National Academies Press: OpenBook

A New Vision for Center-Based Engineering Research (2017)

Chapter: Appendix F: Acronyms and Definitions

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms and Definitions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. A New Vision for Center-Based Engineering Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24767.
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F

Acronyms and Definitions

AI artificial intelligence
ARPA-E Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy, a U.S. DOE program
CERC Convergent Engineering Research Center
CRISPR clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats
DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DOE U.S. Department of Energy
ERC Engineering Research Center
EU European Union
GCSP Grand Challenges Scholars Program
GRA Georgia Research Alliance
I-ARPA Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity
I-CORPS Innovation-Corps, a U.S. National Science Foundation program
IP intellectual property
IT information technology
NAE National Academy of Engineering
NGA National Governors Association
NRC National Research Council
NSF National Science Foundation
PI principal investigator
R&D research and development
RD&I research, development, and innovation
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms and Definitions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. A New Vision for Center-Based Engineering Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24767.
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RFP request for proposal
TRL technology readiness level

Convergence

An approach to problem solving that integrates knowledge, tools, and ways of thinking from life and health sciences, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences, social sciences, and engineering disciplines.

Convergent engineering

A deeply collaborative, team-based engineering approach for defining and solving important and complex societal problems. All necessary technical and social science disciplines, skills, and capabilities are brought together to address a specific research opportunity. It is distinguished by resolutely using best team-research and value-creation practices to rapidly and efficiently integrate the unique contributions of individual members and develop valuable and innovative solutions for society.

Deep collaboration

Intense intellectual interaction of research team members to continuously refine common research goals and strategies.

Interdisciplinary

Involves the integration of perspectives, concepts, theories, and methods from two or more disciplines or fields to address the problem.

Multidisciplinary

The sequential or additive combination of ideas or methods drawn from two or more disciplines or fields to address the focal problem.

Team research

Research conducted by more than one individual in an interdependent fashion, including research conducted by small teams and larger groups. Includes all traditional natural and social science fields, as well as engineering.

Transdisciplinary

Entails not only the integration of discipline-specific approaches, but also the extension of these approaches to generate fundamentally new conceptual frameworks, hypotheses, theories, models, and methodological applications that transcend their disciplinary origins.

Value creation

The learning and creating activity whose goal is the development of new, sustainable value for society, whether as notable new research results or as marketplace innovations.

Value proposition

A review and analysis of the needs, competition, and value (i.e., benefits per costs) that an organization can deliver to its prospective customers and other stakeholders within and outside the organization.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms and Definitions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. A New Vision for Center-Based Engineering Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24767.
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Page 87
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms and Definitions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. A New Vision for Center-Based Engineering Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24767.
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Page 88
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The future security, economic growth, and competitiveness of the United States depend on its capacity to innovate. Major sources of innovative capacity are the new knowledge and trained students generated by U.S. research universities. However, many of the complex technical and societal problems the United States faces cannot be addressed by the traditional model of individual university research groups headed by a single principal investigator. Instead, they can only be solved if researchers from multiple institutions and with diverse expertise combine their efforts. The National Science Foundation (NSF), among other federal agencies, began to explore the potential of such center-scale research programs in the 1970s and 1980s; in many ways, the NSF Engineering Research Center (ERC) program is its flagship program in this regard.

The ERCs are “interdisciplinary, multi-institutional centers that join academia, industry, and government in partnership to produce transformational engineered systems and engineering graduates who are adept at innovation and primed for leadership in the global economy. To ensure that the ERCs continue to be a source of innovation, economic development, and educational excellence, A New Vision for Center-Based Engineering Research explores the future of center-based engineering research, the skills needed for effective center leadership, and opportunities to enhance engineering education through the centers.

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