National Academies Press: OpenBook

Improving Freight System Performance in Metropolitan Areas: A Planning Guide (2015)

Chapter: Appendix - Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Software

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Software." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Improving Freight System Performance in Metropolitan Areas: A Planning Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22159.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Software." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Improving Freight System Performance in Metropolitan Areas: A Planning Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22159.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Software." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Improving Freight System Performance in Metropolitan Areas: A Planning Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22159.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Software." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Improving Freight System Performance in Metropolitan Areas: A Planning Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22159.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Software." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Improving Freight System Performance in Metropolitan Areas: A Planning Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22159.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Software." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Improving Freight System Performance in Metropolitan Areas: A Planning Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22159.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix - Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Software." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Improving Freight System Performance in Metropolitan Areas: A Planning Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22159.
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A-1 The Freight Trip Generation (FTG) software applies FTG models developed by the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) at the zip code and 2-digit NAICS code levels. This software is bro- ken up into three modules. The first module preprocesses the “County Business Pattern” data obtained from the Bureau of the Census and generates a database with information at a zip code and 2-digit NAICS code level. The second module applies the FTG models and produces estimations of freight trip attraction (FTA) and production (FTP). Finally, the third module allows modifying the coefficients used in the estimation of FTG models. Advanced features in the software include applying four types of models and the option of selecting a set or a range of zip codes to be analyzed. This software is available to download from https://coe-sufs.org/wordpress/ftgsoftware. The balance of this Appendix presents the user manual for Version 3.1. A P P E N D I X Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Software The FTG software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstances will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively “TRB”) be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

A-2 Improving Freight System Performance in Metropolitan Areas: A Planning Guide Manual for Freight Trip Generation Software Table of Contents Database Information ........................................................................................... A-3 Freight Trip Generation Estimator Home Page ..................................................... A-3 Module 1: Zip Code Business Pattern Input Data Preparation ............................. A-4 Module 2: Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Models ................................................. A-5 Zip Code Filter ................................................................................................... A-6 Module 3: Modify Default FTA and FTP Coefficients………………………………………….A-7 Additional Information..………………………………….…….………………………………………….A-9 Initial Data Collection Assessment……………………………….……..…………………………….A-9 Initiative Selector..…………………………………………………..……….…………………………….A-10 Evaluation Matrices for Public Sector Initiatives……...……….…………………………….A-11

Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Software A-3 Database Information Download County Business Patterns Data, for the year you need. File type: “Complete Zip Code Industry Detail File” Website: http://www.census.gov/econ/cbp/download/ Open the file in WordPad and save it as text file with an appropriate name, which would be used for Zip Code Business Pattern Input Data. Make sure the data corresponds to Zip and NAICS code and that it comes in a single line. Freight Trip Generation Estimator Home Page Purpose: This is the home page, which breaks up the program into three parts. 1) The first part of the program is the Zip Code Business Pattern Input Data, which takes in information from the raw database to reformat the text file. 2) The second part is the Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Models, which uses the saved text file from the first part to estimate FTG using one of the four models the user can select. 3) Module 3 is used to modify the default FTA and FTP coefficients, which are used when estimating the FTG Models 1 2 3

A-4 Improving Freight System Performance in Metropolitan Areas: A Planning Guide Module 1: Zip Code Business Pattern Input Data Preparation Purpose: Takes the information from raw database and generates a new database containing only NAICS 2 digit level information for which ‘Freight Trips Generation’ can be estimated. The data corresponding to 2 digit NAICS code is saved as new text file to estimate FTG in further steps. Process: 1. Load File: Input the raw database so it can be pre processed by clicking the load file button and then browse for the saved raw database and open the input file saved from WordPad. 2. Save File: Need to save a file that would be exported from the program by clicking the save file button and then enter an appropriate file name (the default extension for saving the exported file is .txt, so you do not have to add it in the save dialog box) 3. Generate Database: After loading and entering the appropriate file names when you click ‘Save File’, click on the ‘Generate Filtered Database’ button to run the program and create a new text file with pre processed data. 2 3 1

Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Software A-5 Module 2: Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Models Purpose: To estimate the Freight Trip Generation Models.(FTG) FTG is the summation of Freight Trip Attraction (FTA) and Freight Trip Production (FTP) models. The output of the software will include two new columns added to the file loaded: FTA and FTP. Run any one of the four different types of models in the program to calculate and analyze data depending on what you want to analyze. Process: A. Load File: Input the preprocessed database so it can generate freight trips by clicking this button and then browse saved output from preprocessing. B. Save File: Need to save a file that would be exported from the program by clicking this button and then enter an appropriate file name (the default extension for saving the exported file is .txt, so that you do not have to add it in the save dialog box). C. Select a Type of Model: This drop down menu is used to select which model to apply in the program. The equations available in the FTG are as follows: 1. Independent FTA and FTP This a default model in the program, which calculates FTA and FTP, it creates two new columns for each line of output in a new text file 2. Binary Logit Model Outputs a corrected FTP by calculating the probability from an equation that depends on the NAICS code and FTA and multiply it by the FTP 3. Simple Shares Outputs a corrected FTP by using a default probability value that depends on the NAICS code and multiply it by FTP 4. User Defined Outputs a corrected FTP by using a probability value you would input in the text box below the drop down box and multiply it by FTP D. Probability Value: Only applies for the User Defined model, where you have to input a probability value. E. Assume FTA and FTP are Equal to One Per Establishment Checkbox: If the FTA and FTP are equal to zero then FTA and FTP are equal to the establishments F. Use Custom Coefficients of FTA and FTP: This allows you to input your own custom FTA and FTP coefficients to use for the models, instead of using the default coefficients. Read “Input Custom FTA and FTP Coefficients” for more information. G. Use Zip Code Filter: Allows you to add a zip code filter to specify which zip codes the user wants to analyze (for more information read page A-6)

A-6 Improving Freight System Performance in Metropolitan Areas: A Planning Guide H. Input Custom FTA and FTP Coefficients: For uploading custom coefficients text files, so the program will use these coefficients rather than the default ones. Read “Input Custom FTA and FTP Coefficients” for more information. I. Run FTGModels: This will run the program and output the calculations Zip Code Filter Purpose: This filter is a useful tool to be able to select and analyze certain Zip Codes. Listed below are different methods you can use to filter information using Zip codes: Use a Custom Zip Code Filter Enter a range of Zip Codes to filter Analyze by state 1. Custom Zip Code Filter: You are able to import the provided zip code list or a custom zip code list by clicking the load custom filter button. This custom zip code list must be a text file and have the same format as the example below, with commas and spaces dividing the zip codes and the words “Zip A B F E C G H I D Codes” at the beginning of the document.

Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Software A-7 2. Select a State to Analyze: Where you are able to select any of the 50 states from the drop down list and the program will only analyze the Zip Codes that are in the provided state you have selected. 3. Range: This function allows to output database corresponding to zip codes between the ranges that you have entered and by clicking the “enter the range” button, so the program knows you want to use the range function. Enter the min and max values and there is no need to include the zero’s at the beginning of the zip code. For example if a value you want to input is “00640”, you should just input 640. 4. Reset Filter: Resets the filter to the orginal settings. Module 3: Modify Default FTA and FTP Coef�icients Purpose: To be able to modify the default coefficient values, which are used in Module 2. This allows the user to make corrections to the coefficients in a seamless way. You are able to add and delete coefficients from the default values, allowing you to modify and use it in Module 2. 2 1 3 4 A. Select Coefficient Type: Select what type of coefficient you like to modify B. Select Command: Select what type of action to perform on the default coefficients Add To add to the default list, you have to enter a NAICS code with its respective establishment and employment (Step C, D, E and F) Delete To delete a NAICS code from the list, you have to enter in the NAICS code (Step C and F) C. NAICS code: Input NAICS Code you which to add or remove from the current list

A-8 Improving Freight System Performance in Metropolitan Areas: A Planning Guide E. Employment Coefficient: Enter this value if you wish to add a NAICS code to the default list F. ADD or DELETE: Click on the button to add or delete a NAICS Code with its respected coefficients from the list G. Set up My Default: Allows you to create a saved file that you are able to upload to default list H. Open My Default: Upload the saved file to the current coefficient list I. Restore Coefficient Values: This is the original coefficient value that can restore the default list to the original values A B C D E G H I F D. Establishment Coefficient: Enter this value if you wish to add a NAICS code to the default list

