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54 1. Miller, B., T. Thompson, M. Johnson, M. Brand, A. McDonald, D. Schenk, J. Driver, L. Leistritz, A. Leholm, N. Hodur, D. Plavin, D. Glassman, A. Anumakonda, R. Altman. ACRP Report 60: Guidelines for Integrat- ing Alternative Jet Fuel into the Airport Setting, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2012. Available at http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/166622.aspx. 2. Review of the Potential for Biofuels in Aviation, available at http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download; jsessionid=E296A64BF3E834001B8281496DA49C7D?doi=10.1.1.170.8750&rep=rep1&type=pdf. 3. Near-Term Feasibility of Alternative Jet Fuel, available at http://web.mit.edu/aeroastro/partner/reports/ proj17/altfuelfeasrpt.pdf. 4. Opportunities for DoD Use of Alternative and Renewable Fuels, FY10 NDAA Section 334 Congressional Study, available at http://energy.defense.gov/Portals/25/Documents/Blog/20110718_Opportunities_DoD_ Use_Alternative_Fuels.pdf. 5. For more information on ASTM International, please visit http://www.astm.org/. More specifically, the list of approved alternative jet fuel pathways can be found in the ASTM D7566 active standard that is available for download from that site. 6. http://skynrg.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/20160122_Press-Release_SkyNRG-Avinor-and-Air-BP- make-first-volumes-of-sustainable-jet-fuel-a-reality-for-Lufthansa-KLM-and-SAS-at-Oslo-Gardermoen- Airport.pdf. 7. http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/united-airlines-makes-history-with-launch-of-regularly- scheduled-flights-using-sustainable-biofuel-300234887.html. 8. http://newsroom.united.com/2015-06-30-United-Airlines-Purchases-Stake-in-Fulcrum-BioEnergy-with- 30-Million-Investment. 9. http://www.biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2015/07/21/fedex-southwest-airlines-combine-to-buy-entire-jet- fuel-output-of-red-rock-biorefinery-through-2024/. 10. For more information, see http://www.puresky.de/en/#/results-of-the-six-month-long-term-trial/engine- condition-monitoring/. 11. Miller, B., Thompson, T., Johnson, M., Brand, M., McDonald, A., Schenk, D., Driver, J., Leistritz, L., Leholm, A., Hodur, N., Plavin, D., Glassman, D., Anumakonda, A., Altman, R. ACRP Report 60: Guidelines for Integrat- ing Alternative Jet Fuel into the Airport Setting, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2012. Available at http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/166622.aspx. 12. Miller, B., D. Johnson, P. Jones, T. Thompson, M. Johnson, M. Hunt, D. Schenk, J. Driver, G. Biscardi, J. Lavin, D. Plavin, R. Dunkelberg, C. Fussell, P. Van Pelt, D. Glassman, H. Peace, J. Norris, D. Fordham, and R. Altman. ACRP Report 83: Assessing Opportunities for Alternative Fuel Distribution Programs. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2013. Available at http://www.trb.org/Main/ Blurbs/168378.aspx. 13. https://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/apl/research/alternative_fuels/. 14. http://www.energy.gov/eere/bioenergy/technology-pathways. 15. For more information on jet fuel quality practices, see R&D Control Study: Plan for Future Jet Fuel Distri- bution Quality Control and Description of Fuel Properties Catalog, available at https://www.faa.gov/about/ office_org/headquarters_offices/apl/research/alternative_fuels/media/Metron_Fuel_Quality_Final.pdf. 16. Available at https://publications.airlines.org/CommerceProductDetail.aspx?Product=178. 17. Sustainability Certification for Biofuels, available at http://www.nrdc.org/energy/files/biofuels-sustainability- certification-report.pdf. 18. Alternative Aviation Jet Fuel Sustainability Evaluation Report, available at http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/43000/ 43100/43137/DOT-VNTSC-FAA-12-03.pdf. Endnotes
Endnotes 55 19. Assessment of Sustainability Standards for Biojet Fuel, available at http://www.ecofys.com/files/files/ ecofys-2015-assessment-of-sustainability-standards-for-biojet-fuel.pdf. 20. This definition of chain-of-custody for commodities was adapted by the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) from a chain-of-custody definition for evidence in crimi- nal trials. IPIECA has written on this topic in Chain of Custody Options for Sustainable Biofuels, available at http://www.ipieca.org/publication/chain-custody-options-sustainable-biofuels. 