting strategies: skill encouragement, setting limits or effective discipline, monitoring, problem solving, and positive involvement. In addition to the core parenting practices, PMT-O incorporates the supporting parenting components of identifying and regulating emotions, enhancing communication, giving clear directions, and tracking behavior. PMT-O also includes strategies designed to help parents decrease coercive exchanges with their children and use contingent positive reinforcements (e.g., praise, incentives) to promote prosocial behavior. Promoting school success is woven into the program throughout relevant components.

Goals include improving parenting practices; reducing family coercion; reducing and preventing in youth internalizing and externalizing behaviors, substance use and abuse, delinquency and police arrests, out-of-home placements, and deviant peer associations; and improving in youth academic performance, social competency, and peer relations.
Providers must have a bachelor’s degree with 5 years of appropriate clinical experience or master’s degree in a relevant field. During the first phase, therapists are trained and certified over a period of 18-24 months. Estimated cost is $1,000 per participant, based on 10-15 participants per group, with 2 group facilitators and 14 sessions.

Estimated total training and technical assistance cost for Phase 1 for 16 clinicians is $515,000 in year 1 and $310,000 in year 2.

Beyond Phase 3 costs an estimated $12,000 yearly.

Estimated cost over 3 years to become a qualified independent Fidelity of Implementation Rating System (FIMP) team is $11,780 (Phase 4).

$2,500-$4,000 will be needed for testing before independent operation starts.

An organization with 16 clinicians could expect to incur estimated costs of $1,170,000 in year 1.
Blueprints: Model

CEBC: 1 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare

NREPP: 3.56
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) Parents of children ages 2-7 with behavior and parent-child relationship problems Didactic and coaching sessions focus on decreasing externalizing child behaviors (e.g., defiance, aggression), increasing child social skills and cooperation, and improving the parent-child attachment. Parents learn to use traditional play-therapy skills as social reinforcers of positive child behavior and traditional behavior management skills to decrease negative child behavior. Parents learn and practice these skills with their child in a playroom while coached by a therapist. The coaching provides parents with immediate feedback on their use of the new parenting skills, which enables them to apply the skills correctly and master them rapidly.

Typically one or two 1-hour sessions per week with the therapist. The average number of sessions is 14, but varies from 10 to 20. Treatment continues until the parent masters the interaction skills to meet preset criteria and the child’s behavior has improved to within normal limits.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Parents are taught specific skills to establish or strengthen a nurturing and secure relationship with their child while encouraging prosocial behavior and discouraging negative behavior. This treatment has two phases, each focusing on a different parent-child interaction: child-directed interaction (CDI) and parent-directed interaction (PDI). In each phase, parents attend one didactic session to learn interaction skills and then attend a series of coaching sessions with the child in which they apply these skills. During the CDI phase, parents learn nondirective play skills similar to those used in play therapy and engage their child in a play situation with the goal of strengthening the parent-child relationship. During the PDI phase, parents learn to direct the child’s behavior with clear, age-appropriate instructions and consistent consequences, with the aim of increasing child compliance.

Teaches parents traditional play-therapy skills to improve parent-child interactions and problem-solving skills that can be used to manage new problem behaviors. Parents are taught and practice communication skills and behavior management with their children in a playroom while coached by therapists. Most parenting programs for abusive parents treat parents separately from their children and use an instructive approach, but PCIT treats parents with their children. Skills are behaviorally defined, directly coached, and practiced in parent-child sessions. Parents are shown directly how to implement specific behavioral skills with their children. Therapists observe parent-child interactions through a one-way mirror and coach. Live coaching and monitoring of skill acquisition are cornerstones of PCIT.
Generally administered in an outpatient clinic by a licensed mental health professional with experience working with children and families. Treatment materials cost $1,000 per set; 1-week, offsite training plus 100 hours of additional training/consultation over 12 months costs $3,000-$4,000 per person; certification costs $200 per organization.

The model often requires modification of space at an estimated cost of $1,000-$1,500.

An Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory is administered weekly to each parent at a cost of $40 for 25 forms. Each therapist receives weekly consultation from the purveyor for the first year at a cost of $1,000 per therapist for the year.

A study of high-risk families involved in the child welfare system estimated the cost for each parent-child pair completing the program at $2,208-$3,638.
NREPP: 3.375

CEBC: 1 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare

Blueprints: Promising
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Child goals include building close relationships with parents using positive attention strategies; helping children feel safe and calm by fostering warmth and security between parents and children; increasing children’s organizational and play skills; decreasing children’s frustration and anger; educating parents about ways to teach their child without frustration for parent and child; enhancing children’s self-esteem; improving children’s social skills, such as sharing and cooperation; and teaching parents how to communicate with young children who have limited attention spans.

Parent goals include teaching parents specific discipline techniques that help children listen to instructions and follow directions, decreasing problematic child behaviors by teaching parents to be consistent and predictable, and helping parents develop confidence in managing their children’s behaviors at home and in public.

Provides services to children/adolescents that address noncompliance, aggression, rule breaking, disruptive behavior, dysfunctional attachment with parents, and internalizing symptoms.

Provides services to parents/caregivers that address ineffective parenting styles (e.g., permissive, authoritarian, and overly harsh parenting).
If each therapist had a caseload of 20 families for an average of 15 weeks per family, 280 families could be served in the first year at a cost of $1,210 per family.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
ParentCorps Parents and their young children ages 3-6 living in low-income communities Family-centered preventive intervention designed to foster healthy development and school success of young children

Weekly series of 14 2-hour group sessions that occur concurrently for parents and children
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Parent groups present a specific set of parenting strategies: establishing structure and routines for children, providing opportunities for positive parent-child interactions during nondirective play, using positive reinforcement to encourage compliance and social and behavioral competence, selectively ignoring mild misbehaviors, and using effective forms of discipline for misbehavior (e.g., time-outs, loss of privileges). Parenting strategies are introduced through group discussions, role plays, an animated video series, and a photography-based book of ParentCorps family stories and homework. In a manner that is sensitive to and respectful of parents’ readiness for change, facilitators help parents anticipate barriers and generate solutions so that families can implement the strategies successfully.

Child groups focus on promoting social, emotional, and self-regulatory skills through interactive lessons, experiential activities, and play. In support of individualized goals that parents set for children, teachers promote skills and shape behaviors using strategies that complement the parenting strategies being introduced to parents.
Delivered in parent and child groups facilitated by trained professionals. Groups include approximately 15 participants and are held in early childhood education or child care settings. Parent groups are facilitated by trained mental health professionals. Child groups are led by trained classroom teachers. ParentCorps training and start-up materials (include leader’s manuals and resource guides for use with the child and parent groups; props, puppet, and music CD for use with the child group; and DVD for use with the parent group) cost $2,000 (for up to 4 child group leaders and 1 parent group leader). Family group materials (include parent workbooks, parent toolkit, and wordless picture book) cost $30 per family. ParentCorps 101 Web-based training costs $50 per user. 5-day training at New York University costs $5,000 per site (for up to 4 participants). 2-day, onsite consultation costs $5,000 plus travel expenses. Group leader coaching (14 hours during the first cycle of implementation) costs $2,000. Quality assurance measures are included in the cost of implementation materials. NREPP: 3.36
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Parenting Wisely Parents of children ages 3-18 at risk for or with behavior problems, substance abuse problems, or delinquency A set of self-instructional interactive, computer-based training programs based on social learning, cognitive-behavioral, and family systems theories, the program aims to increase parental communication and disciplinary skills.

