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2018 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 195 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Public Transportation Broadening Understanding of the Interplay Among Public Transit, Shared Mobility, and Personal Automobiles Sharon Feigon Colin Murphy Shared-USe Mobility Center Chicago, IL
TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 195 Project J-11/Task 25 ISSN 2572-3782 (online) ISBN 978-0-309-39037-8 Â© 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. 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Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administrationânow the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
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C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The principal investigator, Sharon Feigon, and the research lead, Colin Murphy, were supported by Tim Frisbie of the Shared-Use Mobility Center, who provided additional writing for the project. Analysis, research, and editorial support were provided by Kelley Pinnick, Rudy Faust, Aaron Westling, and Prashanth Gururaja of the Shared-Use Mobility Center. Parts of the TNC analysis, and the exploratory analysis in Appendix C, were performed by Adam Davidson, a Shared-Use Mobility Center Research Fellow and a Ph.D. candidate at City University of New York. The researchers would like to thank the four public transit agenciesâBay Area Rapid Transit, Metro- politan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, New Jersey Transit, and Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authorityâfor providing their survey findings that were used for analysis in this project; the transportation network company, who wished to remain anonymous, for providing the trip data that was central to this research; and the other public agencies and private mobility providers for helping to distribute surveys to their users over the last several years. Neither the transit agencies nor the private providers have reviewed this work prior to its publication; nor have they exerted any editorial control over this research. CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 195 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Daniel J. Magnolia, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Sreyashi Roy, Editor TCRP PROJECT J-11/TASK 25 PANEL Field of Special Projects Marlene B. Connor, Marlene Connor Associates, LLC, Holyoke, MA Brian C. Hoeft, Regional Transportation Commission (RTC) of Southern Nevada, Las Vegas, NV Crystal Lyons, Crystal Fortune Lyons, LLC, Corpus Christi, TX Jonathan H. McDonald, Hatch, Oakland, CA Wendy Reuter, Canadian Urban Transit Association, Toronto, ON Aaron S. Weinstein, San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART), Oakland, CA Marla Westervelt, Los Angeles County (CA) Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles, CA Gwo-Wei Torng, FTA Liaison Darnell Grisby, APTA Liaison Katherine A. Kortum, TRB Liaison
TCRP Research Report 195: Broadening Understanding of the Interplay Among Public Transit, Shared Mobility, and Personal Automobiles extends the research presented in TCRP Research Report 188: Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit. It broadens understanding of the interplay between emerging and established modes of transportation by further exploring how shared modes, particularly transportation network companies, are being incorporated into the mix of transportation options. This report will help transit agencies and other public entities to better understand the opportunities and challenges as they relate to technology-enabled mobility services. Research on transportation network companies (TNCs) has been limited, in most instances, by the lack of necessary and appropriate data. This research addresses this obstacle by drawing on several important sources of data and information: â¢ TNC trip data. Hourly origin-destination TNC trip data for five regions (Chicago, Los Angeles, Nashville, Seattle, and Washington, D.C.) was provided by a major TNC and similar modeled information for the city of San Francisco was provided by the San Francisco County Trans- portation Authority (SFCTA). â¢ Shared Mobility Survey. A survey of more than 10,000 transit and other shared mobility users in eight metropolitan areas was administered by the researchers. â¢ Four Agency Survey. Transit rider surveys about TNC use were administered by public transit agencies in Atlanta, the San Francisco Bay Area, New Jersey, and Washington, D.C. Key findings from this research include: 1. The heaviest TNC use across the regions in this study is during the evening hours and weekends. 2. Most TNC trips in the study regions are short and concentrated in the downtown core neighborhoods. 3. There is no clear relationship between the level of peak-hour TNC use and the longer-term changes in the study regionsâ public transit usage. 4. Among survey respondents, people who use transit or commute by driving solo do so as part of a routine; TNCs are used on a more occasional basis. 5. Transit travel and wait times were the top concerns of survey respondents who replaced transit trips with TNC trips. 6. TNC usage takes place in communities of all income levels. 7. TNC use is associated with decreases in respondentsâ vehicle ownership and single-occupancy vehicle trips. The report also provides guidance to help inform public transit agencies and other public entities in large, midsized, and smaller urban areas in their attempts to engage with TNC services. F O R E W O R D By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Introduction 5 Chapter 2 Market Characteristics 13 Chapter 3 Trip-Making Characteristics 21 Chapter 4 Transportation Network Company Rider Characteristics 31 Chapter 5 Conclusion 35 Appendix A Transportation Network Company Trip Data Overview 38 Appendix B Regional Profiles of Transportation Network Company Usage 61 Appendix C Transportation Network Company/ Transit Exploratory Demographic Analysis 65 Appendix D Shared Mobility Survey Methodology 67 Appendix E Shared Mobility Survey Instrument 75 Appendix F Transit Agency Survey Instrument C O N T E N T S