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Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2017 Letter Report (2018)

Chapter: Appendix B Committee Biosketches

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Committee Biosketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2017 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24953.
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Page 49
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Committee Biosketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2017 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24953.
×
Page 50
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Committee Biosketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2017 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24953.
×
Page 51
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Committee Biosketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2017 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24953.
×
Page 52
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Committee Biosketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2017 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24953.
×
Page 53
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Committee Biosketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2017 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24953.
×
Page 54
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Committee Biosketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2017 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24953.
×
Page 55
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Committee Biosketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2017 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24953.
×
Page 56

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

B Committee Biosketches Carol E. H. Scott-Conner, M.D., Ph.D., M.B.A. (Chair), is a professor emerita in the Department of Surgery, University of Iowa, Iowa City. Dr. Scott-Conner received her undergraduate training in electrical engineer- ing from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and worked as an engineer before attending medical school at New York University (NYU), where she also completed a residency in surgery. She joined the faculty at Marshall University and then moved to the University of Mis- sissippi. During her tenure there, she earned a Ph.D. in anatomy from the University of Kentucky and an M.B.A. In 1995, she became a professor and the head of surgery at the University of Iowa. Dr. Scott-Conner has been active on 22 editorial boards and has written more than 200 original papers, abstracts, reviews, and book chapters. She is certified by the Na- tional Board of Medical Examiners and the American Board of Surgery and has a certification of added qualifications in surgical critical care. Dr. Scott-Conner has served on a number of National Academies’ commit- tees, and she chairs the Standing Committee on Aerospace Medicine and the Medicine of Extreme Environments. Daniel R. Masys, M.D. (Vice Chair), is an affiliate professor of biomed- ical and health informatics at the University of Washington School of Medicine, where he joined the Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Education in 2011. Previously, he served as a professor and the chair of the Department of Biomedical Informatics and a professor of medicine at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. An honors graduate of Princeton University and the Ohio State University College of Medicine, he completed postgraduate training in internal medicine, hematology, and medical oncology at the University of California, San 49 PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

50 REVIEW OF NASA’S EVIDENCE REPORTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISKS Diego (UCSD), and the Naval Regional Medical Center, San Diego. He served as the chief of the International Cancer Research Data Bank of the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, and was the di- rector of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communica- tions, which is a computer research and development division of the National Library of Medicine. He also served as the director of Biomedical Informatics at the UCSD School of Medicine, the director of the UCSD Human Research Protections Program, and professor of medicine. Dr. Masys is an elected member of the National Academy of Medicine. He is a diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine in medicine, hema- tology, and medical oncology. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians and a fellow and past president of the American College of Medical Informatics. Dr. Masys served as a member of the National Acad- emies’ Committee on Aerospace Medicine and Medicine of Extreme Envi- ronments and chaired the 2008 Institute of Medicine review of NASA’s Human Research Program evidence books. Daniel Bikle, M.D., Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Medicine and Dermatology at the University of California, San Francisco, and a staff physician at the San Francisco Medical Center. He is an endocrinol- ogist. His research focuses on the hormonal regulation of calcium me- tabolism, and includes projects involving the classic target tissue of bone as well as non-classic tissues such as the skin. His projects with bone focus on the mechanisms by which parathyroid hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 regulate bone formation and differentiation, the response of bone to mechanical loading and unloading, and the ability of bone to heal fractures. Dr. Bikle received his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania, where he also received his doctoral degree in biochem- istry. He is a member of the Association of American Physicians and the American Society for Clinical Investigation, and a fellow in the Ameri- can College of Physicians, the Endocrine Society, and the American So- ciety for Bone and Mineral Research, which he has served in various leadership positions. Victor A. Convertino, Ph.D., is the senior scientist for combat casualty care and the director of the newly formed Battlefield Health & Trauma Center for Human Integrated Physiology at the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. He received a masters degree in exercise science and a Ph.D. degree in physiology at the Uni- versity of California, Davis. His professional career took him to positions PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

APPENDIX B 51 at NASA’s Ames Research Center, the Stanford University School of Medicine, the University of Arizona, NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory before he assumed his pre- sent position. Dr. Convertino holds adjunct professor positions on the faculty of several universities and the U.S. Air Force School of Aero- space Medicine. Dr. Convertino is a contributor to many areas of re- search, including regulation of plasma volume during acute and chronic exercise; interrelationship of plasma volume and electrolytes with adap- tation to microgravity and thermoregulation during heat and exercise ex- posures; effect of acute and chronic exercise on blood pressure regulation and orthostatic competence; development of exercise training and coun- termeasures for astronauts and crew members of high-performance air- craft; and physiological adaptation to varying gravity environments. His current research focuses on developing decision-support and therapeutic technologies as well as new tactical combat casualty care doctrine to ad- vance the capabilities of combat medics to save the lives of battlefield casualties. He has published more than 300 peer-reviewed manuscripts, invited reviews, and chapters in the scientific literature, and he has served on the editorial boards of four international journals. Dr. Conver- tino is a Fellow of the American Physiological Society, the Aerospace Medical Association, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) where he has served on the Board of Trustees and as vice president, and the International Society for Gravitational Physiology (ISGP) where he served as 2007 president. Among numerous recognitions, Dr. Convertino has received the 2010 U.S. Army Combat Casualty Care Research Pro- gram Award for Excellence and the 2011 ISGP Nello Pace Career Award and was inducted into the Space Foundation Technology Hall of Fame in 2008. Nancy E. Lane, M.D., is an endowed professor of medicine, rheumatol- ogy, and aging research, the director for the Center for Musculoskeletal Health, the director of the K12 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Build- ing Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women’s Health (BIRCWH), and a principal investigator of the NIH-funded Program on Sex Differ- ences in Musculoskeletal Diseases Across the Lifespan at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine where she has served for the past 12 years. Dr. Lane is an internationally recognized scientist in the fields of both osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Her translational research team has been instrumental in defining the role of glucocorticoids in bone fragility, including their effects on cell stress and vulnerable cell PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