All nine sessions can be completed in 2-3 hours.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Parents use this self-instructional program on an agency’s personal computer or laptop, either onsite or at home, using the CD-ROM or online format. The program utilizes a DVD for group administration or an interactive online program for individual administration, with 10 video scenarios depicting common challenges with adolescents. Parents choose from among three solutions to these challenges and are able to view the scenarios enacted while receiving feedback about each choice. Parents are quizzed periodically throughout the program and receive feedback. The program operates as a supportive tutor, pointing out typical errors parents make and highlighting new skills that will help them resolve problems. None required Program kit (includes service provider’s guide and program integrity guide) costs $659 each. Additional parent workbooks cost $6.75-$9.00 each, depending on the quantity purchased. CEBC: 3 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare

NREPP: 2.73
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Parents as Teachers (PAT) Parents of children ages 0-5 Early childhood family support and parent education home visiting program includes optional group connection formats with family activities, presentations, community events, parent cafes, and ongoing groups. Annual health, hearing, vision, and developmental screenings, beginning within 90 days of enrollment, are a third component of the model.

Home visits of approximately 60 minutes delivered weekly, every 2 weeks, or monthly, depending on family needs; optional monthly or more frequent group connections
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Parent educators work with parents to strengthen protective factors and ensure that young children are healthy, safe, and ready to learn. The goals of the model are to increase parent knowledge of early childhood development, improve parenting practices, provide early detection of developmental delays and health issues, prevent child abuse and neglect, and increase children’s school readiness and school success. Parent-child interaction focuses on promoting positive parenting behaviors and child development through parent-child activities. Development-centered parenting focuses on the link between child development and parenting and on key developmental topics (i.e., attachment, discipline, health, nutrition, safety, sleep, transitions/routines, healthy births). Family well-being includes a focus on family strengths, capabilities, skills, and building of protective factors. Parent educators ideally hold a bachelor’s degree in an area, such as early childhood education, human services, or a related field; however, a high school diploma and 2 years of supervised work experience with young children and/or parents is acceptable. Different curriculum materials are used for those working with families of children up to age 3 and those working with families of children from age 3 to kindergarten. 5-day, offsite parent educator foundational and model implementation training (includes all program materials and 1-year access to online materials for serving families prenatally to age 3) costs about $800 per parent educator, but varies by location. 2-day, offsite parent educator training for the 3 Years to Kindergarten Entry curriculum (includes printed curriculum) costs about $225-$450. Annual recertification and online access fee is $75 per parent educator.

After initial start-up expenses have been paid, the cost to provide PAT services to families is estimated to be approximately $2,500 per family for twice-monthly visits. PAT provides resources to help new affiliates build a realistic and comprehensive budget.
NREPP: 3.175
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Period of PURPLE Crying All mothers and fathers of new infants and society in general with respect to understanding early increased infant crying and shaken baby syndrome Shaken baby syndrome prevention program educates parents and caretakers on normal infant crying, the most common trigger for shaking an infant. The program was designed to be used primarily in universal, primary prevention settings, but is applicable to secondary prevention as well.

Three 3- to 10-minute “doses”: (1) in the maternity ward, provided separately from other materials; (2) either pre- or postbirth as a second “dose” (e.g., in prenatal classes and in the first pediatric office visit); (3) via media and social networking campaigns. With these three doses, the duration of the program is at least a week and can be much longer since the infant crying period lasts up to 4-5 months, and a key element of the program is that each parent receives a copy of the DVD and booklet to take home.
Play and Learning Strategies-Infant Program (PALS I) Children ages 5-15 months and their families Preventive intervention program to strengthen the bond between parent and baby and to stimulate early language, cognitive, and social development

The program consists of 90-minute individual sessions in the family’s home and lasts about 11 weeks.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Goals include supporting caregivers in their understanding of early increased infant crying and reducing the incidence of shaken baby syndrome/abusive head trauma. There are no educational requirements, but providers must take the training online or in person and be in a position where they have the authority to provide the program to new parents. Providers should protect the fidelity of the program by complying with the protocol required. Not specified CEBC: 3 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare
The aim is to facilitate parents’ mastery of specific skills for interacting with their young children, including paying attention to and correctly interpreting babies’ signals, responding contingently to signals, and using rich language.

