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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Measurement Instruments Discussed at Forum Workshops." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally: A Synthesis of Nine Global Workshops Exploring Evidence-Based, Strategic Investments in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24772.
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Appendix D

Measurement Instruments Discussed at Forum Workshops

PROGRAM Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE
PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS USAID, UNICEF, ICF International, and others DHS is a survey-based program that provides countries with technical assistance to collect, analyze, and present data on population health. Surveys are adapted to address country-specific needs and include data on biological and physical measures, disease biomarkers, nutrition, education, sanitation, access to water, and poverty and orphan status. DHS is considered by many as the “gold standard” for providing data, which is available for free online and is ready to use with analytic software. DHS is implemented by ICF and primarily funded by USAID, in collaboration with partner organizations. DHS also collaborates with MICS to develop standards and indicators.

dhsprogram.com
LOCATIONS More than 90 countries
TIME RANGE 1984–present
PROGRAM Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE
PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS UNICEF, government agencies, and others MICS collects data on over 100 indicators in health, nutrition, education, and disability. ECD questions have been included in MICS since 2000. In 2005, the Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI), a 10-item index to measure the development of children ages 3 to 5 in different types of learning, was added to MICS. UNICEF collaborates with national governments to promote capacity building and data harmonization. MICS also collaborates with DHS to develop standards and indicators.

mics.unicef.org
LOCATIONS More than 100 countries
TIME RANGE 1995–present
PROGRAM Countdown to 2030: Maternal, Newborn, and Child Survival DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE
PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS UNICEF, WHO, UN Population Fund, World Bank, USAID, CARE, CIDA, Jhpiego, Save the Children, PATH, and many others The Countdown to 2030 project (formerly Countdown to 2015) was launched to help achieve Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health. Country-specific data on child survival and nutrition indicators such as stunting, breastfeeding, sanitation, access to water, complementary feeding, maternal education, and preschool education is available online.

countdown2030.org
LOCATIONS 75 countries worldwide
TIME RANGE 2005–present
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Measurement Instruments Discussed at Forum Workshops." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally: A Synthesis of Nine Global Workshops Exploring Evidence-Based, Strategic Investments in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24772.
×
PROGRAM Early Childhood Rights Indicators (ECRI) DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE
PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS Human Early Learning Partnership (HELP), UN Committee on the Rights of the Child ECRI was developed by HELP to guide countries in implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). ECRI was created in response to the emphasis on government reports on older cohorts rather than younger children. ECRI is a series of 17 indicators with three categories of questions: structure related, process related, and outcome related. ECRI is intended to serve as a framework to measure progress within a nation. The indicators include factors such as participation in family decisions, violence against young children, and play and rest opportunities.

crcindicators.uvic.ca/index.php/content/overview
LOCATIONS Pilot programs in Chile and Tanzania
TIME RANGE 2007–present
PROGRAM Early Development Instrument (EDI) DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITES
PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS McMaster University, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), United Way EDI measures early childhood development in the United States in five domains: physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, language and cognitive skills, and communication skills and general knowledge. The 103-item questionnaire is administered to kindergarten teachers. EDI is used to determine the percentage of children vulnerable in each of the five domains. EDI was developed at the Offord Centre for Child Studies at McMaster University in Canada. The model was adapted for U.S. use by the Transforming Early Childhood Community Systems (TECCS) partnership between the United Way Worldwide and UCLA’S Center for Healthier Children, Families, and Communities.

edi.offordcentre.com; teccs.net/about-edi
LOCATIONS Canada, United States
TIME RANGE 2000–present
PROGRAM Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITES
PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS USAID, World Bank, RTI International, Global Reading Network EGRA was created under the principle that early educational foundations are important for children to achieve basic literacy and social mobility. EGRA also uses oral assessments to assess the proficiency of children who lack basic reading and comprehension skills. The first edition of the EGRA toolkit was released in 2009; since then, many countries have emphasized the inclusion of reading-skills assessments in early grades. The second edition was released in 2016 and is available in multiple languages. EGRA was developed by RTI International, in collaboration with partner organizations.