52 REVIEW OF NASA’S EVIDENCE REPORTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISKS populations including osteocytes. As a faculty member at the University of California, San Francisco, she pioneered a seminal clinical trial to demonstrate that daily injections of the hormone PTH could reverse glu- cocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and she performed research on the rate of recovery of immobilization induced bone loss. After transitioning to the University of California, Davis, she developed a novel compound to direct stem cells to the bone to grow new bone and treat osteoporosis. In addition she has uncovered novel genetic variations that predispose indi- viduals to osteoarthritis and has studied novel treatments for osteoarthri- tis. Her research accomplishments have been recognized by the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine Dean’s Team Sci- ence Award (2012), the American College of Rheumatology for the Os- car Gluck Memorial Lecture for outstanding work in osteoporosis (2011), the Remodeling in Bone “RIB Award” by the International Soci- ety of Bone and Mineral Research (2012), her election as a master of the American College of Physicians (2012), and the David Trentham Lec- tureship and Women in Medicine Lectureship at Harvard Medical School (2013). She is also the recipient of the Bone and Joint Decade Outstand- ing Achievement Award for developing a mentoring program in grant writing (2009). Dr. Lane was the president of the board of the United States Bone and Joint Decade (2006-2008), co-led the International Bone and Joint Decade Conference in Washington, DC (2010), and was elect- ed and served on the council of the American Society of Bone and Min- eral Research (2010-2013), and the Orthopedic Research Society (2003- 2005). Dr. Lane is on the editorial boards of Nature Reviews Rheumatol- ogy, Rheumatology (associate editor), and Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism (associate editor), and she was co-editor of Arthritis and Rheumatism (2005-2010) and the Journal of Rheumatology. Dr. Lane was elected to the National Academy of Medicine in 2013. James A. Pawelczyk, Ph.D., is an associate professor of physiology, kinesiology, and medicine at The Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Pawelczyk served as a payload specialist on STS-90 Neurolab (April 17 to May 3, 1998); the experiments onboard the space shuttle Columbia flight focused on the effects of microgravity on the brain and nervous system. Dr. Pawelczyk is a former member of the NASA Life Sciences Advisory Subcommittee in the Office of Biological and Physical Re- search, and he served as a member of NASA’s ReMaP Task Force in 2002, which was charged with reprioritizing research on the space sta- tion. Dr. Pawelczyk’s research areas include central neural control of the PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

APPENDIX B 53 cardiovascular system and compensatory mechanisms to conditioning and deconditioning. He received his M.S. in physiology from The Penn- sylvania State University and his Ph.D. in biology (physiology) from the University of North Texas. He chaired the National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space: Integrative and Translational Research for the Human System Panel and chaired an Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on NASA’s directed re- search programs in 2012. He has served on several NRC and IOM com- mittees and recently completed rotations on the IOM’s Committee on Aerospace Medicine and the Medicine of Extreme Environments and the NRC’s Space Studies Board. Robert L. Satcher, Jr., M.D., Ph.D., is an associate professor of surgi- cal oncology at MD Anderson Cancer Center. His medical specialties are orthopedics and oncology, and his clinical practice is focused on treating bone cancer, sarcoma, and metastatic disease in adults and children. Se- lected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in 2004, he completed his train- ing 2 years later. He served as a mission specialist on STS-129 aboard the space shuttle Atlantis which journeyed to the International Space Station for almost 11 days in November 2009. During his mission, he completed two spacewalks which were focused on completing the construction of the ISS. In addition, he studied the influence of zero gravity on muscles and bone density as well as the effects of space on the immune system. He also used his surgical training to install an antenna and help repair two robotic arms on the space station. Dr. Satcher is the director of the eHealth Re- search Institute at Texas Medical Center and a member of the User Panel at the National Space and Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). His translational research team contributes to many areas of research includ- ing: 3D biomimetic cell cultures, the role of extracellular matrix in pro- gression of cancer, the role of the bone matrix in and microenvironment in cancer growth and progression, and heterotypic cell–cell interactions be- tween bone and cancer. He is a frequent reviewer and adviser for medical issues related to spaceflight, including serving on committees of the Na- tional Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Dr. Satcher is a diplomate of the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgeons. He earned a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- nology in 1993 and an M.D. from Harvard Medical School in 1994. Julianna C. Simon, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Graduate Pro- gram in Acoustics at The Pennsylvania State University, where she is PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