Goals include increasing parents’ contingent responsiveness behaviors, rich language input, emotional/affective support, and ability to maintain their child’s focus of attention, and improving children’s language, cognitive, and social outcomes.
It is recommended that a trained PALS I home visitor have at least an associate’s degree in early childhood (or a related field) or work experience commensurate with that education. PALS I home visitors are supervised by a person with at least a bachelor’s degree in early childhood education or a related field with 3-5 years’ experience in parent education. Not specified CEBC: 3 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Play and Learning Strategies-Toddler/Preschool Program (PALS II) Children ages 18 months to 4 years and their families Preventive intervention program designed to strengthen the bond between parent and child and to stimulate early language, cognitive, and social development through positive language input, use of language and activities to encourage children’s problem-solving skills, and positive discipline strategies.

The program consists of 90-minute individual sessions in the family’s home and lasts about 14 weeks.
SafeCare® Parents at risk for or with a history of child neglect and/or abuse In-home parenting program that targets risk factors for child neglect and physical abuse. Parents are taught (1) how to interact in a positive manner with their children, plan activities, and respond appropriately to challenging child behaviors; (2) how to recognize hazards in the home to improve the home environment; and (3) how to recognize and respond to children’s symptoms of illness and injury, in addition to keeping good health records.

18-20 weekly sessions of approximately 1-1.5 hours each
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Facilitate parents’ mastery of specific skills for interacting with their young children, such as understanding children’s signals, responding contingently, guiding children’s behavior, and using rich language.

Goals include increasing parents’ contingent responsiveness behaviors, rich language input, emotional/affective support, and ability to maintain the child’s focus of attention, and improving the child’s language, cognitive, and social outcomes.
It is recommended that a trained PALS II home visitor have at least an associate’s degree or higher in early childhood (or a related field) or work experience commensurate with that education. PALS II home visitors are supervised by a person with at least a bachelor’s degree in early childhood education or a related field with 3-5 years’ experience in parent education. Not specified CEBC: 3 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare
Goals are to reduce future incidents of child maltreatment, increase positive parent-child interaction, improve how parents care for their children’s health, and enhance home safety and parent supervision. A college education is preferred, but the most important qualification is that staff be trained to performance criteria. Not specified SafeCare® CEBC: 2 CEBC: High Child Welfare

SafeCare® [Home Visiting for Child Well-Being] CEBC: 3 CEBC: High Child Welfare
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Strengthening Families Program (SFP) Children ages 3-16 Family skills training program designed to increase resilience and reduce risk factors for behavioral, emotional, academic, and social problems

14 weekly 2-hour sessions
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Comprises three life-skills courses. The Parenting Skills sessions are designed to help parents learn to increase desired behaviors in children by using attention and rewards, clear communication, effective discipline, substance use education, problem solving, and limit setting. The Children’s Life Skills sessions are designed to help children learn effective communication, understand their feelings, improve social and problem-solving skills, resist peer pressure, understand the consequences of substance use, and comply with parental rules. In the Family Life Skills sessions, families engage in structured family activities, practice therapeutic child play, conduct family meetings, learn communication skills, practice effective discipline, reinforce positive behaviors in each other, and plan family activities together. Participation in ongoing family support groups and booster sessions is encouraged to increase generalization and use of skills learned. Not specified CD containing materials for one age group (3-5, 6-11, 7-17, or 12-16) costs $450 each (or is included in training fee).

Small agencies may find it economical to attend a training hosted by a nearby agency. Lutra Group, Inc., the entity that coordinates SFP training and technical assistance, can help in locating other trainings. Training in the United States is available in English and Spanish. Implementation requires a minimum of five trained staff: two group leaders for the parents, two group leaders for the children, and a site coordinator.
NREPP: 3.1
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP)* Parents dealing with frequently encountered challenges with their children (ages 0-12) that often result from autocratic parenting styles. Designed for use with parents facing typical parenting challenges; however, all the studies reviewed for this summary targeted families with an abusive parent, families at risk for parenting problems and child maltreatment, or families with a child receiving mental health treatment. Skills training that promotes a more participatory family structure by fostering responsibility, independence, and competence in children; improving communication between parents and children; and helping children learn from the natural and logical consequences of their own choices. Presented in a group format, with optimal group sizes ranging from 6 to 14 parents.