globalreadingnetwork.net/eddata; shared.rti.org
LOCATIONS Worldwide
TIME RANGE 2006–present
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Measurement Instruments Discussed at Forum Workshops." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally: A Synthesis of Nine Global Workshops Exploring Evidence-Based, Strategic Investments in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24772.
×
PROGRAM Early Grade Mathematics Assessment (EGMA) DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITES
PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS USAID, World Bank, RTI International, Global Reading Network EGMA was created under the principle that basic numeracy is important for children to further their education and enter the job market and that problem-solving skills, procedural fluency, and automatic recall are valuable. EGMA, like EGRA, uses oral assessments to evaluate proficiency in computation, word problems, geometry, patterns, and more. The most recent edition of the toolkit was released in 2014. EGMA was developed by RTI International, in collaboration with partner organizations.

globalreadingnetwork.net/eddata; shared.rti.org
LOCATIONS Worldwide
TIME RANGE 2008–present
PROGRAM Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Initiative DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE
PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS OECD, UNESCO, European Union, and others OECD’s ECEC initiative works with its Education Policy Committee to conduct research on ECEC policies and collect country-specific data from members and nonmembers. The ECEC initiative also includes the Starting Strong series of thematic reviews; the ECEC Network, which advises countries on education policies and programs; and two ongoing surveys, the Starting Strong Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) and the International Early Learning and Child Well-being Survey (IELS).

oecd.org/education/school/earlychildhoodeducationandcare.htm
LOCATIONS 32 countries, mostly Europe and North America
TIME RANGE 2001–present
PROGRAM Child Protection Outcome Indicators DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE
ORGANIZATION Save the Children Save the Children developed these indicators as part of their internal Child Protection Initiative (CPI) mechanism. The framework was developed for children in five priority areas: children without appropriate care, children on the move, child protection in emergencies, children and work, and physical and humiliating punishment. The framework has been used by UNICEF, United Nations Development Programme, International Organization for Migration, World Vision, and other agencies.

resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/library/child-protection-outcome-indicators
LOCATIONS Worldwide
TIME RANGE 2009–present
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Measurement Instruments Discussed at Forum Workshops." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally: A Synthesis of Nine Global Workshops Exploring Evidence-Based, Strategic Investments in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24772.
×
PROGRAM Programa Regional de Indicadores de Desarollo Infantil (PRIDI) DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE
ORGANIZATION Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) PRIDI was launched by the IADB’s Education Sector in close collaboration with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, to collect quality data on children ages 24 to 59 months. PRIDI’s work emphasizes inequalities in child development in Latin America. The PRIDI database is publicly available online.

iadb.org/en/topics/education/initiative-pridi/home,20387.html
LOCATIONS North and South America
TIME RANGE 2009–present
PROGRAM East-Asia Pacific Early Childhood Development Scale (EAP-ECDS) DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE
PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS Asia-Pacific Regional Network for Early Childhood (ARNEC), University of Hong Kong, UNICEF, and others EAP-ECDS evaluate the overall development of children ages 3 to 5. Eight countries from the region selected 85 indicators to measure learning outcomes and monitor vulnerable and at-risk children. In 2016, EAP-ECDS released a report compiling findings from six countries in the region; the report found notable variations in early education program participation, number of hours in kindergarten, and urban–rural disparities. The project is implemented by the University of Hong Kong and intends for ECDS to be adapted to other countries in the region. The project also aims to streamline the list of indicators for easier use globally.

