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Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2017 (2017)

Chapter: The Synthesis Program

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Suggested Citation:"The Synthesis Program ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2017. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24661.
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Suggested Citation:"The Synthesis Program ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2017. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24661.
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Suggested Citation:"The Synthesis Program ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2017. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24661.
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Suggested Citation:"The Synthesis Program ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2017. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24661.
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Suggested Citation:"The Synthesis Program ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2017. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24661.
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Suggested Citation:"The Synthesis Program ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2017. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24661.
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Suggested Citation:"The Synthesis Program ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2017. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24661.
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Suggested Citation:"The Synthesis Program ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2017. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24661.
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Suggested Citation:"The Synthesis Program ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2017. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24661.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. THE SYNTHESIS PROGRAM This synthesis series reports on current knowl- edge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be most successful in resolving specific problems. To develop these syntheses in a comprehensive manner and to ensure inclusion of significant knowl- edge, TRB employs a consultant to gather and analyze available information from numerous sources, includ- ing airport operations agencies. A panel of experts in the subject area is established to guide the consultant in organizing and evaluating the data collected on each topic and to review the synthesis report. For each topic the project objectives are (1) to locate and assemble documented information; (2) to learn what practice has been used for solving or allevi- ating the problems; (3) to identify all ongoing research; (4) to learn what problems remain largely unsolved; (5) to organize, evaluate, and document the useful information that is acquired; and (6) to disseminate the synthesis information to all who might benefit from it. Each synthesis is an immediately useful docu- ment that records practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. New knowledge can be expected to be added to that which is now at hand and eventually the synthesis may need to be updated or redone. The readers and users of the syntheses are in the best position to know when this has occurred. Whenever you believe that a synthesis should be up- dated, it would be appreciated if you would contact TRB and propose a synthesis update by contacting the ACRP Manager, Transportation Research Board, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington D.C. 20001. Studies in Progress and Planned for 2017 Work is currently under way on the topics listed in Table 1. Topics selected for the 2016 program are listed in Table 2. Questions on these topics should Table 1 ACRP SYNTHESIS STUDIES—Active as of December 2016 No. Title S16-01-12 Airport Participation in Oil & Gas Development S16-01-13 Food and Beverage and Retail Operators: The Costs of Doing Business at Airports S16-01-14 Alternative Methods for Funding Infrastructure Investments at Airports S16-01-15 Airport Operator Options for Delivery of FBO Services S16-02-15 Airport Experience with Alternative Fuels for Ground Transport S16-02-16 Airport Experience with Implementing Notifications Required by the Aircraft Drinking Water Rule S16-03-11 Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Challenges and Opportunities for Airport Operators S16-03-12 Arriving Flights and Passenger Quarantine Planning at Airports S16-03-13 Estimating Truck Trip Generation for Airport Air Cargo Activity S16-04-18 Uses of Social Media to Inform Emergency Responders During an Airport Emergency Table 2 ACRP SYNTHESIS STUDIES—2017 Projects No. Title S01-16 Microgrids and Their Application at Airports S01-17 Attracting Investment at General Aviation Airports Through Public-Private Partnerships and Leasing S02-17 Sustainability’s Role in Airport Growth S02-18 Airport Waste Management and Recycling Practices S02-19 Airport Experience with Alternative Fuels and Vehicles-Private Ground Transportation Operators S03-14 Simulation of Airside and Landside Operations in Airport Planning S03-15 How Airports Plan for Changing Aircraft Capacity—The Effects of Upgauging S04-19 Incorporating ADA and Functional Needs in Emergency Exercises S04-20 Airport Incident Reporting Practices S09-08 Approaches to Mitigate Alkali Silica Reaction Effects at Airports

