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Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers (2018)

Chapter: Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25010.
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A

Biographies of Committee Members

FRED H. CATE, Chair, is vice president for research, distinguished professor, and the C. Ben Dutton Professor of Law, and adjunct professor of informatics and computing at Indiana University (IU). He served as the founding director of IU’s Center for Applied Cybersecurity Research from 2003 to 2014, where he is now a senior fellow. Professor Cate has testified before numerous congressional committees and speaks frequently before professional, industry, and government groups. He is a senior policy advisor to the Centre for Information Policy Leadership at Hunton & Williams LLP, and a member of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Forum on Cyber Resilience. Previously, Professor Cate served as a member of the National Academies’ Committee on Technical and Privacy Dimensions of Information for Terrorism Prevention, the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) Cybersecurity Subcommittee, the National Security Agency’s (NSA’s) Privacy and Civil Liberties Panel, the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD’s) Panel of Experts on Health Information Infrastructure, Microsoft’s Trustworthy Computing Academic Advisory Board, Intel’s Privacy and Security External Advisory Board, the Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC’s) Advisory Committee on Online Access and Security, and the board of directors of The Privacy Projects. He served as counsel to the Department of Defense Technology and Privacy Advisory Committee and as chair of the International Telecommunication Union’s High-Level Experts on Electronic Signatures and Certification Authorities. The author of more than 150 articles and books, he served as the privacy editor for the

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25010.
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Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers’ Security and Privacy and is one of the founding editors of the Oxford University Press journal International Data Privacy Law. Professor Cate attended Oxford University and received his J.D. and his A.B. with honors and distinction from Stanford University. A former senator and president of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, he is a fellow of Phi Beta Kappa and the American Bar Foundation and an elected member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the American Law Institute.

DAN BONEH is a professor of computer science at Stanford University where he heads the applied cryptography group and co-directs the computer security laboratory. Dr. Boneh’s research focuses on applications of cryptography to computer security. His work includes crypto-systems with novel properties, security for mobile devices, web security, and cryptanalysis. He is the author of more than 150 publications in the field and is a recipient of the 2014 Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Prize in Computing, the 2013 ACM SIGACT Gödel Prize for outstanding papers in theoretical computer science, and six best paper awards. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), a Packard fellow, a Sloan fellow, and an ACM fellow.

FREDERICK R. CHANG is the executive director of the Darwin Deason Institute for Cyber Security, the Bobby B. Lyle Centennial Distinguished Chair in Cyber Security, and professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering in the Lyle School of Engineering at Southern Methodist University (SMU). He is a member of the NAE and a senior fellow in the John Goodwin Tower Center for Political Studies at SMU’s Dedman College and a distinguished scholar in the Robert S. Strauss Center for International Security and Law, at the University of Texas, Austin. He is the former director of research at the National Security Agency. Dr. Chang received his B.A. from the University of California, San Diego, and his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Oregon. He also completed the senior executive program at the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

SCOTT CHARNEY is vice president for security policy at Microsoft Corporation, working with public- and private-sector organizations to develop and implement strategies to help secure the information technology ecosystem. He currently serves as vice chair of the National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee, as a commissioner on the Dutch Commission for the Stability of Cyberspace, and as chair of the board of the Global Cyber Alliance. Prior to his current position, Mr. Charney led Microsoft’s Trustworthy Computing Group, where he was respon-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25010.
×

sible for enforcing Microsoft’s mandatory security engineering policies and implementing Microsoft’s security strategy. Before that, Mr. Charney served as chief of the Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS) at the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) where he was responsible for implementing DOJ’s computer crime and intellectual property initiatives. Under his direction, CCIPS investigated and prosecuted national and international hacker cases, economic espionage cases, and violations of the federal criminal copyright and trademark laws. He served 3 years as chair of the G8 Subgroup on High-Tech Crime, was vice chair of the OECD Group of Experts on Security and Privacy, led the U.S. Delegation to the OECD on Cryptography Policy, and was co-chair of the Center for Strategic and International Studies Commission on Cybersecurity for the 44th Presidency. Mr. Charney graduated from the Syracuse University College of Law with honors and received his undergraduate degree from the State University of New York, Binghamton.

