|PROGRAM||Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE|
|PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS||USAID, UNICEF, ICF International, and others||DHS is a survey-based program that provides countries with technical assistance to collect, analyze, and present data on population health. Surveys are adapted to address country-specific needs and include data on biological and physical measures, disease biomarkers, nutrition, education, sanitation, access to water, and poverty and orphan status. DHS is considered by many as the “gold standard” for providing data, which is available for free online and is ready to use with analytic software. DHS is implemented by ICF and primarily funded by USAID, in collaboration with partner organizations. DHS also collaborates with MICS to develop standards and indicators.
|LOCATIONS||More than 90 countries|
|PROGRAM||Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS)||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE|
|PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS||UNICEF, government agencies, and others||MICS collects data on over 100 indicators in health, nutrition, education, and disability. ECD questions have been included in MICS since 2000. In 2005, the Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI), a 10-item index to measure the development of children ages 3 to 5 in different types of learning, was added to MICS. UNICEF collaborates with national governments to promote capacity building and data harmonization. MICS also collaborates with DHS to develop standards and indicators.
|LOCATIONS||More than 100 countries|
|PROGRAM||Countdown to 2030: Maternal, Newborn, and Child Survival||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE|
|PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS||UNICEF, WHO, UN Population Fund, World Bank, USAID, CARE, CIDA, Jhpiego, Save the Children, PATH, and many others||The Countdown to 2030 project (formerly Countdown to 2015) was launched to help achieve Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health. Country-specific data on child survival and nutrition indicators such as stunting, breastfeeding, sanitation, access to water, complementary feeding, maternal education, and preschool education is available online.
|LOCATIONS||75 countries worldwide|
|PROGRAM||Early Childhood Rights Indicators (ECRI)||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE|
|PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS||Human Early Learning Partnership (HELP), UN Committee on the Rights of the Child||ECRI was developed by HELP to guide countries in implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). ECRI was created in response to the emphasis on government reports on older cohorts rather than younger children. ECRI is a series of 17 indicators with three categories of questions: structure related, process related, and outcome related. ECRI is intended to serve as a framework to measure progress within a nation. The indicators include factors such as participation in family decisions, violence against young children, and play and rest opportunities.
|LOCATIONS||Pilot programs in Chile and Tanzania|
|PROGRAM||Early Development Instrument (EDI)||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITES|
|PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS||McMaster University, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), United Way||EDI measures early childhood development in the United States in five domains: physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, language and cognitive skills, and communication skills and general knowledge. The 103-item questionnaire is administered to kindergarten teachers. EDI is used to determine the percentage of children vulnerable in each of the five domains. EDI was developed at the Offord Centre for Child Studies at McMaster University in Canada. The model was adapted for U.S. use by the Transforming Early Childhood Community Systems (TECCS) partnership between the United Way Worldwide and UCLA’S Center for Healthier Children, Families, and Communities.
|LOCATIONS||Canada, United States|
|PROGRAM||Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA)||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITES|
|PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS||USAID, World Bank, RTI International, Global Reading Network||EGRA was created under the principle that early educational foundations are important for children to achieve basic literacy and social mobility. EGRA also uses oral assessments to assess the proficiency of children who lack basic reading and comprehension skills. The first edition of the EGRA toolkit was released in 2009; since then, many countries have emphasized the inclusion of reading-skills assessments in early grades. The second edition was released in 2016 and is available in multiple languages. EGRA was developed by RTI International, in collaboration with partner organizations.
|PROGRAM||Early Grade Mathematics Assessment (EGMA)||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITES|
|PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS||USAID, World Bank, RTI International, Global Reading Network||EGMA was created under the principle that basic numeracy is important for children to further their education and enter the job market and that problem-solving skills, procedural fluency, and automatic recall are valuable. EGMA, like EGRA, uses oral assessments to evaluate proficiency in computation, word problems, geometry, patterns, and more. The most recent edition of the toolkit was released in 2014. EGMA was developed by RTI International, in collaboration with partner organizations.
|PROGRAM||Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Initiative||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE|
|PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS||OECD, UNESCO, European Union, and others||OECD’s ECEC initiative works with its Education Policy Committee to conduct research on ECEC policies and collect country-specific data from members and nonmembers. The ECEC initiative also includes the Starting Strong series of thematic reviews; the ECEC Network, which advises countries on education policies and programs; and two ongoing surveys, the Starting Strong Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) and the International Early Learning and Child Well-being Survey (IELS).
|LOCATIONS||32 countries, mostly Europe and North America|
|PROGRAM||Child Protection Outcome Indicators||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE|
|ORGANIZATION||Save the Children||Save the Children developed these indicators as part of their internal Child Protection Initiative (CPI) mechanism. The framework was developed for children in five priority areas: children without appropriate care, children on the move, child protection in emergencies, children and work, and physical and humiliating punishment. The framework has been used by UNICEF, United Nations Development Programme, International Organization for Migration, World Vision, and other agencies.
|PROGRAM||Programa Regional de Indicadores de Desarollo Infantil (PRIDI)||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE|
|ORGANIZATION||Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)||PRIDI was launched by the IADB’s Education Sector in close collaboration with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, to collect quality data on children ages 24 to 59 months. PRIDI’s work emphasizes inequalities in child development in Latin America. The PRIDI database is publicly available online.