3Copies of these syntheses can be obtained from the Publications Office, Transportation Research Board, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20001; by calling 202/334-3213; and through the Internet at: https://www.mytrb.org/store. Please send check orders to: National Academy of Sciences—TRB, PO Box 936135, Atlanta, GA 31193-6135, or fax to: 202/334-2519. All ACRP reports are available as on- line publications (http://www.trb.org/Publications/ PubsACRPSynthesisReports.aspx). be addressed to the project study manager, Gail R. Staba, by e-mail at gstaba@nas.edu, or by phone at 202-334-2442; or the Synthesis Study Manager, Jon M. Williams, by e-mail at jwilliams@nas.edu, or by phone at 202-334-3245. Available Publications The syntheses of airport practice that have been completed under this project are listed in Table 3. Table 3 PUBLISHED ACRP SYNTHESES All publications are free online at: http://www.trb.org/Publications/PubsACRPSynthesisReports.aspx Printed versions in black and white can be purchased at: https://www.mytrb.org/store. No. Title/Pages 1. Innovative Finance and Alternative Sources of Revenue for Airports (2007) 43 pp., $34 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_001.pdf 2. Airport Aviation Activity Forecasting (2007) 32 pp., $34 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_002.pdf 3. General Aviation Safety and Security Practices (2007) 44 pp., $44 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_003.pdf 4. Counting Aircraft Operations at Small and Non-towered Airports (2007) 33 pp., $44 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_004.pdf 5. Airport Ground Access Mode Choice Models (2008) 104 pp., $39 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_005.pdf 6. Impact of Airport Pavement Deicing Products on Aircraft and Airfield Infrastructure (2008) 58 pp., $42 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_006.pdf 7. Airport Economic Impact Methods and Models (2008) 67 pp., $45 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_007.pdf 8. Common Use Facilities and Equipment at Airports (2008) 121 pp., $52 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_008.pdf 9. Effects of Aircraft Noise: Research Update on Select Topics (2008) 90 pp., $50 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_009.pdf 10. Airport Sustainability Practices (2008) 112 pp., $52 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_010.pdf 11. Impact of Airport Rubber Removal Techniques on Runways (2008) 108 pp., $52 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_011.pdf 12. Preventing Aircraft–Vehicle Incidents During Winter Operations and Periods of Low Visibility (2008) 70 pp., $45 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_012.pdf 13. Effective Practices for Preparing Airport Improvement Program Benefit-Cost Analysis (2009) 65 pp., $43 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_013.pdf 14. Airport System Planning Practices (2009) 71 pp., $41 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_014.pdf 15. Identification of the Requirements and Training to Obtain Driving Privileges on Airfields (2009) 43 pp., $48 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_015.pdf 16. Compilation of Noise Programs in Areas Outside DNL 65 (2009) 104 pp., $51 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_016.pdf 17. Approaches to Integrating Airport Development and Federal Environmental Review Processes (2009) 34 pp., $38 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_017.pdf 18. Aviation Workforce Development Practices (2010) 36 pp., $39 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_018.pdf (continued on next page)