Typically taught in 8 or 9 weekly 1.5-hour study groups
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Four current versions of STEP: Early Childhood STEP for parents of children up to age 6; STEP for parents of children ages 6-12; STEP/Teen for parents of teens; and Spanish STEP, a complete translation of the STEP program for parents of children ages 6-12. Using the STEP multimedia kit, lessons are taught to parents on how to understand child behavior and misbehavior, practice positive listening, give encouragement (rather than praise), explore alternative parenting behaviors and express ideas and feelings, develop their child’s responsibilities, apply natural and logical consequences, convene family meetings, and develop their child’s confidence. Facilitated by a counselor, social worker, or individual who has participated in a STEP workshop. STEP kit costs $345 each.

Parent’s handbook costs $16.99 per participant (quantity discounts are available).
NREPP: 2.86
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT)* Children with a known trauma history who are experiencing significant PTSD symptoms, whether or not they meet full diagnostic criteria. In addition, children with depression, anxiety, and/or shame related to their traumatic exposure. Children experiencing childhood traumatic grief can also benefit from the treatment. Psychosocial treatment model designed to address traumatic experiences. Initially provides parallel individual sessions with children and their parents (or guardians), with conjoint parent-child sessions increasingly incorporated over the course of treatment.

Sessions are conducted once a week. Each session is 30-45 minutes for the child, 30-45 minutes for the parent. The conjoint child-parent sessions toward the end of treatment last approximately 30-45 minutes. Treatment lasts 12-18 sessions.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Goals include improving child PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms; improving child externalizing behavior problems (including sexual behavior problems if related to trauma); improving parenting skills and parental support of the child and reducing parental distress; enhancing parent-child communication, attachment, and ability to maintain safety; improving child’s adaptive functioning; and reducing shame and embarrassment related to the traumatic experiences.

Components include psychoeducation and parenting skills, relaxation techniques, affective expression and regulation, cognitive coping, trauma narrative and processing, in vivo exposure, conjoint parent-child sessions, and enhancing personal safety and future growth.

Provides services to children/adolescents that address feelings of shame, distorted beliefs about self and others, acting-out behavior problems, and PTSD and related symptoms.

Provides services to parents/caregivers that address inappropriate parenting practices and parental trauma-related emotional distress.
Master’s degree and training in the treatment model; experience working with children and families 10-hour online introductory training is free. 2- to 3-day onsite full clinical training (introductory and advanced training) varies depending on site needs. Consultation call twice a month for at least 6 months costs $200-$260 per hour. CEBC: 1 CEBC: High Child Welfare

NREPP: 3.72
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P) Preschool foster children ages 3-6 who exhibit a high level of disruptive and antisocial behavior and cannot be maintained in regular foster care or may be considered for residential treatment Foster care treatment model effective at promoting secure attachment in foster care and facilitating successful permanent placements. TFCO-P is delivered through a treatment team approach in which foster parents receive training and ongoing consultation and support.

For foster parent(s), the program typically entails a minimum of seven contacts per week that include five 10-minute contacts, one 2-hour group session, and additional contacts based on the amount of support or consultation required. For the child in treatment, the program includes two contacts per week that comprise a 2-hour therapeutic playgroup and a 2-hour skills training session. For the biological family or other long-term placement resource, the program includes one contact per week in the form of a 1-hour skill-building session. Designed with an overall treatment duration of 6-9 months.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Children receive individual skills training and participate in a therapeutic playgroup, and birth parents (or other permanent placement caregivers) receive family therapy. TFCO-P emphasizes the use of concrete encouragement for prosocial behavior; consistent, nonabusive limit setting to address disruptive behavior; and close supervision of the child. In addition, the TFCO-P intervention employs a developmental framework in which the challenges of foster preschoolers are viewed from the perspective of delayed maturation.

