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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E F R E I G H T R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCFRP REPORT 31 Subscriber Categories Design • Freight Transportation • Planning and Forecasting Incorporating Truck Analysis into the Highway Capacity Manual Richard Dowling Kittelson and associates, inc. Oakland, CA George List Bo Yang institute for transportation research and education north carolina state university Raleigh, NC Erika Witzke cambridge systematics, inc. Chicago, IL Aimee Flannery WorKing energy enterprises, llc Arlington, VA TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2014 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM America’s freight transportation system makes critical contributions to the nation’s economy, security, and quality of life. The freight transportation system in the United States is a complex, decentralized, and dynamic network of private and public entities, involving all modes of transportation—trucking, rail, waterways, air, and pipelines. In recent years, the demand for freight transportation service has been increasing fueled by growth in international trade; however, bottlenecks or congestion points in the system are exposing the inadequacies of current infrastructure and operations to meet the growing demand for freight. Strategic operational and investment decisions by governments at all levels will be necessary to maintain freight system performance, and will in turn require sound technical guidance based on research. The National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) is a cooperative research program sponsored by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology under Grant No. DTOS59- 06-G-00039 and administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB). The program was authorized in 2005 with the passage of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). On September 6, 2006, a contract to begin work was executed between the Research and Innovative Technology Admin- istration, which is now the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, and The National Academies. The NCFRP will carry out applied research on problems facing the freight industry that are not being adequately addressed by existing research programs. Program guidance is provided by an Oversight Committee comprised of a representative cross section of freight stakeholders appointed by the National Research Council of The National Academies. The NCFRP Oversight Committee meets annually to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Research problem statements recommending research needs for consideration by the Oversight Committee are solicited annually, but may be submitted to TRB at any time. Each selected project is assigned to a panel, appointed by TRB, which provides technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. Heavy emphasis is placed on including members representing the intended users of the research products. The NCFRP will produce a series of research reports and other products such as guidebooks for practitioners. Primary emphasis will be placed on disseminating NCFRP results to the intended end-users of the research: freight shippers and carriers, service providers, suppliers, and public officials. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCFRP REPORT 31 Project NCFRP-41 ISSN 1947-5659 ISBN 978-0-309-28431-8 Library of Congress Control Number 2014946498 © 2014 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, or PHMSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Freight Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Freight Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of the following people to this project: • Kent Taylor, NCDOT – Provided WIM data. • Brian Menyuk, NYSDOT – Facilitated the acquisition of NY-7 freeway data and Hoosick Street data. • Michael Burke, NYSDOT – Provided the NY-7 freeway data and Hoosick Street data. • Guillermo Ramos, NYSDOT – Provided the NY-7 freeway data and Hoosick Street data. In addition, we would like to acknowledge the contributions of the following research team members to this project: • Dr. Nagui Rouphail – ITRE – Assisted with the HCM testing. • Dr. Bastian Schroeder – ITRE – Provided simulation support. • Dr. Senanu Ashiabor – Processed the FHWA freight analysis framework data. • Dr. Vasin Kiattikomol – Assisted in conducting the signal PCE research. • Chirag Safi – Assisted in conducting the signal PCE research. • Dr. Alexander Skabardonis – Conducted the signal PCE research. CRP STAFF FOR NCFRP REPORT 31 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs B. Ray Derr, Senior Program Officer Andréa Parker, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Andréa Briere, Editor NCFRP PROJECT 41 PANEL Freight Research Projects F. Thomas Creasey, Stantec, Lexington, KY (Chair) Ted Dahlburg, Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission, Philadelphia, PA Rebekah Karasko, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington, TX Douglas D. MacIvor, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Mitsuru Saito, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT Jin Wang, Atkins, San Francisco, CA Quon Kwan, FMCSA Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison

This report presents capacity and level-of-service techniques that (1) improve transpor- tation agencies’ abilities to plan, design, manage, and operate streets and highways to serve trucks and (2) better evaluate the effects of trucks on other modes of transportation and vice versa. These techniques are being incorporated into the Highway Capacity Manual, but will be immediately useful to planners and designers working on projects with significant truck traffic. In 2009, trucks moved 10.9 billion tons of freight; by 2040, trucks are expected to move 18.4 billion tons of freight (FHWA, Freight Facts and Figures 2010). The growth in trucking can be attributed to a number of factors including changes in population and employment; the modal shift of freight to trucks from other modes; and changes in the economy and business practices that affect the freight transportation system. Transportation decisions should facilitate and account for freight flows, but analysts lack the tools needed to evaluate them. The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) is a fundamental reference for the operational analysis of streets and highways. While the 1950 HCM was focused on automobile traffic, later editions have incorporated research that has been conducted on pedestrians, bicy- clists, and transit users. The 2010 HCM, however, largely considers trucks only as they impact other travelers. Incorporation of truck analysis into the HCM will help transpor- tation agencies address the freight and highway needs of their community, region, state, and nation. In NCFRP Project 41, a research team of Kittelson and Associates (prime), Cambridge Systematics, Working Energy Enterprises, and the Institute for Transportation Research and Education at North Carolina State University took a comprehensive approach to addressing this issue. In addition to a literature review, federal, state, regional, and local agencies were contacted to document the state of the practice. Carriers and shippers were interviewed to determine the critical factors that affect logistical decisions. Based on the insights from these activities, the research team developed a truck level- of-service framework. This framework was refined through two workshops with a wide variety of public transportation agency staff to ensure that it would be useful in their work, particularly in evaluating the impacts of system improvements on goods move- ments. The utility of this framework was demonstrated through the development of three case studies. The research team then collected field data and calibrated simulation models on freeways and arterials. These models were used to develop improved methods of estimating perfor- mance measures for trucks and other vehicles. This effort did determine that both the cur- F O R E W O R D By B. Ray Derr Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