21. âCertifiedâ in this context refers to sustainability certification, such as by programs like the RSB or the ISCC. For aviation alternative fuel, this means that neat alternative fuel that meets RSB or ISCC requirements is never mixed with neat alternative fuel that has not been certified. This usage of the word âcertifiedâ does not preclude blending of physically segregated fuel with conventional Jet A to meet ASTM D1655 fuel quality standards as long as the molecules of neat, certified, alternative fuel are not commingled with batches of alternative fuel (neat or blended) that have not also followed the physical segregation CoC method to the final dispensing tank. 22. ACRP Report 46: Handbook for Analyzing the Costs and Benefits of Alternative Aviation Turbine Engine Fuels at Airports, available at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_rpt_046.pdf. 23. Double counting occurs when more than one supply chain operator takes credit for the environmental ben- efits attributed to the same amount of certified alternative fuel. To reduce the risk of double counting, systems that audit the entire supply chain (so-called end-to-end audits) can be implemented, as is the case in, for example, RSB and ISCC. In physical segregation, since production and sales records make it possible to track volumes of fuel introduced into the supply chain from feedstock production to delivery of final product, the information should be readily available to perform an end-to-end audit. In contrast, in a book-and-claim system, for example, the claim of environmental benefits is disassociated from the physical product, which can make it more difficult for auditors to find all the relevant information for performing an end-to-end audit. 24. See Note 21. 25. Similar to the situation for physical segregation explained in Note 22, mass-balance provides more oppor- tunities to audit the movement of the physical product and its sustainability information along the supply chain. Therefore, it can provide more information to auditors, which makes it more difficult to double count. 26. http://www.ecofys.com/files/files/ecofys-2015-accounting-methods-for-biojet-fuel.pdf. 27. USDA, National Organic Program. http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?contentidonly=true& contentid=organic-agriculture.html. 28. FSC, Chain of Custody Certification, https://ic.fsc.org/chain-of-custody-certification.39.htm. 29. For a more in-depth description of how RECs work, please consult the EPAâs Green Power Partnership publi- cation on Renewable Energy Certificates. http://www.epa.gov/greenpower/documents/gpp_basics-recs.pdf. 30. Presentation by Galen Barbose of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, available at http://emp.lbl.gov/sites/ all/files/rps_summit_nov_2013.pdf. 31. See Note 21. 32. The pathway of an alternative aviation fuel identifies the fuel production facility, the feedstock used to pro- duce the fuel, and the destination of the fuel. At present, no uniform system for ascribing pathway identifica- tion numbers for alternative aviation fuel exists. Pathway identification systems in current use include the U.S. EPAâs RFS2 system and Californiaâs Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Neither applies specifically to alternative aviation fuel and may not necessarily reflect the specific sustainability benefits depending on the supply chain design, particularly from the standpoint of GHG emissions reduction over a petroleum fuel baseline. 33. âCO2eâ is âcarbon dioxide equivalent.â 34. âNoncertifiedâ in this context could refer to alternative aviation fuel that does not qualify for certification under sustainability program rules. It could also refer to conventional aviation fuel that has been added to a batch of certified alternative aviation fuel. In the context of alternative aviation fuel, it is most likely that ânoncertifiedâ will refer to conventional Jet A mixed with a certified alternative aviation fuel. Users of this report should remember, however, that ânoncertifiedâ can also refer to an alternative aviation fuel that has not been certified by a third party to sustainability standards such as RSB or ISCC. 35. A variation on this process is a continuous accounting period where the mass of certified fuel forwarded by the operator is never allowed to exceed the mass of certified fuel that the operator produces. 36. Western Renewable Energy Generation Information System, https://www.wecc.biz/WREGIS/Pages/Default. aspx. 37. Environmental life-cycle assessment is one of the methods for evaluating sustainability of aviation fuel, regardless of the certification program. It is a standardized analytical methodology for understanding the environmental impacts of a product, process, or system from cradle to grave. The U.S. EPA uses the GREET model for LCA developed by Argonne National Lab (https://greet.es.anl.gov/) for approving fuel pathways under the RFS2. 38. http://www.epa.gov/otaq/fuels/renewablefuels/qap.htm.