Goals include eliminating or reducing child problem behaviors; increasing developmentally appropriate normative and prosocial behavior in children; transitioning children to a birth family, adoptive family, or lower-level aftercare resource; improving children’s peer associations; improving parent-child interaction and communication; and improving children’s coping and social skills.
Program supervisors must have a master’s-level education and relevant experience in behavior management approaches.

Foster parent consultants/recruiters/trainers must have knowledge of foster parents and a clear understanding of the model. Prior experience as a foster/adoptive parent is strongly desirable.

Family therapists must have a master’s-level education. Knowledge of parent management training or related behaviorally based parenting techniques is highly desirable.

Playgroup leaders and skills trainers must have a bachelor’s-level education.
None noted CEBC: 2 CEBC: High Child Welfare
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Triple P-Positive Parenting Program® System (Triple P) Families with children ages 0-12, with extensions to families with teenagers ages 13-16 Triple P is a multitiered system of five levels of education and support for parents and caregivers of children and adolescents. Although Triple P can be used in parts (e.g., using only one level of the five or a group version versus the standard version), this entry on the CEBC reviews Triple P as a whole (i.e., using all five levels) in its standard version and includes only evidence from research that evaluated the whole system.

As a prevention program, Triple P helps parents learn strategies that promote social competence and self-regulation in children. Parents become better equipped to handle the stress of everyday childrearing, and children become better able to respond positively to their individual developmental challenges. As an early intervention, Triple P can assist families in greater distress by working with parents of children who are experiencing moderate to severe behavior problems. Throughout the program, parents are encouraged to develop a parenting plan that makes use of a variety of Triple P strategies and tools. Triple P practitioners are trained, therefore, to work with parents’ strengths and to provide a supportive, nonjudgmental environment in which parents can continually improve their parenting skills.

Level 1, Universal/Stay Positive, uses variable outreach strategies (Websites, parent newspaper, brochures, posters, and radio/TV spots) that are designed to reach the entire population at planned intervals.

Level 2, Selected Seminars/Selected Seminars Teen, includes three 2-hour seminars that may be offered as standalone events or together in a series, and brief primary care, which consists of one to two brief consultations lasting up to 30 minutes.

Level 3, Primary Care/Primary Care Teen/Primary Care Stepping Stones, consists of one to four brief consultations lasting approximately 30 minutes each and four 2-hour discussion groups that may be offered as standalone events or together in a series.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
The overall goal of Triple P is to prevent development or worsening of severe behavioral, emotional, and developmental problems in children and adolescents by enhancing the knowledge, skills, and confidence of parents. Practitioners are trained to create a supportive learning environment in which parents receive and discuss practical information about parenting skills that they can incorporate into everyday interactions with their children. Specific expected outcomes include increasing parents’ competence in promoting healthy development and managing common behavior problems and developmental issues; reducing parents’ use of coercive and punitive methods of disciplining children; increasing parents’ use of positive parenting strategies in managing their children’s behavior; increasing parents’ confidence in raising their children; decreasing child behavior problems (for families experiencing difficult child behavior); improving parenting partners’ communication about parenting issues; and reducing parenting stress associated with raising children.

Level 1 is a comprehensive media campaign and distribution strategy for delivering positive parenting information to all families within a given community.

Level 2 interventions are delivered to parents through low-intensity seminars or single-session meetings. Level 3 interventions are brief in duration (one to four sessions) and focus on identifying and resolving commonly encountered behavior problems in childhood.

Level 3 interventions may be offered in a variety of settings that parents naturally visit.
Formal training on each of the five program levels is available to organizations implementing this program.

Provider training courses are usually offered to practitioners with a post-high school degree in health, education, child care, or social services. In exceptional circumstances, this requirement is relaxed when the prospective practitioners are actively involved in “hands-on” roles dealing with the targeted parents, children, and teenagers. These particular practitioners have developed, through their workplace experience, some knowledge of child/adolescent development and/or have experience working with families.
Parent workbooks cost $20-$32 per participant. Positive parenting booklets cost $6.50 per participant. Parenting tip sheets cost $8-$11 for a set of 10.