SHAFRIRA GOLDWASSER is the RSA Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, a co-leader of the cryptography and information security group, and a member of the complexity theory group within the Theory of Computation Group and the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. In 1992, she began a parallel career as a professor of computer science and applied mathematics at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel. Dr. Goldwasser has made fundamental contributions to cryptography, computational complexity, computational number theory, and probabilistic algorithms. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the NAE and was a recipient of the first ACM SIGACT Gödel Prize for outstanding papers in theoretical computer science in 1993 and co-recipient of the Turing Award in 2012. She received a B.S. in mathematics from Carnegie Mellon University (1979) and M.S. (1981) and Ph.D. (1984) degrees in electrical engineering and computer science from the University of California, Berkeley.

DAVID A. HOFFMAN is director of security policy and global privacy officer at Intel Corporation, in which capacity he oversees Intel’s privacy activities and security policy engagements. Mr. Hoffman joined Intel in 1998 as Intel’s eBusiness attorney to manage the team providing legal support for Intel’s chief information officer. In 1999, he founded Intel’s Privacy Team, and in 2000 was appointed Group Counsel of eBusiness and Director of Privacy. In 2005, Mr. Hoffman moved to Munich, Germany, as group counsel in the Intel European Legal Department, while leading Intel’s Worldwide Privacy and Security Policy Team. Mr. Hoffman served on the FTC’s Online Access and Security Advisory Committee and DHS’s Data Privacy and Integrity Advisory Committee. He served

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25010.
×

on the TRUSTe board of directors from 2000 to 2006, where he was chair of the Compliance Committee of the board. Mr. Hoffman has lectured on privacy and security law at schools in the United States, Europe, Japan, and China. He received a J.D. from Duke University School of Law and an A.B. from Hamilton College.

SENY KAMARA is an associate professor of computer science at Brown University. He was previously a researcher in the Cryptography Group at Microsoft Research. Dr. Kamara’s interests are in security and cryptography with a focus on privacy issues in surveillance, cloud computing, and databases. His contributions include efficient algorithms to search on encrypted data, attacks on encrypted databases, and protocols for privacy-preserving contact chaining. In 2006, he was a research fellow at the University of California, Los Angeles, Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics. In 2015, he initiated the Workshop on Surveillance and Technology. In 2016, he was named a fellow of the Boston Global Forum. He received his Ph.D. in computer science from Johns Hopkins University.

DAVID KRIS is a founder of Culper Partners, LLC, a business consulting firm specializing in national security issues. Prior to forming Culper in 2017, Mr. Kris was for 6 years the general counsel of Intellectual Ventures, a privately held invention investment company. He was also the deputy general counsel and chief compliance officer of Time Warner, Inc., the network and media company, where he worked from 2003 to 2009. In government, Mr. Kris was the presidentially appointed and Senate-confirmed head of DOJ’s National Security Division (2009-2011); a senior advisor to Republican and Democratic attorneys general and deputy attorneys general (2000-2003); and a federal prosecutor (1992-2000). He currently advises two elements of the U.S. Intelligence Community and serves as an amicus curiae to the two Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Courts. Mr. Kris is co-author of the treatise National Security Investigations and Prosecutions, as well as the author of several other articles and blog posts. He is a director and contributing editor of the Lawfare website, adjunct professor at the University of Washington Law School, and a university affiliate at Georgetown University. He is a recipient of the National Intelligence Superior Service Medal, the Office of the Secretary of Defense Medal for Exceptional Public Service, the Central Intelligence Agency Seal Medal, the DOJ Edmund J. Randolph Award, and on two occasions the Attorney General’s Award for Exceptional Service. He is a 1988 graduate of Haverford College and a 1991 graduate of Harvard Law School and a former law clerk to Judge Stephen S. Trott of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25010.
×