Additional Information A-9 Additional Information The next sections of the Appendix provide additional information not directly part of the FTG User Manual. Initial Data Collection Assessment This part of the Appendix provides additional information not directly part of the FTG User Manual. Sample data collection needs and assessment tasks that may be associated by groups of initiatives discussed in this Guide. Initiative/ Freight Problem Area Data Collection Needed Assessment and Analysis Infrastructure Management • Roadway, intermodal and modal facilities inventory, including traffic counts and capacity • Origin/Destination of travel • Condition of infrastructure, in- cluding related roadway geometrics • Level of Service, Volume to Capacity by time of day; pavement ratings; types of vehicles using the facility • Infrastructure condition • Locations of freight generators (shippers and receivers) Parking/Loading Areas Management • Number and locations of on- and off-street parking spaces and use • Number and location dedicated to trucks and delivery zones, including time restrictions • Number of parking violations • Design and access to loading docks • Parking-related regulations and enforcement • Freight-trip generation • Parking analysis: needs and availability • Focus on freight generator and receivers, such as retail establishments Vehicle-Related Strategies • Vehicle emissions and noise regulations • Number of low-emission freight vehicles registered in region • Air quality data • Noise data • Comparison of air and noise regulations and incentives to other parts of US and abroad • Analysis of incentive programs available Traffic Management • Summary of freight vehicle restrictions in the region • Location of truck routes • Location of roadways with and without signal timing • Congestion analysis including intermodal connection access issues, and identification of problem locations Pricing, Incentives, and Taxation • Current freight-related regulations, taxation, and incentive programs in the region • Analysis (possibly through private- sector interviews/surveys) of the impact of these to local businesses Logistical Management • Locations and volume of freight coming from, and going to businesses, industries and manufacturing in the region • Summary of current ITS programs operating in the region • Freight-trip generation locational analysis • Origin destination analysis • Congestion and mobility study, including time-of-day analysis Freight Demand/Land Use Management • Current land use map and regulations • Locations and volume of freight coming from, and going to businesses, industries and manufacturing in the region • Freight-trip generation locational analysis • Origin destination analysis • Congestion and mobility study including time-of-day analysis

A-10 Improving Freight System Performance in Metropolitan Areas: A Planning Guide Initiative Selector The Initiative Selector is an HTML webpage that, for a given set of inputs, return suggestions of potential initiatives that could be implemented for a given problem. The Initiative Selector can be found at http://coe-sufs.org/wordpress/InitiativeSelector/. Figure A-1 shows an example screen from the Initiative Selector. On the left side of the screen there are three categories a user can choose from: (1) Nature of the Problem, (2) Geographic Scope, and (3) Problem Source. The user can select multiple choices for each criterion. As the user enters their criteria identifying the problem, the table in the center of screen is populated with possible initiatives that could be used to solve the problem, along with some key identifiers about the initiative, such as the investment level, length of time for implementation, risk of unintended consequences, and the group and sub-group the initiative belongs to. Figure A-1: Sample output from the Initiative Selector tool Consider the following examples: 1. A neighborhood in an urban area has a large concentration of restaurants and retail establishments (mixed large and small). Currently, the area experiences a high level of congestion due to the number of deliveries made, and delivery vehicles double-parked. • Initiatives suggested (for a Congestion problem, impacting an Area, and produced by Urban Deliveries) are: urban consolidation centers, time slotting of deliveries/pick-ups for large traffic generators, staggered work hours program, and mode shift program. 2. A large volume of freight traffic generated at City A travels to City B but has to cross City C. The traffic uses corridor XYZ which passes through City C. As a result, City C is experiencing congestion due to this through traffic. In addition, the traffic is damaging the city roads.