2- to 3-day onsite training and half-day follow-up training (includes session fidelity checklists and pre-and post-test assessment measures) costs $21,415-$26,195 per site for up to 20 practitioners, depending on their level of training.

Costs are based on preparing a site to serve 100,000 families: Level 2, $160,300; Level 3, $537,900 (includes $66,800 for preaccreditation cost); Level 4, $301,000 (includes $33,400 for preaccreditation cost); Level 4 (Standard), $210,700 (includes $23,380 for preaccreditation cost); Level 4 (Standard Stepping Stones), $32,155 (includes $3,340 for preaccreditation cost);
CEBC: 2 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare

NREPP: 2.93

Blueprints: Promising
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Level 4 can consist of a variety of options: (1) Group/Group Teen/Group Stepping Stones, which includes five 2-hour group sessions and three 20-minute individual telephone consultations for each family, offered over 8 consecutive weeks; (2) Triple P Online, which comprises eight self-paced online modules; (3) a self-directed workbook, which is self-paced; or (4) Standard/Standard Teen/Standard Stepping Stones, which comprises ten 1-hour sessions that occur weekly.

Level 5 can consist of a variety of options: (1) Enhanced, which consists of three to ten 60- to 90-minute sessions; (2) Pathways, which includes four sessions lasting 60-90 minutes each when offered individually or 2 hours each when offered in group format; (3) Family Transitions, which consists of ten 2-hour group sessions plus two individual telephone consultations for each family lasting 30 minutes; or (4) Group Lifestyle, which consists of ten 90-minute group sessions plus four individual telephone consultations for each family lasting 30 minutes.

Level 1 may be planned for intermittent distribution of materials throughout the course of Levels 2-5. Level 1 is typically planned as a 3-year intervention; Levels 2-3 may include one to four encounters that take place over 1-6 weeks; Levels 4-5 typically take place over 4-5 months. If accommodations are needed (e.g., low-literacy clients), the duration may be longer.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
Level 4 interventions are delivered in eight to ten sessions and offer parents a more comprehensive set of strategies for improving family functioning and parent-child relationships in any situation. The interventions have sufficient impact to address moderate to severe behavior problems in children. Level 5 interventions offer further support for parents with specific risk factors (e.g., families at high risk for child maltreatment, families going through a divorce or separation, or families with overweight or obese children) or for parents with continuing needs following a Level 4 intervention.

Directly provides services to parents/caregivers that address management of child behavior problems; management of stress, mild to moderate depression symptoms, anxiety, and anger; parenting partner conflict; and negative attributional thinking.
Trainers are master’s- or doctorate-level professionals (mainly clinical or educational psychologists) who are practitioners (Triple P providers) trained to implement Triple P programs with the parents with whom they work. Professionals invited to become Triple P trainers undergo an intensive 2-week training program. Level 5, $81,740. Total for training and preaccreditation workshops is $1,323,795. Implementation resources cost $723,598 (including freight and handling).

To summarize the above costs, which represent the year-1 investment in a Triple P program serving 100,000 families: training courses, $1,323,795; implementation costs, $723,598; Stay Positive communications campaign, $320,000; total year-1 cost, $2,367,393. The total dollar value of $2,367,393 represents a cost of $23.67 per family in a community serving 100,000 families.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Program Name Target Population Intervention Description
Triple P-Positive Parenting Program® Level 4 (Level 4 Triple P) For parents and caregivers of children and adolescents with moderate to severe behavioral and/or emotional difficulties or for parents that are motivated to gain a more in-depth understanding of positive parenting. Level 4 Triple P is applicable to parents of children and adolescents ages 0-12. Level 4 Triple P helps parents learn strategies that promote social competence and self-regulation in children as well as decrease problem behavior. Parents are encouraged to develop a parenting plan that makes use of a variety of Level 4 Triple P strategies and tools. Parents are then asked to practice their parenting plan with their children. During the course of the program, parents are encouraged to keep track of their children’s behavior, as well as their own behavior, and to reflect on what is working with their parenting plan and what is not working so well. They then work with their practitioner to fine tune their plan. Level 4 Triple P practitioners are trained to work with parents’ strengths and to provide a supportive, nonjudgmental environment in which parents can continually improve their parenting skills. Level 4 Triple P is offered in several different formats (e.g., individual, group, self-directed, online). The CEBC evaluated the standard version of Level 4 Triple P as described above and no other variations (including early teen versions or those for children with developmental delays).