419. Airport Revenue Diversification (2010) 55 pp., $41 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_019.pdf 20. Airport Terminal Facility Activation Techniques (2010) 127 pp., $58 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_020.pdf 21. Airport Energy Efficiency and Cost Reduction (2010) 73 pp., $47 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_021.pdf 22. Common Airport Pavement Maintenance Practices (2011) 103 pp., $54 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/165167.aspx 23. Bird Harassment, Repellent, and Deterrent Techniques for Use on and Near Airports (2011) 32 pp., $41 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/165829.aspx 24. Strategies and Financing Opportunities for Airport Environmental Programs (2011) 218 pp., $70 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/165852.aspx 25. Strategies for Reuse of Underutilized or Vacant Airport Facilities (2011) 62 pp., $42 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166101.aspx 26. Current Airport Inspection Practices Regarding FOD (Foreign Object Debris/Damage) (2011) 86 pp., $54 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/165911.aspx 27. Airport Self-Inspection Practices (2011) 111 pp., $54 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166012.aspx 28. Investigating Safety Impacts of Energy Technologies on Airports and Aviation (2011) 39 pp., $41 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166099.aspx 29. Ramp Safety Practices (2011) 59 pp., $46 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166314.aspx 30. Airport Insurance Coverage and Risk Management Practices (2011) 51 pp., $43 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166472 31. Airline and Airline–Airport Consortiums to Manage Terminals and Equipment (2011) 596 pp., $98 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166364.aspx 32. Managing Aerial Firefighting (2012) 44 pp., $42.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/167310.aspx 33. Airport Climate Adaption and Resilience (2012) 87 pp., $57.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/167238.aspx 34. Subsurface Utility Information for Airports (2012) 50 pp., $46.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/167502.aspx 35. Issues with Use of Airfield LED Light Fixtures (2012) 35 pp., $43.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/167509.aspx 36. Exploring Airport Employee Commute and Parking Strategies (2012) 70 pp., $49.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/167704.aspx 37. Lessons Learned from Airport Safety Management Systems Pilot Studies (2012) 63 pp., $46.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/167600.aspx 38. Expediting Aircraft Recovery at Airports (2012) 100 pp. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/168018.aspx 39. Airport Wildlife Population Management (2013) 69 pp., $52.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/168836.aspx 40. Issues with Airport Organization and Reorganization (2013) 32 pp., $44.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169008.aspx 41. Conducting Aeronautical Special Events at Airports (2013) 119 pp., $61.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/168988.aspx 42. Integrating Environmental Sustainability into Airport Contracts (2013) 68 pp., $52.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169023.aspx 43. Environmental Assessment of Air and High-Speed Rail Corridors (2013) 36 pp., $44.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169411.aspx 44. Environmental Management System Development Process (2013) 50 pp., $46.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/168917.aspx Table 3 (Continued) No. Title/Pages

545. Model Mutual Aid Agreements for Airports (2013) 56 pp., $49.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169180.aspx 46. Conducting Airport Peer Reviews (2013) 40 pp., $44.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169124.aspx 47. Repairing and Maintaining Airport Parking Structures While in Use (2013) 46 pp., $46 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169084.aspx 48. How Airports Measure Customer Service Performance (2013) 93 pp., $58.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169468.aspx 49. Helping New Maintenance Hires Adapt to the Airport Operating Environment (2013) 52 pp., $46.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169521.aspx 50. Effective Cooperation Among Airports and Local and Regional Emergency Management Agencies for Disaster Preparedness and Response (2014) 44 pp., $44.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/170368.aspx 51. Impacts of Aging Travelers on Airports (2014) 27 pp., $44.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/170493.aspx 52. Habitat Management to Deter Wildlife at Airports (2014) 75 pp., $52.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/170766.aspx 53. Outcomes of Green Initiatives: Large Airport Experience (2014) 63 pp., $64.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/170655.aspx 54. Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at Airport Parking Facilities (2014) 62 pp., $49.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/170689.aspx 55. Backcountry Airstrip Preservation (2014) 76 pp., $55.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/170879.aspx 56. Understanding the Value of Social Media at Airports for Customer Engagement (2014) 157 pp., $68.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/170977.aspx 57. Airport Response to Special Events (2014) 136 pp., $64.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/170872.aspx 58. Safety Reporting Systems at Airports (2014) 65 pp., $49.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/170978.aspx 59. Integrating Airport Geographic Information System (GIS) Data with Public Agency GIS (2014) 66 pp., $52.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/171387.aspx 60. Airport Emergency Post-Event Recovery Practices (2015) 76 pp., $55.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/172539.aspx 61. Practices in Preserving and Developing Public-Use Seaplane Bases (2015) 85 pp., $58.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/172567.aspx 62. Cell Phone Lots at Airports (2015) 63 pp., $51.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/172784.aspx 63. Overview of Airport Fueling System Operations (2015) 106 pp., $61.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/172631.aspx 64. Issues Related to Accommodating Animals Traveling Through Airports (2015) 73 pp., $55.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/172800.aspx 65. Practices to Develop Effective Stakeholder Relationships at Smaller Airports (2015) 62 pp., $51.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/172885.aspx 66. Lessons Learned from Airport Sustainability Plans (2015) 88 pp., $61.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/172887.aspx 67. Airside Snow Removal Practices for Small Airports with Limited Budgets (2015) 100 pp., $61.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/172978.aspx 68. Strategies for Maintaining Air Service (2015) 52 pp., $48.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/173208.aspx Table 3 (Continued) No. Title/Pages (continued on next page)