Additional Information A-11 • Initiatives suggested (for a Congestion problem, impacting a corridor, and produced by Through traffic) are: Ring Roads, Acceleration/Deceleration Lanes, New and Upgraded Roads 3. An intersection in a city has a poor level of service due to a high volume of large trucks. The intersection was designed before a number of warehouses and manufacturing facilities expanded operations. Quite often, these trucks hit utility poles and create unsafe situations • Initiatives suggested (for a Congestion problem, impacting a point, and produced by large trucks) are: removal of intersection constraints, Truck Routes, New and Upgraded Infrastructure These examples demonstrate how the Initiative Selector can lead to a range of sensible recommendations. Obviously, further planning, stakeholder engagement, economic and engineering studies are needed to identify the best way(s) to proceed in any given situation. The alternatives identified using the Guide must be subjected to a rigorous process of vetting and analysis by all key stakeholders, which will provide feedback concerning the relative worthiness and effectiveness of the alternatives, and possibly additional initiatives to consider. Evaluation Matrices for Public Sector Initiatives This section presents a decision matrix for the identified public sector initiatives proposed in this Planning Guide based on inputs identified in Section A. The key inputs to produce such matrices should at least include: • Geographic scope of the problem: This output should define the area(s) where the problem is taking place, which will help define the scope of the potential public sector initiative, such as: citywide, area, corridor, or a point in the city. Again, when defining the geographic scope, it should be recognized that supply chains often interconnect wide geographic areas. • Main objectives to be achieved: It is necessary to clarify the nature of problem, and define corresponding objectives, such as reduction of congestion, pollution, and conflicts between truck activity and other users. • Key constraints: The analyst should have a preliminary estimate of the financial, time, and institutional constraints to which the initiatives will be subject. • Root causes of the problem: The analyst must confirm that the problem is indeed produced by freight activity, and determine which segment of the industry is creating the situation, such as: all or through traffic, large traffic generators (LTGs), urban deliveries, large trucks, or specific industry segments. It is also important to define the time-duration of the problem, such as during: a peak hour, a peak period lasting several hours, daytime, nighttime, or an entire 24-hour period. As discussed previously, identifying the sources and duration of the problem may require further analyses involving freight-trip generation techniques, traffic counts, or interviews with key stakeholders. The more thorough this analysis, the more likely it is that appropriate solutions can be identified. Based on these inputs, a preliminary set of potential initiatives could be identified by scanning Table A-1 and Table A-2, which show summary matrices of the wide spectrum of initiatives.

A-12 Improving Freight System Performance in Metropolitan Areas: A Planning Guide Table A-1. Decision matrix for supply-related initiatives. Initiative Geography: Nation, State, City, Corridor, Area, Point Investment : Very High, High, Moderate, Low, None Implentati on time: Long, Medium, Short Target: Through Traffic, Urban Deliveries, Large Traffic Generators, All Traffic, Large Trucks Major impacts: Congestion, Pollution, Noise, Inadequate Infrastructure, Safety, Land Use Potential for unintended consequences: Very High, High, Moderate, Low, None Ring roads for through traffic Co VH L TT C H New and upgraded infrastructure Co VH L AT II/S M Freight clusters (freight villages) C VH L LTG II/C/P/LU M/L Acceleration/deceleration lanes Co H / L M AT II L Removal of intersection P H / L S AT II L/N Ramps for handcarts and forklifts P L S UD II L/N Parking places and loading zones Co L S LTG/UD/AT II L Loading time restrictions P L S AT C H Peak-hour clearways Co L S AT C M Parking reservation systems P M S LTG II L Enhanced building codes C/A L M LTG/UD II L Timeshare of parking space P L S LTG/UD II L Upgrade parking/loading areas P H S LTG/UD II L Improved staging areas P/A H M LTG/UD II M Truck stops/parking outside C VH M UD/AT/LT C M Emission standards N L M AT P L Delivery programs/regulations C H / L M AT N/P L Vehicle size and weight C/A L S AT C H Truck routes C/A L S LT C H Low emission zones A L S AT/LT P H Engine-related restrictions A L S AT P H Load factor restrictions A L S AT C H Daytime delivery restrictions A L S AT/LT C H Daytime delivery bans A L S AT/LT C H Nighttime delivery bans A L S AT N H Restricted multi-use lanes A L S AT/LT II L/N Exclusive truck lanes Co L S LT C L/N Traffic control Co L S AT C L/N Off-Street Parking and Loading INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT Major Improvements Minor Improvements PARKING / LOADING AREAS MANAGEMENT On-Street Parking and Loading VEHICLE RELATED STRATEGIES TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Access Restrictions Time Access Restrictions Traffic Control and Lane Management Notes: Geography: N: Nation, S: State, C: City, Co: Corridor, A: Area, P: Point, Po: Ports. Investment: VH: Very High, H: High, M: Moderate, L: Low, N: None. Implementation time: L: Long, M: Medium, S: Short. Target: TT: Through Traffic, UD: Urban Deliveries, LTG: Large Traffic Generators, AT: All Traffic, LT: Large Trucks. Major impacts: C: Congestion, P: Pollution, N: Noise, II: Inadequate Infrastructure, S: Safety, LU: Land Use. Potential for unintended consequences: VH: Very High, H: High, M: Moderate, L: Low, N: None.