54 REVIEW OF NASA’S EVIDENCE REPORTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISKS developing an ultrasound research program in detecting and treating re- nal stones, developing minimally invasive acoustic surgery with acoustic hemostasis techniques, and treating or preventing musculoskeletal inju- ries. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Washington Depart- ment of Bioengineering. Dr. Simon received the University of Washington’s INVENTS Award in 2012. Her graduate training was in therapeutic ultrasound and her postdoctoral training was in ultrasound imaging. In 2013 she was awarded a National Space Biomedical Re- search Institute First Award Postdoctoral Fellow and discovered that car- bon dioxide exposure negatively affects kidney stone detection using the color Doppler ultrasound twinkling artifact. Jack W. Stuster, Ph.D., is the president and principal scientist of Ana- capa Sciences, Inc., a human factors and applied behavioral sciences re- search firm. He received a bachelor’s degree in experimental psychology from the University of California, Santa Barbara, and master’s and Ph.D. degrees in anthropology from the same institution. Dr. Stuster is a certi- fied professional ergonomist, specializing in the measurement and en- hancement of human performance in extreme environments. He has analyzed the tasks performed by U.S. Navy SEALs, SEAL delivery- vehicle pilots and navigators, explosive ordnance disposal technicians, crews of high-speed hovercraft, maintenance personnel, and military leaders. Dr. Stuster’s work for NASA began in 1982 with a systems analysis of space shuttle refurbishing procedures and has been followed by studies of conditions on Earth that are analogous to those found on space missions. Dr. Stuster has been awarded fellow status by the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society and the Borneo Research Society. He was a member of the Science Council of NASA’s Institute for Advanced Concepts and the External Advisory Council of the National Space Bio- medical Research Institute. He has also served on several government advisory groups, including the standing committee of the National Acad- emies Board on Army Science and Technology to support the efforts of the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization, for which he received a patriotic Civilian Service Commendation in 2011. He cur- rently serves as the principal investigator of the Journals Flight Experi- ment and is conducting a task analysis for the first human expedition to Mars. Gayle E. Woloschak, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Radia- tion Oncology and Radiology at the Feinberg School of Medicine at PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

APPENDIX B 55 Northwestern University. Her research interests include studies of radia- tion-inducible nanoparticles, the determination of the molecular mecha- nisms of oncogenesis in radiation-induced tumors, and studies of large datasets for the determination of radiation low dose and dose-rate effects in animals with extrapolation to humans. She received her Ph.D. in med- ical sciences (microbiology) from the Medical College of Ohio and did postdoctoral training in the departments of immunology and molecular biology at the Mayo Clinic. Dr. Woloschak was a senior molecular biol- ogist and group leader of the Biosciences Division at Argonne National Laboratory, and a senior fellow at the Nanosciences Consortium of Ar- gonne National Laboratory–University of Chicago. She has served as a member of the National Institutes of Health’s radiation study section and of the National Research Council’s Committee on the Evaluation of Ra- diation Shielding for Space Exploration, and she has chaired NASA’s peer-review radiation biology committee. Laurence R. Young, Sc.D., is an Apollo professor of astronautics and a professor of health sciences and technology at the Massachusetts Insti- tute of Technology (MIT). He was the founding director (1997-2001) of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, which awarded him its Pioneer Award. Dr. Young is a full member of the International Acade- my of Astronautics. He received an A.B. from Amherst College; a certif- icate in applied mathematics from the Sorbonne in Paris, as a French government fellow; and S.B. and S.M. degrees in electrical engineering and an Sc.D. in instrumentation from MIT. He joined the MIT faculty in 1962 and co-founded the Man Vehicle Laboratory, which does research on the visual and vestibular systems, visual–vestibular interaction, flight simulation, space motion sickness, and manual control and displays. In 1991 Dr. Young was selected as a payload specialist for Spacelab Life Sciences 2. He spent 2 years in training at the Johnson Space Center and served as alternate payload specialist during the October 1993 mission. He was chairman of the Harvard–MIT Committee on Biomedical Engi- neering and Physics and the interdepartmental Ph.D. program in biomed- ical engineering, and he directs the Harvard–MIT Program in Bioastronautics. Dr. Young is a member of the National Academy of Medicine and the National Academy of Engineering and has served on many National Academies’ committees, including the Committee on Aerospace Medicine and the Medicine of Extreme Environments. He is a Fellow of IEEE and the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering and was president of the Biomedical Engineering Society. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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This is the fifth, and final, in a series of letter reports that provide an independent review of the more than 30 evidence reports that NASA has compiled on human health risks for long-duration and exploration spaceflights. This letter report reviews five evidence reports and examines the quality of the evidence, analysis, and overall construction of each report; identifies existing gaps in report content; and provides suggestions for additional sources of expert input.

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