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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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Promoting the
Educational Success
of Children and Youth
Learning English

Promising Futures

Committee on Fostering School Success for English Learners:
Toward New Directions in Policy, Practice, and Research

Ruby Takanishi and Suzanne Le Menestrel, Editors

Board on Children, Youth, and Families
and
Board on Science Education

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Health and Medicine Division

A Consensus Study Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This study was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the Administration for Children and Families of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHSP233201400020B, Order No. HHSP23337020); the Foundation for Child Development (NAS-20-13D); the Health Resources and Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHSH250200976014I, Order No. HHSH25034022T); the Heising-Simons Foundation (2014-158); the McKnight Foundation (14-596); and the U.S. Department of Education (HHSP233201400020B, Order No. HHSP23337018). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-45537-4
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-45537-5
Library of Congress Control Number: 2017947
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24677.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
×

images

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
×

images

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
×

COMMITTEE ON FOSTERING SCHOOL SUCCESS FOR ENGLISH LEARNERS: TOWARD NEW DIRECTIONS IN POLICY, PRACTICE, AND RESEARCH

RUBY TAKANISHI (Chair), Education Policy Division, New America

ALFREDO ARTILES, Graduate College, Arizona State University

DIANE L. AUGUST, Center for English Learners, American Institutes for Research

XAVIER BOTANA, Portland Public Schools, Maine

DYLAN CONGER, Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Administration, George Washington University

RICHARD P. DURÁN, Gervitz Graduate School of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara

LINDA M. ESPINOSA, University of Missouri, Columbia (emeritus)

EUGENE E. GARCIA, Arizona State University (emeritus)

FRED GENESEE, Department of Psychology, McGill University (emeritus)

KENJI HAKUTA, Stanford University (emeritus)

ARTURO HERNANDEZ, Department of Psychology, University of Houston

BOBBI CIRIZA HOUTCHENS, Retired Teacher/Consultant

JEFF MacSWAN, Department of Teaching and Learning, Policy and Leadership, University of Maryland, College Park

HARRIETT ROMO, Department of Sociology, University of Texas at San Antonio

MARIA SERA, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota

CATHERINE S. TAMIS-LEMONDA, Department of Applied Psychology, New York University

KEVIN J. A. THOMAS, Department of Sociology and Criminology, Pennsylvania State University

CLAUDIO O. TOPPELBERG, Judge Baker Children’s Center, Harvard Medical School

LILY WONG-FILLMORE, University of California, Berkeley (emeritus)

Study Staff

SUZANNE LE MENESTREL, Study Director

FRANCIS AMANKWAH,1 Research Associate

PAMELLA ATAYI, Program Coordinator

ANNALEE GONZALES,2 Senior Program Assistant

REBEKAH HUTTON, Associate Program Officer

SHEILA MOATS,2 Program Officer

AMY STEPHENS, Program Officer

___________________

1 Through October 2015.

2 Through July 2016.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
×

BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES

ANGELA DIAZ (Chair), Departments of Pediatrics and Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

SHARI BARKIN, Department of Pediatrics, Monroe Carell Jr. Children’s Hospital, Vanderbilt University

THOMAS F. BOAT, Academic Health Center, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati

W. THOMAS BOYCE, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia

DAVID A. BRENT, Western Psychiatric Institute and University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

DAVID V.B. BRITT, Retired CEO, Sesame Workshop

DEBBIE I. CHANG, Nemours Health and Prevention Services

PATRICK H. DeLEON, F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine and the Graduate School of Nursing, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

ELENA FUENTES-AFFLICK, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, and Chief of Pediatrics, San Francisco General Hospital

EUGENE E. GARCIA, Mary Lou Fulton Teachers’ College, Arizona State University

J. DAVID HAWKINS, School of Social Work, University of Washington

JEFFREY W. HUTCHINSON, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

JACQUELINE JONES, Foundation for Child Development

ANN S. MASTEN, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota

VELMA McBRIDE MURRY, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University

BRUCE S. McEWEN, Harold and Margaret Milliken Hatch Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, The Rockefeller University

MARTIN J. SEPULVEDA, (retired) Research Division, IBM Corporation

NATACHA BLAIN,1 Director

KIMBER BOGARD,2 Director

BRIDGET KELLY,3 Acting Director

___________________

1 From December 2015.

2 Through July 2015.

3 From July-December 2015.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
×

BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION

ADAM GAMORAN (Chair), William T. Grant Foundation

MELANIE COOPER, Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University

RODOLFO DIRZO, Department of Biology, Stanford University

MATTHEW KREHBIEL, Achieve, Inc.