6Selection of Topics ACRP Project Panel A11-03 meets each year to select topics for study using funds from the upcom- ing fiscal year. The membership of this committee is given in Table 4. Current funding allows for ini- tiation of about nine syntheses per year. These, plus some alternate topics, are selected by the committee at its annual project meeting. The following factors are considered in the selec- tion process for synthesis topics: • The topic should address a problem that is widespread enough to generate broad interest in the synthesis. • The topic should be timely and critical with respect to safety, economic, or social impact. • The topic is appropriate if current practice is nonuniform or inconsistent from agency to agency, or if the validity of some practices appears to be questionable. • The quality and quantity of useful available information should indicate a need to orga- nize and compress that which has already been learned and written on the topic. • The topic should not be one where ongoing research or other activities in progress might be expected to render the synthesis obsolete shortly after completion. Each year more topics are suggested for the committee’s consideration than can be programmed for study in Project A11-03. Nevertheless, the con- tinued success of this project depends on a constant supply of worthy synthesis topics. The interest of those who have recommended topics is sincerely appreciated, and they are urged to continue. Candi- date topics are suggested by members of the panel and by a variety of other sources, including airport, airline, and state aviation personnel; FAA and TRB committees; aviation organizations; and other prac- titioners and researchers. Conduct of the Studies Following the project panel’s selection of topics, studies are initiated in the order of priority assigned by the panel. A topic panel consisting of practitio- ners and researchers is formed for each topic. At its first meeting, this topic panel thoroughly discusses the topic, refines the scope, suggests sources of in- formation, and identifies and selects potential topic consultants based on expressions of interest received in response to an industry-wide solicitation. 69. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports (2016) 108 pp., $64.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/174223.aspx 70. Building Information Modeling for Airports (2016) 86 pp., $58.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/174386.aspx 71. Airport Safety Risk Management Panel Activities and Outcomes (2016) 120 pp., $64.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/174359.aspx 72. Tabletop and Full-Scale Emergency Exercises for General Aviation, Non-Hub, and Small Hub Airports (2016) 146 pp., $71.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/174692.aspx 73. Emergency Communications Planning for Airports (2016) 87 pp., $61.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/174757.aspx 74. Combining Mixed-Use Flight Operations Safely at Airports (2016) 155 pp., $71.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/174589.aspx 75. Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports (2016) 58 pp., $51.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/174840.aspx 76. Helicopter Noise Information for Airports and Communities (2016) 135 pp., $67.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/174859.aspx 77. Airport Sustainability Practices (2016) 39 pp., $46.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/174993.aspx 78. Continuity of Operations Planning for Small Airports (2016) 236 pp., $85.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/175144.aspx Table 3 (Continued) No. Title/Pages