arnec.net/ecd-arnec-resources/eap-ecd-scales
LOCATIONS East Asia and Pacific region; specifically, Cambodia, China, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea, Timor-Leste, and Vanuatu
TIME RANGE 2001–present
PROGRAM Learning Metrics Task Force (LMTF) and Measuring Early Learning Quality and Outcomes (MELQO) DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE
LMTF is a multistakeholder collaboration with the goal of strengthening assessment systems to serve UNESCO’s Education for All initiative. LMTF organized the MELQO Consortium to develop two key tools to assess child development and learning and quality of early learning environments. LMTF ran in two phases; LMTF 1.0 sought to build consensus on global learning indicators and the need for measurement in all countries, while LMTF 2.0 progressed further in implementation and the improvement of assessment systems. LMTF was also influential in the inclusion of education in the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The work of LMTF is intended to continue through UNESCO’s Global Alliance to Monitor Learning (GAML) and the Assessment for Learning (A4L) initiative through the Global Partnership for Education.

brookings.edu/learning-metrics-task-force-2-0/readiness-to-learn
PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, Brookings Institution, and others)
LOCATIONS Emphasis on low-income countries
TIME RANGE 2014–2016
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Measurement Instruments Discussed at Forum Workshops." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally: A Synthesis of Nine Global Workshops Exploring Evidence-Based, Strategic Investments in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24772.
×
PROGRAM Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ, 2017) DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE
PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS University of Oregon, Portland State University Developed at the University of Oregon in 2006, ASQ is a screening tool to identify children ages 1 to 66 months at risk of developmental delay or disability. ASQ: Inventory (ASQ:I) was adapted from ASQ for children ages 1 to 36 months to serve as a more flexible monitoring tool. Parents are surveyed regarding their children’s developmental progress, and questions can be grouped in multiple ways. ASQ:I is available in 37 languages for wide use in research; it is intended to be an inexpensive and adaptive method for data collection.

www.agesandstages.com
LOCATIONS Madagascar, Kenya, Taiwan, United States
TIME RANGE 2006–present
PROGRAM Guide for Monitoring Child Development (GMCD) DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE
ORGANIZATION Ankara University The GMCD was created as a clinical evaluation to assess developmental delays in language, cognition, social behavior, and neuromotor skills, with the intent of strengthening provider–caregiver relationships and advancing health system approaches to children with developmental delays. The GMCD contains 10 mostly open-ended questions administered to parents, with each survey lasting about 15 minutes. The three-phase project, conducted in four countries, involved more than 20,000 children over 5 years.

pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/121/3/e581.full.pdf?download=true
LOCATIONS Turkey, Argentina, South Africa, India
TIME RANGE 1995–2015
PROGRAM International Development and Early Learning Assessment (IDELA) DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE
ORGANIZATION Save the Children IDELA is an assessment for children ages 3.5 to 6.5 years that measures motor skills, literacy, numeracy, and socioemotional development. IDELA includes 24 questions in four domains and also measures factors such as motivation, persistence, and self-regulation. The assessment is administered to children and lasts about 30 minutes. IDELA is intended to be adaptive to national, regional, and linguistic needs as well as larger policy priorities; the assessment includes optional subscales and extensions that can be added to the core items. This flexibility allows IDELA to be used as both a global standard for comparison and an adaptive research tool.

resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/library/growing-evidence-children-measuring-development-and-early-learning-globally
LOCATIONS 28 countries
TIME RANGE 2011–present
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Measurement Instruments Discussed at Forum Workshops." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally: A Synthesis of Nine Global Workshops Exploring Evidence-Based, Strategic Investments in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24772.
×
PROGRAM Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS) DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE
ORGANIZATION Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) VACS uses nationally representative samples of young adults ages 13 to 24, assessing exposure to violence during childhood. VACs measures factors such as exposure to physical and sexual violence, violence perpetration, gender attitudes, effect on health, and access to services. VACS is administered with the THRIVES technical package, which includes policies and programs to reduce violence against children. Countries have used VACS to develop legislation, introduce education on violence, design strategies to provide services, and increase the workforce in multiple sectors.

