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Development of Crash Modification Factors for Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Treatments (2017)

Chapter: Appendix A - Selected Treatment Types for Evaluation

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Page 60
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Selected Treatment Types for Evaluation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Development of Crash Modification Factors for Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Treatments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24627.
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Page 60
Page 61
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Selected Treatment Types for Evaluation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Development of Crash Modification Factors for Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Treatments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24627.
×
Page 61
Page 62
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Selected Treatment Types for Evaluation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Development of Crash Modification Factors for Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Treatments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24627.
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Page 62

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60 Unsignalized Pedestrian Crosswalk Signs and Pavement Markings, Including Advance Yield or Stop Markings Description This treatment consists of signs or markings at midblock crossings designed to improve visibility of pedestrians to motorists, increase motorist yielding, and prevent multiple-threat crashes. Examples Source: www.wichita.gov High-Intensity Activated Crosswalk (HAWK)/ Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon Description A HAWK signal [also termed pedestrian hybrid beacon in the MUTCD] is a special type of hybrid beacon used to warn and control traffic at an unsignalized location to assist pedestrians in crossing a street or highway at a marked crosswalk. The HAWK signal head consists of two red lenses over a single yellow lens. It displays a red indication to drivers when activated, which creates a gap for pedestrians to use to cross a major roadway. The HAWK signal indication for motorists is not illuminated until it is activated by a pedestrian, triggering the warning flashing yellow lens on the major street. After a set amount of time, the traffic signal indication changes to a solid yellow light to inform drivers to prepare to stop. The beacon then displays a dual solid red light to drivers on the major street and a walking person symbol to pedestrians. At the conclusion of the walk phase, the beacon displays an alternating flashing red light to drivers, and pedestrians are shown an upraised hand symbol with a countdown display informing them of the time left to cross. Selected Treatment Types for Evaluation A P P E N D I X A

Selected Treatment Types for Evaluation 61 Example Source: PBIC Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacons (RRFBs) Description RRFBs are user-actuated amber LEDs that supplement warning signs at unsignalized inter- sections or midblock crosswalks. They can be activated by pedestrians manually by a push button or passively by a pedestrian detection system. RRFBs use an irregular flash pattern that is similar to emergency flashers on police vehicles. Example Source: FHWA

62 Development of Crash Modification Factors for Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Treatments Pedestrian Refuge Areas Description Pedestrian refuge areas are created when a marked crosswalk is intersected by a median. This provides pedestrians with the option of waiting in this middle area until before beginning the next stage of the crossing. This design breaks a long complex crossing into two simpler crossings. This study will investigate refuge areas on both two-lane and multi-lane roads. Example Source: walkinginfo.org

Next: Appendix B - Treatment and Comparison Site Examples of Pedestrian Count Summaries »
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TRB's National Cooperative Research Program (NCHRP) Report 841: Development of Crash Modification Factors for Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Treatments quantifies the safety benefits of four types of pedestrian crossing treatments—rectangular rapid flashing beacons, pedestrian hybrid beacons, pedestrian refuge islands, and advanced YIELD or STOP markings and signs—and presents a crash modification factor (CMF) for each treatment type. This information, which is suitable for inclusion in the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Highway Safety Manual, the U.S. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) CMF Clearinghouse, and other guidance, will be valuable to transportation agencies in choosing the appropriate crossing treatment for uncontrolled pedestrian crossings.

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