The program has a variety of delivery options: (1) three group versions that include five 2-hour group sessions and three 20-minute individual telephone consultations for each family offered over 8 consecutive weeks; (2) an online version that comprises eight self-paced online modules; (3) a self-directed workbook, which is self-paced; or (4) three individual or standard versions consisting of ten 1-hour weekly sessions.

Program interventions typically take place over 2-3 months. If accommodations are needed (e.g., low-literacy clients), the duration may be longer.

*Program that is not mentioned in the report text.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Targeted Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Qualifications of Staff Cost Rating
The aim is to prevent worsening of severe behavioral, emotional, and developmental problems in children and adolescents by enhancing the knowledge, skills, and confidence of parents. Practitioners are trained to create a supportive learning environment in which parents receive and discuss practical information about parenting skills they can incorporate into everyday interactions with their children. Specific expected outcomes include increasing parents’ competence in promoting healthy development and managing common behavior problems and developmental issues; reducing parents’ use of coercive and punitive methods of disciplining children; increasing parents’ use of positive parenting strategies in managing their children’s behavior; increasing parents’ confidence in raising their children; decreasing child behavior problems (for families experiencing difficult child behavior); improving parenting partners’ communication about parenting issues; and reducing parenting stress associated with raising children.

Provides services to parents/caregivers that address parents with children with moderate to severe behavior problems, significant difficulty managing these behaviors, and lack of positive parenting skills. Typically includes management of stress, mild to moderate depression symptoms, anxiety, and anger; parenting partner conflict; and negative attributional thinking.
Level 4 Triple P provider training courses are usually offered to practitioners with a post-high school degree in health, education, child care, or social services. In exceptional circumstances, this requirement is relaxed when the prospective practitioners are actively involved in “hands-on” roles dealing with the targeted parents, children, and teenagers. These particular practitioners have developed, through their workplace experience, some knowledge of child/adolescent development and/or have experience working with families. None noted CEBC: 1 CEBC: Medium Child Welfare
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21868.
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Next: Appendix D: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members »
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Decades of research have demonstrated that the parent-child dyad and the environment of the family—which includes all primary caregivers—are at the foundation of children’s well- being and healthy development. From birth, children are learning and rely on parents and the other caregivers in their lives to protect and care for them. The impact of parents may never be greater than during the earliest years of life, when a child’s brain is rapidly developing and when nearly all of her or his experiences are created and shaped by parents and the family environment. Parents help children build and refine their knowledge and skills, charting a trajectory for their health and well-being during childhood and beyond. The experience of parenting also impacts parents themselves. For instance, parenting can enrich and give focus to parents’ lives; generate stress or calm; and create any number of emotions, including feelings of happiness, sadness, fulfillment, and anger.

Parenting of young children today takes place in the context of significant ongoing developments. These include: a rapidly growing body of science on early childhood, increases in funding for programs and services for families, changing demographics of the U.S. population, and greater diversity of family structure. Additionally, parenting is increasingly being shaped by technology and increased access to information about parenting.

Parenting Matters identifies parenting knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with positive developmental outcomes in children ages 0-8; universal/preventive and targeted strategies used in a variety of settings that have been effective with parents of young children and that support the identified knowledge, attitudes, and practices; and barriers to and facilitators for parents’ use of practices that lead to healthy child outcomes as well as their participation in effective programs and services. This report makes recommendations directed at an array of stakeholders, for promoting the wide-scale adoption of effective programs and services for parents and on areas that warrant further research to inform policy and practice. It is meant to serve as a roadmap for the future of parenting policy, research, and practice in the United States.

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