56 Tracking Alternative Jet Fuel 39. Page 18 of Options for Reforming the Renewable Fuel Standard, http://bipartisanpolicy.org/wp-content/ uploads/2014/12/BPC-Options-for-Reforming-the-RFS1.pdf. 40. Proposed Finding That Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aircraft Cause or Contribute to Air Pollution That May Reasonably Be Anticipated to Endanger Public Health and Welfare and Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-07-01/pdf/2015-15192.pdf. 41. EISA Section 526: Impacts on DESC Supply, www.dtic.mil/get-tr-doc/pdf?AD=ADA502264. 42. More detailed information on the U.S. DoD and alternative fuels can be found in the DLA Energy Biofuel Feedstock Metrics Study, http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a575119.pdf. 43. Low Carbon Fuel Standard regulation, Exemptions for Specific Applications, page 3, http://www.arb.ca.gov/ fuels/lcfs/CleanFinalRegOrder112612.pdf. 44. http://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/renewable-energy/biofuels. 45. Alternative Aviation Jet Fuel Sustainability Evaluation Report, Futurepast Report for Volpe, http://ntl.bts.gov/ lib/47000/47600/47652/Alternative_Aviation_Jet_Fuel_Sustainability_Evaluation_Report.pdf. 46. DLA Energy Biofuel Feedstock Metrics Study, LMI Report for DLA, http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/ a575119.pdf. 47. Assessment of Sustainability Standards for Biojet Fuel Ecofys Report for IATA, http://www.ecofys.com/files/ files/ecofys-2015-assessment-of-sustainability-standards-for-biojet-fuel.pdf. 48. Biofuel Sustainability Performance Guidelines, NRDC Report, http://www.nrdc.org/energy/files/biofuels- sustainability-certification-report.pdf. 49. Palmer, W. J. Will Sustainability Fly: Aviation Fuel Options in a Low Carbon World, Ashgate Publishing, 2015, p. 135. 50. Interview with Matt Rudolf of the Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials, August 20th, 2015. 51. http://www.airportcarbonaccredited.org/. 52. http://www.airportcarbonaccredited.org/airport/4-levels-of-accreditation/introduction.html. 53. The LTO cycle is defined in ICAOâs Airport Air Quality Guidance Manual (document 9889). 54. Bonsucro, http://bonsucro.com/. 55. Amyris Joins Bonsucro, the Leading Sustainability Standard for Sugarcane, http://investors.amyris.com/ releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=746974. 56. ISO 13065. Sustainability Criteria for Bioenergy, http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_ detail.htm?csnumber=52528. 57. International Organization for Standardization, http://www.iso.org/iso/home/about.htm. 58. International Sustainability and Carbon Certification, http://www.iscc-system.org/en/. 59. ISCC, All Certificates, http://www.iscc-system.org/en/certificate-holders/all-certificates/. 60. Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials, http://rsb.org/. 61. RSB, Member List, http://rsb.org/about/organization/member-list/. 62. Sustainable Aviation Fuel Users Group, http://www.safug.org/. 63. SAFUG Members, http://www.safug.org/members/. 64. SAFUG Our Pledge, http://www.safug.org/safug-pledge/. 65. Amyris, Renewable Mobility, Jet Fuel, https://amyris.com/products/jet-fuel/. 66. Altair Fuels, http://altairfuels.com/about/. 67. https://klmtakescare.com/en/content/weekly-flight-using-sustainable-biofuel. 68. Green Air Online. KLM Plans Drive-Down of Jet Biofuel Price Premium as It Starts Regular Series of Biofuel Transatlantic Flights, http://www.greenaironline.com/news.php?viewStory=1883. 69. https://klmtakescare.com/en/content/welcome-new-biofuel-partners-. 70. http://www.bp.com/en/global/bp-air/press/oslo-airport-first-location-to-supply-air-bp-biojet-via-main- fue.html. 71. http://skynrg.com/nordic/. 72. RSB, Participating Operators, http://rsb.org/certification/participating-operators/. 73. http://www.responsiblesoy.org/en/. 74. http://www.responsiblesoy.org/en/certification/tipos-de-certificacion/cadena-de-custodia/. 75. Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, http://www.rspo.org/. 76. Greenair Online. Finnair Postpones Early Plans to Use Jet Biofuel on Commercial Flights Citing Sustainability and Price Issues, http://www.greenaironline.com/news.php?viewStory=1052. 77. The Jakarta Post, Garuda to Use Biofuel in 2016 to Reduce Emissions, http://www.thejakartapost.com/ news/2014/08/27/garuda-use-biofuel-2016-reduce-emissions.html. 78. RSPO Supply Chains, http://www.rspo.org/certification/supply-chains.
Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACIâNA Airports Council InternationalâNorth America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing Americaâs Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation
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