cdc.gov/violenceprevention/vacs
LOCATIONS More than 14 countries
TIME RANGE 2007–present
PROGRAM Ten Questions (TQ) DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE
ORGANIZATION University of Wisconsin–Madison The TQ questionnaire is used to screen for serious child motor, vision, and seizure disability in resource-poor countries. The questionnaire is administered to caretakers of children ages 2 to 9 and consists of 10 closed (yes/no) questions. From 1987 to 1989, researchers undertook pilot studies in nine countries and three large studies in Bangladesh, Jamaica, and Pakistan. The questionnaire has since been adapted for use by researchers in additional countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa.

http://disabilitymeasures.org/tenquestions
LOCATIONS More than 9 countries
TIME RANGE 1987–present

NOTES: CIDA = Canadian International Development Agency; ICF = International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; THRIVES = Training in parenting, Household economic strengthening, Reduced violence through protective policies, Improved services, Values and norms that protect children, Education and life skills, Surveillance and evaluation; UNESCO = UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; UNICEF = UN International Children’s Emergency Fund; USAID = U.S. Agency for International Development; WHO = World Health Organization.
SOURCES: Anderson et al., 2016; ARNEC, 2017; ASQ, 2017; Brookings, 2017a,b,c; CDC, 2016a,b; Center for Healthier Children, 2012, 2017; Countdown to 2030, 2015a,b,c,d; DHS, 2016a,b; Disability Measures, n.d.; Durkin, 1994; Ertem, 2008; Global Reading Network, 2017; HELP, 2012a,b; IADB, 2016a,b; Mungala-Odera, 2004; OECD, 2016a,b,c,d; Offord, 2016a,b; Rao, 2014; RTI International, 2014, 2016a,b; Save the Children, 2015, 2016; TECCS, n.d.; UNICEF, 2010, 2017; USAID, 2016.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Measurement Instruments Discussed at Forum Workshops." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally: A Synthesis of Nine Global Workshops Exploring Evidence-Based, Strategic Investments in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24772.
×
Page 38
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Measurement Instruments Discussed at Forum Workshops." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally: A Synthesis of Nine Global Workshops Exploring Evidence-Based, Strategic Investments in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24772.
×
Page 39
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Measurement Instruments Discussed at Forum Workshops." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally: A Synthesis of Nine Global Workshops Exploring Evidence-Based, Strategic Investments in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24772.
×
Page 40
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Measurement Instruments Discussed at Forum Workshops." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally: A Synthesis of Nine Global Workshops Exploring Evidence-Based, Strategic Investments in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24772.
×
Page 41
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Measurement Instruments Discussed at Forum Workshops." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally: A Synthesis of Nine Global Workshops Exploring Evidence-Based, Strategic Investments in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24772.
×
Page 42
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Measurement Instruments Discussed at Forum Workshops." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally: A Synthesis of Nine Global Workshops Exploring Evidence-Based, Strategic Investments in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24772.
×
Page 43
Next: Appendix E: Examples of Programs Highlighted in Workshops »
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Focusing on young children in a global context is an approach to end the cycle of poverty and improve the well-being of nations. Improving well-being necessarily begins with core elements such as health, education, nutrition, and social protection; many efforts to improve child development in the first decade of life focus on areas to meet young children’s basic needs. Young children living in low-resourced settings are vulnerable to developmental and educational risk factors, such as stunting and undernutrition, disease, caregiver depression, lack of access to quality preprimary and primary education, disabilities, poverty, and societal and familial violence. While each of these areas is important for children’s growth and development, there are potential increased benefits from integrated programs and coordinated policies that address more than one of these areas simultaneously, particularly for children living in low-resourced communities. An integrated and coordinated “all system” approach may be the best way to guarantee that children will have the prerequisites for healthy development.

The Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally was established with the goal of integrating knowledge with action in regions around the world to inform evidence-based, strategic investments in young children, birth through age 8. The forum held nine workshops across five continents over 3 years. The goal was to learn from experiences in multiple regions and engage in culturally embedded dialogue. This publication summarizes the key themes from the presentations and discussions of the workshops.

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