7Table 4 ACRP PROJECT PANEL A11-03 Name Affiliation Chair Joshua Abramson Easterwood Airport Member Debbie K. Alke Montana DOT Member Gloria G. Bender TransSolutions, LLC Member David A. Byers Quadrex Aviation, LLC Member David N. Edwards, Jr. Greenville–Spartanburg Airport District Member Brenda L. Enos Massachusetts Port Authority Member Linda Howard Consultant, Bastrop, Texas Liaison Patrick W. Magnotta Federal Aviation Administration Liaison Matthew J. Griffin Airports Consultants Council Liaison Liying Gu Airports Council International–North America TRB Liaison Christine Gerencher Transportation Research Board ACRP Synthesis Staff Gail R. Staba Transportation Research Board ACRP Synthesis Staff Theresia H. Schatz Transportation Research Board ACRP Manager Michael R. Salamone Transportation Research Board Following this meeting, a consultant is hired to gather information on the topic, synthesize it, and draft a report. Typically, the agreement covers a period of six to seven months. Information gather- ing and preparation of the first draft of the synthe- sis report takes about four months. This draft is re- viewed by the topic panel with the consultant, often at the second panel meeting. A revised draft is then prepared by the consultant. Subsequent drafts and meetings are scheduled, if needed, although this rarely occurs. After the staff is substantially satisfied with the report, a final draft is sent to members of the topic panel for their last chance to review the report and then ACRP Project Committee A11-03 for final ap- proval. The report is subsequently published as an ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice. Index of Topic Studies Table 5 is a key word index of published syntheses. The report numbers in blue are live links. Click on the number to access the report. Table 5 INDEX TO SYNTHESES AND STUDIES (2016) Blue numbers are live links to those reports. Access control 3 Aerial firefighting 32 Aeronautical events 41 Aeronautical revenue 1, 19 Aging travelers 51 Air and rail 43 Aircraft noise 9, 16, 74 Aircraft operations 75 Aircraft recovery plan 38, 60 Airfield driving 12, 15, 49 Airport access/egress 5, 15, 49, 51 Airport advisories 75 Airport budgeting 22, 31 Airport construction 20, 21, 47 Airport design 20, 21, 74 Airport development environmental review 7, 8, 10, 13, 16, 17, 21 Airport environment 10, 17, 21, 24, 53 Airport facilities 25, 63 Airport human resources 12, 15, 18, 20 Airport Improvement Program (AIP) 2, 13, 14, 24, 34 Airport Layout Plan 59 Airport maintenance 11, 21, 22, 26, 47, 49 Airport management 23, 30, 31, 36, 39, 53 Airport operations 3, 4, 8, 11, 12, 13, 15, 20, 21, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 36, 39, 46, 48, 51, 56, 57, 58, 60, 62, 65, 67, 68, 69, 73 Airport organization 40 Airport planning 14, 22, 28, 31, 54 Airport sustainability practices 77 Airport system planning 14 Airport terminal facility activation 20 Air pollution 43 Air Service 68 (continued on next page)

8Airshows 57 Alternative aeronautical activity 74 Animals 64 Asset management 47, 77 Automated Surface Observing System/Automated Weather Observing System 75 Aviation activity forecasting 2, 4, 5 Aviation noise abatement 16 Aviation operations 12, 28 Backcountry airstrips 56 Baggage 8 Benefit-cost 13, 59 Building information modeling 70 Business continuity plan 78 Capital financing 1, 21 Cell phone lots 62 Charging stations 54 Climate change 33 Commercial development 1, 21, 25 Common traffic advisory frequency 75 Common Use 8, 19 Common Use Passenger Processing Systems (CUPPS) 8, 19 Common Use Self-Service (CUSS) 8, 19 Communication 68 Community engagement 68, 73 Community Noise Equivalent Level (CNEL) 9, 16 Computer aided design and drafting 34 Consortiums 31 Continuity planning 78 Contracting 31, 42 Corrosion damage 6 Cost recovery 4, 19, 21, 25, 62 Costs 68 Counting aircraft 4 Customer engagement 56 Customer service 48, 51 Data and information technology 56 Data collection 26, 29, 58 Data exchange 59 Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL) 9, 16 Debris detection 26 Debris removal 26 Disabled aircraft 38 Economic development 7, 10, 13, 19, 25 Economic impact 7, 25, 53, 57, 61, 65, 77 Economic viability 66 Electric vehicles 54 Table 5 (Continued) Blue numbers are live links to those reports. Electric vehicle charging stations 54 Electronic information 34, 45 Emergency communications planning 73 Emergency exercises 72 Emergency plan 45, 60, 78 Emergency preparedness 60, 73, 78 Employee commute options 36 Energy and climate 77 Energy audit 10, 19, 21 Energy conservation 35 Energy management system 10, 19, 21 Energy technologies 28 Environmental assessment 13, 17, 33, 43 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) 17 Environmental initiatives 24, 53, 69, 74 Environmental management system 44 Environmental practices 10, 11, 21, 42, 66 Environmental regulations 63 Environmental sustainability 42 Equipment, snow removal 67 Facility activation 20 Facility management 70 Federal Interagency Committee on Noise (FICON) 9, 16 Financing 23 Foreign object debris/damage 26, 29, 37 Fueling system operations 63 General aviation 1, 3, 4, 17, 19, 20, 21, 26 Geographic Information System data 59 Green initiative 53, 69 Ground service equipment 29 Ground vehicle operations 49 Hazard identification 71 Hazard, wildlife 39, 52 Helicopters 76 Hiring 49 Incident 37, 38 Incident action plan 72 Infrastructure 6, 47, 54 Innovative finance 1 Inspection practices 26, 27 Irregular operations 57, 78 Lighting 35 Low visibility 12 Maintenance 47, 49 Management 32, 55, 70 Management systems 8, 21, 22, 40, 44