MICHAEL LACH, Urban Education Institute, University of Chicago

LYNN LIBEN, Department of Psychology, Pennsylvania State University

CATHY MANDUCA, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College

JOHN MATHER, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

BRIAN REISER, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University

MARSHALL “MIKE” SMITH, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching

ROBERTA TANNER, Retired Physics Teacher, Thompson School District, Loveland, Colorado

SUZANNE WILSON, Neag School of Education, Michigan State University

HEIDI SCHWEINGRUBER, Director

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
×

Acknowledgments

The committee and project staff express our deep gratitude to all who generously contributed their time and expertise to inform the development of this report.

To begin, we thank the sponsors of this study for their support. The committee’s work was funded by the Administration for Children and Families of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Foundation for Child Development, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Heising-Simons Foundation, the McKnight Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Education. Many individuals volunteered significant time and effort to address and educate committee members during our public information meetings. Their willingness to share their perspectives and experiences was essential to the committee’s work. We also thank the many other stakeholders who shared information with the committee over the course of the study.

The committee also expresses our sincere appreciation for the opportunity to work with the dedicated members of the staff of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine on this important project. We are thankful to the project staff: Francis Amankwah, Sarah Blankenship, Marthe Folivi, Annalee Gonzales, Rebekah Hutton, Suzanne Le Menestrel, Sheila Moats, Rebecca Nebel, Heidi Schweingruber, Amy Stephens, and Tina Tran. The committee is also grateful to Lisa Alston, Pamella Atayi, Faye Hillman, and Stacey Smit for their administrative and financial assistance on this project. We are also thankful for the administrative support of Alisa Decatur. The committee gratefully acknowledges

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
×

Natacha Blain, Kimber Bogard, and Bridget Kelly of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families; Robert Hauser, former executive director of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; Mary Ellen O’Connell, executive director of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; Dr. Victor Dzau, president of the National Academy of Medicine; and Clyde Behney, executive director of the Health and Medicine Division, for their guidance throughout this important study. The committee thanks the staff of the Office of Reports and Communication of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education: Eugenia Grohman, Viola Horek, Patricia L. Morison, Kirsten Sampson Snyder, Douglas Sprunger, and Yvonne Wise. We also wish to thank Daniel Bearss and Rebecca Morgan for their outstanding research and fact-checking assistance.

We are grateful to Lauren Tobias of Maven Messaging & Communications for her thoughtful work as the communications consultant for this study. We thank Beatriz Arias, Julie Esparza-Brown, Kathy Lindholm-Leary, Amy Markos, Soyoung Park, and Marlene Zepeda for their valuable commissioned papers, which informed our report. We are appreciative of Rona Briere for the diligent and thorough editorial assistance she provided in preparing this report.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
×

Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets the institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We wish to thank the following individuals for their thoughtful reviews of this report: Maria S. Carlo, Department of Teaching and Learning, University of Miami; Donna Christian, Center for Applied Linguistics; James Cummins, Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Ontario; Claude N. Goldenberg, Graduate School of Education, Stanford University; Magdalena Ruz Gonzalez, Multilingual Academic Support, Curriculum and Instructional Services, Los Angeles County Office of Education; Carol Scheffner Hammer, Communication Sciences and Disorders, Teachers College, Columbia University; Patricia K. Kuhl, Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences and Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Washington; Laurie Olsen, Sobrato Early Academic Language, Sobrato Family Foundation; Mariela M. Páez, The Carolyn A. and Peter S. Lynch School of Education, Boston College; Laida Restrepo, School of Speech and Hearing Science, Arizona State University; Gillian Stevens, Department of Sociology and Population Research Laboratory, University of Alberta; and

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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Gabriela Uro, English Language Learner Policy and Research, Council of the Great City Schools.

