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Page 59
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Planning and Design for Fire and Smoke Incidents in Underground Passenger Rail Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24691.
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Page 59
Page 60
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Planning and Design for Fire and Smoke Incidents in Underground Passenger Rail Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24691.
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Page 60

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59 American Public Transportation Association (APTA), White Paper: Operational Strategies for Emer- gency Smoke Ventilation in Tunnels, APTA SS-SEM-WP-013-10, APTA, Washington, D.C., 2010. Anderson, T. and B.J. Paaske, “Safety in Railway Tunnels,” Tunnel Management International, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2003, pp. 15–23. Beard, A. and R. Carvel, Eds., The Handbook of Tunnel Fire Safety, Thomas Telford Limited, London, Great Britain, 2005. British Standards Institute (BSI), Railway Applications—Fire Protection on Railway Vehicles, BSI Standards Publication BS EN 45545-1, BSI, London, United Kingdom, 2013. Cafaro, F., C. Cima, L. Stantero, and A. Arelli, “An Innovative Tunnel Fire Protection System,” Tunnel Management International, Vol. 8, No. 3, Transport Research Laboratory, Wokingham, Berkshire, United Kingdom, 2005. Capote, J., D. Alvear, O. Abreu, A. Cuesta, and V. Alonso, “A Stochastic Approach for Simulating Human Behavior during Evacuation Process in Passenger Trains,” Fire Technology, Vol. 48, 2012, pp. 911–925. Caroly, S., D.R. Kouabenan, and M. Gandit, “Analysis of Danger Management by Highway Users Confronted with a Tunnel Fire,” Safety Science, Vol. 60, 2013, pp. 35–46. Carvel, R., “Lessons Learned from Catastrophic Fires in Tunnels,” Civil Engineering (Proceedings of the ICE), Vol. 161S, 2008, pp. 49–53. Claesson, A., A. Lönnermark, H. Ingason, J. Lindström, Y.Z. Li, and M. Kumm, “Laboratory Fire Experiments with a 1/3 Train Carriage Mockup,” SP Report 2012:06, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, 2012. Colella, F., G. Rein, and J. Torero, “A Novel Multiscale Methodology for Simulating Tunnel Ventilation Flows During Fires,” Fire Technology, Vol. 47, No. 1, Jan. 2011, pp. 221–253. Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), “Passenger Rail Car Egress Time Prediction,” Research Results RR0604, FRA, Washington, D.C., May 2006. Ferrazzini, M., A. Busslinger, and P. Reinke, Smoke Ventilation Concepts of CEVA—An Underground Rail Link with 4 Stations, HBI Haerter Ltd., Switzerland, 2011. Fridolf, K., Fire Evacuation in Underground Transportation Systems: A Review of Accidents and Empirical Research, Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety, Lund University, Sweden, 2010 [work package 2]. Gao, R., A. Li, W. Lei, Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and B. Deng, “Study of a Proposed Tunnel Evacuation Passageway Formed by Opposite-Double Air Curtain Ventilation,” Safety Science, Vol. 50, No. 7, 2012, pp. 1549–1557. Haack, A., E. Casale, and J. Pucher, “Eureka 499 Fire Tests,” XXth World Road Congress, Montreal, Sept. 3–9, 1995, Permanent International Association of Road Congresses, Paris, France, 1995, pp. 175–181. Hall, J.F., Jr., Fatal Effects of Fire, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, Mass., Mar. 2011. Hathaway, W.T., J. Baker, and N.A. Moussa, Fire Safety Countermeasures for Urban Rail Vehicles, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, Mass., 1992. Hohnecker, E., “Fire and Accident Safety in Railway Tunnels,” Proceedings of the International Conference, Railway Engineering 2000, London, United Kingdom, July 2000, CD-ROM. Ingason, H., et al., The METRO Project—Final Report, SiST 2012:8, School of Sustainable Develop- ment of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden, 2012. International Code Council (ICC), 2015 International Building Code, Third Printing, ICC, Country Club Hills, Ill., Oct. 2015. Lee, D., W. Park, J. Hwang, and G. Hadjisophocleous, “Full-Scale Fire Test of an Intercity Train Car,” Fire Technology, Vol. 51, 2015, pp. 1–16. Lee, D., W. Park, W. Jung, S. Yang, H. Kim, G. Hadjisophocleous, and J. Hwang, “Estimations of Heat Release Rate Curve of Railcar Fire,” Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 27, No. 6, 2013, pp. 1665–1670. Levitt, H.L., NFPA 130—Keeping Up with Rail Safety, Keynote presentation at the International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security 7th Annual Symposium, Montreal, QC, Canada, Mar. 2016. RefeRences