9Risk management 30, 37, 55, 63, 71 Rubber removal 11 Runway safety 3, 11, 12, 15, 23, 26, 67 Safety 3, 11, 12, 15, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 32, 35, 39, 45, 52, 58, 61, 63, 71, 74 Safety management system 29, 37, 58, 71, 78 Safety reporting 58 Safety risk assessment 71 Safety risk management 37 Schultz Curve 9 Seaplane bases 61 Security 3 Service 68 Service animals 64 Signage 8, 45 Skid resistance 11 Small airports 65, 67, 72, 78 Snow removal 67 Social media 56 Social responsibility 77 Sound Exposure Level (SEL) 9, 16 Special events 57 Stakeholders 65 Structures, parking 47 Subsurface utilities 34 Sustainable Aviation Guidance Alliance 77 Sustainability 10, 14, 42, 44, 53, 66, 69, 77 UNICOM 75 Tabletop exercises 72 Terminal area forecast 2 Title Code of Federal Regulations Part 139 58, 63 Training 3, 12, 15, 18, 20, 27, 29, 49 Travel forecasting 2, 5, 13, 14 Traveling with pets 64 Vehicle-aircraft incidents 12 Voice over IP (VoIP) 8, 20 Waterblasting 11 Wildlife control 23, 39, 52 Wildlife risk management 23, 37, 52 Wildlife strike 52 Winter operations 6, 12, 67 Workforce development 3, 12, 15, 18, 20, 47 Master plans 17, 66 Mixed use operations 74 Mobile technology 56 Mode choice/mode of transportation 5 Modeling 5, 7, 70 Mutual Aid agreement 45 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 9, 17, 24, 43 National Incident Management System 60, 72, 73 National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) 2, 7, 13, 14, 60, 61 National resource conservation 69 Noise 9, 16, 43, 55, 74, 76 Non-aeronautical revenue 1, 19, 57 Non-towered airports 75 Operational risk assessment 71 Operations planning 78 Organizational structure 40 Ownership 55 Parking 36, 47, 54, 62 Part 139 airports 71, 72, 73, 78 Passenger facility charge 1, 20 Passenger services 8, 19, 47, 51, 56 Pavement 6, 22 Pavement deicing 6 Peer reviews 46 Performance measures 48, 67 Performance standards 31 Personnel, airport 49 Planning, aeronautical 41 Preservation, airstrip 55 Preservation, pavement 22 Preservation, seaplane bases 61 Privatization 1 Quality assurance 48 Ramps 29 Regulations 63 Rehabilitation, pavement 22 Rehabilitation, structures 47 Reuse 25 Revenue 1, 13, 19, 25, 57 Risk analysis 74 Risk financing 30 Table 5 (Continued)

Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 These digests are issued in order to increase awareness of research results emanating from projects in the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP). Persons wanting to pursue the project subject matter in greater depth should contact the CRP Staff, Transportation Research Board, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. ISBN 978-0-309-38988-4 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 3 8 9 8 8 4 9 0 0 0 0 Subscriber Categories: Aviation • Energy • Environment • Education and Training • Facilities • Maintenance and Preservation • Safety and Human Factors • Terminals and Facilities

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Results Digest 26: Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices is a digest of the progress and status of ACRP Project 11-03, Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices.

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