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by P. David Pearson, Language and Literacy and Cognition and Development, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley, and Douglas S. Massey, Department of Sociology and Public Affairs, Princeton University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
×
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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5-3Common Features of High-Quality Preschool Programs

5-4The Early Authors Program

5-5Instructional Strategies for Monolingual Teachers That Support DLLs’ English Language Development and L1 Maintenance

6-1Example of Academic Language

7-1Sobrato Early Academic Literacy (SEAL) Program

7-2Improving the Design of Studies of Language of Instruction

7-3Profile of a K-12 Dual Language School

7-4The Role of the Family in Supporting Learning English in Middle and High Schools

7-5Parent Perspectives

8-1How Middle School Contexts Matter for English Learners

8-2Characteristics and Design Elements of High Schools in the Schools to Learn from Study

8-3Example of the Incorporation of Language and Literacy Goals into Content Instruction

8-4An Example of the Integration of Language Instruction into Content Area Teaching

9-1Why Language Revitalization Is Critical

9-2Rough Rock Community School: A Language Revitalization Program Exemplar

10-1Prevalence of Disabilities and Comorbidities in DLLs/ELs

10-2Common Myths

10-3Variation in Placement Patterns at the National and State Levels by Disability Category and Year and the Heterogeneity of the Population

10-4Potential Influences on Proper Identification of ELs with Disabilities

10-5The Acquisition of English and Reclassification of ELs with Disabilities

10-6Importance of Family Involvement in Evaluating DLLs/ELs with Disabilities

10-7Analyzing and Utilizing the Results of the Disability Evaluation

10-8Overview of Response to Intervention (RTI)

10-9Curriculum-Based Measures (CBMs)

10-10Considerations for Response to Intervention (RTI) Models That Include ELs

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
×

10-11Key Findings from Reading Intervention Studies in English Learners

11-12015 Guidelines of the Council of Chief State School Officers for EL Reclassification

13-1Research Needed to Address Gaps in Knowledge About DLLs/ELs

FIGURES

3-1Region of origin of new immigrants to the United States, 2013

3-2Proportions of the U.S. population speaking only English versus a language other than English, 1980 and 2010

3-3Immigrant generation of English learners (ages 5-18 and enrolled in school), 2008-2012

3-4States with large and rapidly growing populations of English learners (ELs)

3-5Percentage of children in families at or below 185 percent of the federal poverty line

3-6Percentage of children with parents who speak English less than “very well”

3-7Top 10 languages spoken by English learners (ages 5-18 and enrolled in school), 2008-2012

11-1Fitted cumulative probability of reclassification for students entering Los Angeles Unified School District as ELs in kindergarten, by initial level of academic home language proficiency and initial academic English proficiency

TABLES

3-1Origin Countries of Foreign-Born Children Who Are English Learners (ELs)

3-2States Where the Percentage Change in the Hispanic Population Was Greater Than 100 Percent from 2000 to 2012

3-3Percentage Distribution of ELs and Non-ELs by Race/Ethnicity and Family Income Quintile

3-4Parental Educational Distributions of ELs and Non-ELs, by Race/Ethnicity

3-5Family Structures of ELs and Non-ELs, by Race/Ethnicity

3-6Distribution of Children Who Speak English Less Than Very Well, by Race/Ethnicity and Generation

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24677.
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Educating dual language learners (DLLs) and English learners (ELs) effectively is a national challenge with consequences both for individuals and for American society. Despite their linguistic, cognitive, and social potential, many ELs—who account for more than 9 percent of enrollment in grades K-12 in U.S. schools—are struggling to meet the requirements for academic success, and their prospects for success in postsecondary education and in the workforce are jeopardized as a result.

Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures examines how evidence based on research relevant to the development of DLLs/ELs from birth to age 21 can inform education and health policies and related practices that can result in better educational outcomes. This report makes recommendations for policy, practice, and research and data collection focused on addressing the challenges in caring for and educating DLLs/ELs from birth to grade 12.

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