60 Li, L., X. Cheng, Y. Qui, W. Dong, and Z. Mei, “Effect of Blockage Ratio on Critical Velocity in Tunnel Fires,” Journal of Fire Sciences, Vol. 30, No. 5, Sept. 2012, pp. 413–427. Li, L., X. Cheng, Y. Qui, W. Dong, and Z. Mei, “Effect of Blockage Ratio on the Maximum Tempera- ture Under the Ceiling in Tunnel Fires,” Journal of Fire Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. May 2013, pp. 245–257. Li, Y.Z., B. Lei, and H. Ingason, “Scale Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Smoke Control for Rescue Stations in Long Railway Tunnels,” Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2012, pp. 101–131. Lupton, B., “Safety of Long Railway Tunnels,” Tunnel Management International, Vol. 3, No. 4, Feb. 2001, pp. 16–20. Maevski, I.Y., NCHRP Synthesis 415: Design Fires in Road Tunnels, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2011. Maevski, I., Recommended AASHTO Guidelines for Emergency Ventilation Smoke Control in Roadway Tunnels, prepared for AASHTO Standing Committee on Highways as NCHRP Proj- ect 20-07/Task 363, Washington, D.C., May 2016. Markos, S.H. and M. Shurland, Comparison of the U.S. and European Approaches to Passenger Train Fire Safety, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, Mass., 2002. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), NFPA 130: Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems, 2014 Edition, NFPA, Quincy, Mass., 2014. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority L’Enfant Plaza Station Electrical Arcing and Smoke Accident, Washington, D.C., January 12, 2015, Accident Report NTSB/RAR-16/01 PB2016-103217, NTSB, Washington, D.C., pp. 87–90, adopted May 3, 2016. Nilsson, D., M. Johansson, and H. Frantzich, “Evacuation Experiment in a Road Tunnel: A Study of Human Behaviour and Technical Installations,” Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 44, No. 4, May 2009, pp. 458–468. Park, W.-H., D.-H. Kim, Y.-J. Jang, and H.-C. Chang, Smoke-Control Ventilation Modes in an Underground Station in Korea, International Union of Railways (UIC), Paris, France, 2008. Peacock, R., et al., “Fire Safety of Passenger Trains: A Review of Current Approaches and of New Concepts,” NIST Technical Note 1406, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Washington, D.C., 1994. Peacock, R. and E. Braun, Fire Safety of Passenger Trains, Phase I: Material Evaluation (Cone Calorimeter), NIST Interagency/Internal Report 6132, National Institute of Standards and Tech- nology, Washington, D.C., 1999. Peacock, R., et al., Fire Safety of Passenger Trains, Phase II: Application of Fire Hazard Analysis Techniques, NIST Interagency/Internal Report 6525, National Institute of Standards and Technol- ogy, Washington, D.C., 2002. Peacock, R., et al., Fire Safety of Passenger Trains, Phase III: Evaluation of Fire Hazard Analysis Using Full-Scale Passenger Rail Car Tests, NIST Interagency/Internal Report 6563, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Washington, D.C., 2004. Van Weyenberge, B., X. Deckers, R. Caspeele, and B. Merci, “Development of a Risk Assessment Method for Life Safety in Case of Fire in Rail Tunnels,” Fire Technology, Vol. 51, 2015, pp. 1–15. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Recommended Fire Safety Practices for Rail Transit Materials Selection, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, Washington, D.C., Aug. 1984 (reprinted by FTA in May 1998).

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Planning and Design for Fire and Smoke Incidents in Underground Passenger Rail Systems Get This Book
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TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 124: Planning and Design for Fire and Smoke Incidents in Underground Passenger Rail Systems documents the state-of-the-practice to address fire and smoke incidents. Fires in underground passenger rail tunnels require implementation of different measures in order to provide safety for the passengers and ensure structural and system integrity of the facilities and operating infrastructure. The publication addresses planning, design, and operations to address fire and smoke incidents, and identifies current practices including lessons learned, challenges, and gaps in information.

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