SUSAN LANDAU is a Bridge Professor in the Fletcher School of Law and Policy and the School of Engineering, Department of Computer Science, Tufts University, and visiting professor of computer science at University College London. Dr. Landau works at the intersection of cybersecurity, national security, law, and policy. Her latest book, Listening In: Cybersecurity in an Insecure Age, was published in 2017. Dr. Landau is also the author of Surveillance or Security? The Risks Posed by New Wiretapping Technologies (2011) and Privacy on the Line: The Politics of Wiretapping and Encryption, co-authored with Whitfield Diffie (1998). She has testified to Congress and frequently briefed U.S. and European policymakers on encryption, surveillance, and cybersecurity issues. Dr. Landau has been a senior staff privacy analyst at Google, a distinguished engineer at Sun Microsystems, and a faculty member at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, the University of Massachusetts, and Wesleyan University. She has served on the National Academies’ Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (2010-2016), the National Science Foundation’s Computer, Information Science & Engineering Advisory Committee (2010-2013), the Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board (2002-2008), as an associate editor-in-chief on IEEE Security and Privacy, section board member on the Communications of the ACM, and associate editor at the Notices of the American Mathematical Society. A 2015 inductee in the Cybersecurity Hall of Fame and a 2012 Guggenheim fellow, Dr. Landau was a 2010-2011 fellow at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study and the recipient of the 2008 Women of Vision Social Impact Award. She is also a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the ACM. She received her B.A. from Princeton University, her M.S. from Cornell University, and her Ph.D. from MIT.

STEVEN B. LIPNER is executive director of SAFECode, a nonprofit dedicated to increasing trust in information and communications technology products and services through the advancement of effective software assurance methods. He retired in 2015 as partner director of software security in Trustworthy Computing at Microsoft Corporation. His expertise is in software security, software vulnerabilities, Internet security, and organization change for security. He was the founder and long-time leader of the Security Development Lifecycle (SDL) team that delivered processes, tools, and associated guidance and oversight that significantly improved the security of Microsoft’s software. Mr. Lipner has more than 40 years of experience as a researcher, development manager, and general manager in information technology security. He served as executive vice president and general manager for Network Security Products at Trusted Information Systems and has been responsible for the development of mathematical models of security and of a number of secure operating

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25010.
×

systems. Mr. Lipner was one of the initial 12 members of the U.S. Computer Systems Security and Privacy Advisory Board (now the Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board) and served two terms—a total of 10 years on the board. He is the author of numerous professional papers and has spoken on security topics at many professional conferences. He is named as inventor on 12 U.S. patents in the fields of computer and network security and has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as a current member of the National Academies’ Committee on Future Research Goals and Directions for Foundational Science in Cybersecurity. Mr. Lipner is a member of the NAE and was elected in 2015 to the National Cybersecurity Hall of Fame. He received an S.B. and S.M. in civil engineering from MIT.

RICHARD LITTLEHALE is special agent in charge of the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation’s (TBI’s) Technical Services Unit and supervises TBI’s electronic surveillance, digital forensics, online child exploitation, and cyber investigation functions. He is an attorney and serves as one of TBI’s constitutional law and criminal procedure trainers. He provides instruction to law enforcement officers in techniques for obtaining and using communications evidence in support of criminal investigations and is active in national groups of law enforcement technical and electronic surveillance specialists. He serves as a subject-matter expert on electronic surveillance for the Association of State Criminal Investigative Agencies (ASCIA) and the International Association of Chiefs of Police, and chairs ASCIA’s Technology and Digital Evidence Committee. He frequently represents the law enforcement community’s interest in lawful access to communications evidence at the state and national level. He attended Bowdoin College and Vanderbilt Law School.

KATE MARTIN is a senior fellow at the Center for American Progress where she works on issues at the intersection of national security, civil liberties, and human rights. The New York Times Taking Note blog described her as an expert on surveillance and detention, and a leading advocate for the rule of law in the so-called “war on terror.” Before joining the Center for American Progress, Ms. Martin served as director of the Center for National Security Studies for more than 20 years. She frequently testifies before Congress on national security and civil liberties issues. She is also a frequent commentator in the national media and has written extensively on these issues for the past 25 years. At the Center for National Security Studies, Ms. Martin brought lawsuits that challenged government deprivations of civil liberties. She has taught national security law and served as general counsel to the National Security Archive. She is a graduate of the University of Virginia School of Law and Pomona

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25010.
×

College. Before joining the public interest world, she served as a partner at the law firm of Nussbaum, Owen & Webster.