|LOCATIONS||North and South America|
|PROGRAM||East-Asia Pacific Early Childhood Development Scale (EAP-ECDS)||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE|
|PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS||Asia-Pacific Regional Network for Early Childhood (ARNEC), University of Hong Kong, UNICEF, and others||EAP-ECDS evaluate the overall development of children ages 3 to 5. Eight countries from the region selected 85 indicators to measure learning outcomes and monitor vulnerable and at-risk children. In 2016, EAP-ECDS released a report compiling findings from six countries in the region; the report found notable variations in early education program participation, number of hours in kindergarten, and urban–rural disparities. The project is implemented by the University of Hong Kong and intends for ECDS to be adapted to other countries in the region. The project also aims to streamline the list of indicators for easier use globally.
|LOCATIONS||East Asia and Pacific region; specifically, Cambodia, China, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea, Timor-Leste, and Vanuatu|
|PROGRAM||Learning Metrics Task Force (LMTF) and Measuring Early Learning Quality and Outcomes (MELQO)||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE|
|LMTF is a multistakeholder collaboration with the goal of strengthening assessment systems to serve UNESCO’s Education for All initiative. LMTF organized the MELQO Consortium to develop two key tools to assess child development and learning and quality of early learning environments. LMTF ran in two phases; LMTF 1.0 sought to build consensus on global learning indicators and the need for measurement in all countries, while LMTF 2.0 progressed further in implementation and the improvement of assessment systems. LMTF was also influential in the inclusion of education in the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The work of LMTF is intended to continue through UNESCO’s Global Alliance to Monitor Learning (GAML) and the Assessment for Learning (A4L) initiative through the Global Partnership for Education.
|PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS||UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, Brookings Institution, and others)|
|LOCATIONS||Emphasis on low-income countries|
|PROGRAM||Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ, 2017)||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE|
|PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS||University of Oregon, Portland State University||Developed at the University of Oregon in 2006, ASQ is a screening tool to identify children ages 1 to 66 months at risk of developmental delay or disability. ASQ: Inventory (ASQ:I) was adapted from ASQ for children ages 1 to 36 months to serve as a more flexible monitoring tool. Parents are surveyed regarding their children’s developmental progress, and questions can be grouped in multiple ways. ASQ:I is available in 37 languages for wide use in research; it is intended to be an inexpensive and adaptive method for data collection.
|LOCATIONS||Madagascar, Kenya, Taiwan, United States|
|PROGRAM||Guide for Monitoring Child Development (GMCD)||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE|
|ORGANIZATION||Ankara University||The GMCD was created as a clinical evaluation to assess developmental delays in language, cognition, social behavior, and neuromotor skills, with the intent of strengthening provider–caregiver relationships and advancing health system approaches to children with developmental delays. The GMCD contains 10 mostly open-ended questions administered to parents, with each survey lasting about 15 minutes. The three-phase project, conducted in four countries, involved more than 20,000 children over 5 years.
|LOCATIONS||Turkey, Argentina, South Africa, India|
|PROGRAM||International Development and Early Learning Assessment (IDELA)||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE|
|ORGANIZATION||Save the Children||IDELA is an assessment for children ages 3.5 to 6.5 years that measures motor skills, literacy, numeracy, and socioemotional development. IDELA includes 24 questions in four domains and also measures factors such as motivation, persistence, and self-regulation. The assessment is administered to children and lasts about 30 minutes. IDELA is intended to be adaptive to national, regional, and linguistic needs as well as larger policy priorities; the assessment includes optional subscales and extensions that can be added to the core items. This flexibility allows IDELA to be used as both a global standard for comparison and an adaptive research tool.
|PROGRAM||Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS)||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE|
|ORGANIZATION||Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)||VACS uses nationally representative samples of young adults ages 13 to 24, assessing exposure to violence during childhood. VACs measures factors such as exposure to physical and sexual violence, violence perpetration, gender attitudes, effect on health, and access to services. VACS is administered with the THRIVES technical package, which includes policies and programs to reduce violence against children. Countries have used VACS to develop legislation, introduce education on violence, design strategies to provide services, and increase the workforce in multiple sectors.
|LOCATIONS||More than 14 countries|
|PROGRAM||Ten Questions (TQ)||DESCRIPTION AND WEBSITE|
|ORGANIZATION||University of Wisconsin–Madison||The TQ questionnaire is used to screen for serious child motor, vision, and seizure disability in resource-poor countries. The questionnaire is administered to caretakers of children ages 2 to 9 and consists of 10 closed (yes/no) questions. From 1987 to 1989, researchers undertook pilot studies in nine countries and three large studies in Bangladesh, Jamaica, and Pakistan. The questionnaire has since been adapted for use by researchers in additional countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa.
|LOCATIONS||More than 9 countries|
NOTES: CIDA = Canadian International Development Agency; ICF = International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; THRIVES = Training in parenting, Household economic strengthening, Reduced violence through protective policies, Improved services, Values and norms that protect children, Education and life skills, Surveillance and evaluation; UNESCO = UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; UNICEF = UN International Children’s Emergency Fund; USAID = U.S. Agency for International Development; WHO = World Health Organization.
SOURCES: Anderson et al., 2016; ARNEC, 2017; ASQ, 2017; Brookings, 2017a,b,c; CDC, 2016a,b; Center for Healthier Children, 2012, 2017; Countdown to 2030, 2015a,b,c,d; DHS, 2016a,b; Disability Measures, n.d.; Durkin, 1994; Ertem, 2008; Global Reading Network, 2017; HELP, 2012a,b; IADB, 2016a,b; Mungala-Odera, 2004; OECD, 2016a,b,c,d; Offord, 2016a,b; Rao, 2014; RTI International, 2014, 2016a,b; Save the Children, 2015, 2016; TECCS, n.d.; UNICEF, 2010, 2017; USAID, 2016.