Additional Information A-13 Table A-2. Decision matrix for demand-related initiatives. Initiative Geography: Nation, State, City, Corridor, Area, Point Investment : Very High, High, Moderate, Low, None Implentati on time: Long, Medium, Short Target: Through Traffic, Urban Deliveries, Large Traffic Generators, All Traffic, Large Trucks Major impacts: Congestion, Pollution, Noise, Inadequate Infrastructure, Safety, Land Use Potential for unintended consequences: Very High, High, Moderate, Low, None PRICING, INCENTIVES AND TAXATION Road pricing C/A M M AT/LT C L Parking pricing C/A L/N M/S AT/LT C L/N Recognition programs C/A L/N M/S AT/LT P L/N Certification programs N/C/A L/N M/L AT/LT P L/N Operational incentives for E/LEV N/C VH/H M AT/LT P/N L/N Taxation N/C VH/H M AT/LT P/N L/N Urban consolidation centers A H M UD C L/N Real-time information systems C/A VH/H M AT C L/N Vertical height detection systems C/A VH/H M AT/LT II L/N Dynamic routing C/A VH/H M AT C/S L/N Time slotting of deliveries C/A L M/S LTG/UD C L/N Driver training programs N/A M M AT P L/N Anti-idling programs C/A M M/S LT P L/N Pick-up/delivery to alt. locations A L M/S AT/LT C L/N Voluntary off-hour delivery C/A H/M M UD/LTG C L/N Staggered work hours program C/A H/L M UD/LTG C L/N Receiver-led consolidation A H/L M LTG C L/N Mode shift program C/A H/L M UD C L/N Relocation of large traffic generators C/A VH/H L/M LTG LU VH/H Integrating freight into land use planning process C/A L M/L UD/AT LU L Land use policy Incentives LOGISTICAL MANAGEMENT Last mile delivery practices FREIGHT DEMAND / LAND USE MANAGEMENT Freight demand management Intelligent transportation systems Notes: Geography: N: Nation, S: State, C: City, Co: Corridor, A: Area, P: Point, Po: Ports. Investment: VH: Very High, H: High, M: Moderate, L: Low, N: None. Implementation time: L: Long, M: Medium, S: Short. Target: TT: Through Traffic, UD: Urban Deliveries, LTG: Large Traffic Generators, AT: All Traffic, LT: Large Trucks. Major impacts: C: Congestion, P: Pollution, N: Noise, II: Inadequate Infrastructure, S: Safety, LU: Land Use. Potential for unintended consequences: VH: Very High, H: High, M: Moderate, L: Low, N: None.

Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation

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TRB’s National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) Report 33: Improving Freight System Performance in Metropolitan Areas: A Planning Guide outlines potential strategies and practical solutions for public and private stakeholders to improve freight movement system performance in diverse metropolitan areas.

The report includes links to an Initiative Selector tool to aid in the selection of possible alternatives for various problems, and Freight Trip Generation (FTG) software that planners can use to identify main locations where freight is an issue. A brochure summarizing the report and tools is also available.

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