rent HCM methodology and the new methodology are not reliable for long, steep grades. Follow-on research to develop a better freeway methodology for these conditions has been funded by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). The report includes several recommendations for improvements to the HCM, and these are being considered in NCHRP Project 03-115, which is updating the HCM for expected publication in 2015.

1 Section 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Problem Statement 1 1.2 Research Objective and Products 2 1.3 Approach 4 1.4 Relationship to Reliability Research Projects 5 Section 2 State of Public Agency Practice 5 2.1 Federal Agency Practice 6 2.2 State Agencies 7 2.3 Multi-Regional Agencies 7 2.4 Regional and Local Agencies 9 2.5 Findings from Public Agencies Survey 10 2.6 Conclusions from State of Practice Review 11 Section 3 Truck Carrier and Shipper Perspectives 11 3.1 Background 12 3.2 Approach and Methodology 14 3.3 Shipper Carrier Surveys 19 3.4 Findings from Shipper Carrier Survey 23 3.5 A Model to Quantify Quality-of-Service Perceptions 27 3.6 Conclusions on Carrier and Shipper Perceptions 28 Section 4 Literature Review 28 4.1 Critique of the HCM 2010 37 4.2 International Practice 44 4.3 Conclusions of Literature Review 46 Section 5 Recommended HCM Truck Classification Scheme 47 5.1 Existing National Truck Classification Schemes 52 5.2 Other Classification Schemes 53 5.3 HCM Vehicle Classification 54 5.4 Determinants of Truck Performance in a Traffic Stream 55 5.5 Data Collection Considerations 56 5.6 Trucking/Shipping Industry Perspectives 56 5.7 Recommended NCFRP Project 41 HCM Truck Classification Scheme 59 Section 6 Truck Level-of-Service Framework 59 6.1 Establishing a Facility’s Freight Importance Class 60 6.2 Derivation of LOS Model 1 64 6.3 Derivation of Model 2 67 6.4 Streamlined Utility Model (Model 2) 67 6.5 Logistic Formulation with Truck Friendliness (Model 3) 70 6.6 Reliability and Friendliness (Model 4) C O N T E N T S

71 6.7 Results of Review by Public Agencies 71 6.8 Recommended Truck LOS Model 72 Section 7 Truck Level-of-Service Case Studies 72 7.1 Study Site 1—California Class I Interstate Freeway 75 7.2 Study Site 2—Virginia Class I Interregional Freeway 77 7.3 Study Site 3—Urban/Rural Highway 81 Section 8 Prediction of Freeway Truck Speeds 81 8.1 Existing HCM Treatment of Trucks on Freeways 81 8.2 Research Objective and Approach 83 8.3 Initial Field Assessment 85 8.4 The Freeway Test Bed 85 8.5 Calibration of Acceleration Profiles 88 8.6 Truck Footprint for VISSIM 88 8.7 VISSIM Simulations and PCE and Speed Model Development 89 8.8 The Speed Prediction Models 94 8.9 Freeway Truck and Automobile Speed Model Case Study 96 8.10 Freeway Truck Travel Time Reliability 99 Section 9 Prediction of Arterial Truck Speeds 99 9.1 Existing Truck Treatment on Arterials in the HCM 102 9.2 Approach 102 9.3 Acceleration Profiles 102 9.4 Midblock Arterial Segment Speed Model Development 103 9.5 The Predictive Procedure for Midblock Arterial Segment Speeds 107 9.6 Arterial Case Study 109 9.7 Truck Speeds through Roundabouts 113 9.8 Arterial Truck Travel Time Reliability 115 Section 10 Predicting the Effect of Trucks on Capacity 115 10.1 The Freeway Truck PCE Models 117 10.2 Arterial Segment Truck PCEs 118 10.3 Creating Composite Trucks for Capacity Analysis 120 10.4 Signalized Intersection Truck PCEs 129 10.5 Roundabout Intersection Truck PCEs 134 Section 11 Conclusions and Recommendations 134 11.1 Conclusions 135 11.2 Recommendations 136 11.3 Recommended HCM Implementation Plan 138 11.4 Applicability of Results to Practice 138 11.5 Recommendations for Further Research 140 References 145 Appendixes A–F Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB’s National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) Report 31: Incorporating Truck Analysis into the Highway Capacity Manual presents capacity and level-of-service techniques to improve transportation agencies’ abilities to plan, design, manage, and operate streets and highways to serve trucks. The techniques also assist agencies’ ability to evaluate the effects of trucks on other modes of transportation.

These techniques are being incorporated into the Highway Capacity Manual, but will be useful to planners and designers working on projects with significant truck traffic.

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