HARVEY RISHIKOF is co-chair of the American Bar Association’s Cybersecurity Legal Task Force. He previously served as director, Office of Military Commissions/Convening Authority, U.S. Department of Defense, and as a senior counsel in Crowell & Moring’s Privacy and Cybersecurity and Government Contracts groups in Washington, D.C., where his practice focused on national security, cybersecurity, government contracts, civil and military courts, terrorism, international law, civil liberties, and the U.S. Constitution. At the leading edge of many of the interactions between the legal community and the federal government and corporations, Mr. Rishikof is routinely called upon to represent the legal community at meetings and forums on national security, cybersecurity, and terrorism. Prior to joining Crowell & Moring, he was most recently the dean of faculty of the Roger Williams University School of Law and professor of national security law at the National War College at the National Defense University, Washington, D.C. Mr. Rishikof currently serves as an outside director to CBI, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, chairing the company’s Government Security Committee. He is also the chair of the American Bar Association Advisory Standing Committee on Law and National Security, co-chair with Judy Miller of the ABA National Taskforce on Cyber and the Law, and a lifetime member of the American Law Institute and the Council on Foreign Relations. Over his career, Mr. Rishikof has been a member of Hale and Dorr and has held multiple positions in government focused on national and cybersecurity investigations. He most recently served as senior policy advisor to the National Counterintelligence Executive, the agency responsible for counterintelligence and insider threat management across the federal government. He has also served at the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as a legal counsel to the deputy director of the FBI focusing on national security and terrorism and served as liaison to the Office of the Attorney General at DOJ. Until recently, Mr. Rishikof also had a joint appointment as professor of law at Drexel University, teaching courses in national security and cyber law.

PETER J. WEINBERGER has been a software engineer at Google, Inc., since 2003 working on software infrastructure. After a stint at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, he moved to Bell Labs. At Bell Labs, he worked on Unix and did research on various topics before moving into research management, ending as Information Sciences Research vice president. After AT&T and Lucent split, Dr. Weinberger moved to Renaissance Technologies, a technical trading hedge fund, as head of technology. At the National Academies, he has been on the Computer Science

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25010.
×

and Telecommunications Board and participated in a number of studies, including one on electronic voting and one on bulk surveillance. From 2008 to 2016, he was a member of the Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board, the last 2 years as chair. He has a Ph.D. in mathematics (number theory) from the University of California, Berkeley.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25010.
×
Page 95
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25010.
×
Page 96
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25010.
×
Page 97
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25010.
×
Page 98
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25010.
×
Page 99
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25010.
×
Page 100
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25010.
×
Page 101
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographies of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25010.
×
Page 102
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Encryption protects information stored on smartphones, laptops, and other devices - in some cases by default. Encrypted communications are provided by widely used computing devices and services - such as smartphones, laptops, and messaging applications - that are used by hundreds of millions of users. Individuals, organizations, and governments rely on encryption to counter threats from a wide range of actors, including unsophisticated and sophisticated criminals, foreign intelligence agencies, and repressive governments. Encryption on its own does not solve the challenge of providing effective security for data and systems, but it is an important tool.

At the same time, encryption is relied on by criminals to avoid investigation and prosecution, including criminals who may unknowingly benefit from default settings as well as those who deliberately use encryption. Thus, encryption complicates law enforcement and intelligence investigations. When communications are encrypted "end-to-end," intercepted messages cannot be understood. When a smartphone is locked and encrypted, the contents cannot be read if the phone is seized by investigators.

Decrypting the Encryption Debate reviews how encryption is used, including its applications to cybersecurity; its role in protecting privacy and civil liberties; the needs of law enforcement and the intelligence community for information; technical and policy options for accessing plaintext; and the international landscape. This book describes the context in which decisions about providing authorized government agencies access to the plaintext version of encrypted information would be made and identifies and characterizes possible mechanisms and alternative means of obtaining information.

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